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Nodens

(229 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] (Nodon). Celtic god known from two archaeological sites in Britain. Two statuettes of Mars, with inscriptions dedicating them to the god Mars N. ( Deo Marti Nodonti) from Cockersand Moss (Lancashire) support the connection of the indigenous god with the Roman god ( interpretatio II Romana ). Other dedications to Deus N. or Deus M(ars) N., on bronze and lead tablets, including a defixio , came to light in the basilica-like temple in Lydney Park (Gloucestershire). Together with a building supposedly for temple sleep, a guest h…

Brigantia

(96 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] Goddess of the Briton tribe of the Brigantes in two inscriptions. An epithet for Victoria, represented on the stele of Birrens (CIL VII 1062) as Minerva, but shown with Victoria's wings. This iconographic connection is a contemporary expression of a syncretic interpretation of the local goddess. Description of her as Dea Nympha B. (CIL VII 875) and as Caelestia B. (ILS 9318) seems to point to curative powers. Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn) Bibliography N. Jolliffe, in: Arch. Journal 98, 1941, 36ff. M. A. Marwood, in: Latomus 43, 1984, 316ff M. Henig, s.v. B., LIMC 3.1, 156.

Biviae

(163 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] The Bivae (Bibiae), together with the Triviae and Quadruviae, are among the goddesses of intersections and forks in roads. The fact that they were thought of as female deities is demonstrated by images of them [1. no. 12, 31] depicting goddesses clothed in the classical manner. Offerings to the Biviae were always made with dedications to the Triviae and Quadruviae, although the latter could be invoked without the Biviae and also individually. Evidence for the Quadruviae predominates. The goddesses were regarded as equal to the (male) Lares compitales [1. no. 15], bu…

Navia

(221 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(Nabia). [German version] [1] Goddess in the west of the Iberian Peninsula, poss. Celtic Goddess of indeterminate character and of Celtic (?) provenance. Her votive offerings (inscriptions) have been found widely distributed in the west of the Iberian Peninsula, in Lusitania and Gallaecia in modern Portugal and Spain. N., who was given no interpretatio Romana, is at one occasion given the epithets Elaesurraeca and Sesmaca (possibly place names, clan names or similar). An interpretation of N. as a water goddess on the basis of the derivation of the name from the Celtic root  nav- is unce…

Sirona

(141 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] Celtic goddess of springs and healing, cult partner of Apollo Grannus. There are presently nine epigraphically supported individual dedications to (predominantly Dea) S. against 15 for Apollo (Grannus) and S. Further indicators of the functions of S. in Imperial Period representations are the iconographic adoption of a snake coiled around her arm, an attribute of Hygieia/Salus, a second type of image with a branch or fruit and the sites where votive offerings are found, viz. at (healing) springs and sp…

Rosmerta

(212 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] Celtic goddess, partner of the Celtic Mercurius and identified through interpretatio [II] Romana with Maia. No individual dedication to R. can be identified with certainty. The few epigraphic representations which actually name the divine couple show a classically dressed goddess with a purse borrowed from Mercurius (CIL XIII 11696), a cornucopia and a patera . These attributes are also found with Maia and Fortuna as partners of Mercurius, therefore it is difficult to identify the cultic companion if she is not exp…

Leucetius

(176 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] (Loucetius, ‘refulgent’, ‘lustrous’). Celtic god, equated with Mars by the interpretatio Romana. The six inscriptions to Mars L. concentrated in the region of Mainz, in Worms and Wiesbaden, imply that this was probably a god worshipped by the Aresaces branch of the Treveri [6]. Mars L., who was venerated together with Victoria or Nemetona, is probably also the deity referred to as Mars (without the epithet) who is found alongside Nemetona on votive objects from Trier and Altrip. It was mostl…

Sul

(201 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] Celtic goddess of springs and healing, eponym of the Roman cure and bathing resort of Aquae [III 7] Sulis (Bath, in Somerset) and, according to the testimony of inscriptions and the head of a gilded bronze and larger than life size cult statue, an interpretatio of Minerva (Medica). The temple at the hot springs belonged to Sul Minerva, as the building inscription CIL VII 39c proves; the cult is attested by the burial stone of one of her priests (CIL VII 53). There are seven altars in Bath of soldiers of …

Camulos

(85 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] Celtic god, by interpretatio Romana assigned to Mars. Among only six extant dedications, the inscription found in Rindern/ Germany provides evidence for a temple of C. The inscription in Rome (CIL VI 46) -- often claimed to refer to C.- makes no mention of this god [1. 87ff.]. Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn) Bibliography 1 J. Terrisse, in: Bull. Soc. Arch. Champenoise 1991, no. 2. Ch. B. Rüger, in: BJ 172, 1972, 643ff. F. Lefèvre, in: Bull. Soc. Arch. Champenoise 1983, no. 4, 51ff. G. Bauchhenß, s.v. Mars Camulus, LIMC 2.1, 568.

Moritasgus

(284 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] [1] Celtic deity from Alesia Judging by the name (Celtic muir = ‘water’, mori = ‘sea’) and findspot a local Celtic god connected with healing water and associated with Apollo ( interpretatio [II.] Romana). In his sanctuary at Alise-Sainte-Reine (Alesia), which exhibits several temples and buildings  with water basins supplied by a system of spring water pipes, besides a building inscription for a portico erected to the Deus M., two organ votive offerings dedicated to Apollo M. came to light. A dedication (AE 1965…

Grannus

(342 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] Celtic god equated through the   interpretatio romana with  Apollo, whom Caesar ranks second among the gods most worshipped by the Gauls in his function as healer (Caes. B Gall. 6,1f.). This attribution is based on the specifically Roman conception of the Greek Apollo as Apollo Medicus, the healing god who drives away disease. With one exception (CIL XIII 8007), G.'s name always appears as an epithet to Apollo. That the deity is nonetheless the Celtic healing god is su…

Esus

(197 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] Celtic god whose identification with a Roman god is uncertain. Whereas Luc. 1,444ff. ranks E. with  Teutates and  Taranis as the three principal Celtic gods, the (later) schol. on Lucanus identify E. with either Mars or Mercury. That E. cannot be Mercury is made clear from the side panel of the Mercury altar at Trier [1. VI 4929]: it shows E. felling trees in the company of a bull and three cranes, similar to a scene on a monument in Paris. This detailed representation on the Nautae Parisiaci memorial [1. IV 3133] shows a god on one panel and gives his name as ESVS, on the next pan…

Andraste

(120 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] (Andate). Goddess of the Britannic tribe of the Iceni, mentioned in Cassius Dio (62,6,2; 62,7,3), whom he interpreted to be Nike. When this tribe revolts, during the reign of Nero, their queen  Boudicca appeals to A. for victory, freedom and deliverance. In this connection there are reports of a hare oracle as well as a victory celebration with sacrifices and carousal in the grove of the goddess. The simultaneous impaling of captured Roman women is not to be understood as a sacri…

Icovellauna

(152 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] Local Celtic goddess related to water by name and by the place of discovery. Four small plates of bronze or marble as well as remnants of an altar with dedications to Dea I. were uncovered inside (CIL XIII, 1.2, 4296-4298) and outside (CIL XIII, 1.2, 4294f.) of an octagonal well building in Sablon near Metz-Divodurum. The fact that a single marble plate for Dea I. was found in Trier, Altbachtal (CIL XIII, 1.2, 3644) does not refute the merely local significance of the goddess in the region of the  Mediomatrici. Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn) Bibliography W. Binsfeld et al., Kat…

Teutates

(248 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] Celtic god, who, along with Esus and Taranis (according to Lucanus 1,443-446), was allegedly worshipped by human sacrifice. Of the Late Antiquity - early mediaeval commentaries on Lucanus, the adnotationes (p. 28 Endt) equate T. with Mercurius II., the commenta Bernensia (p. 32 Usener) both with Mercury and with Mars (cf. [1]). The name T. could have arisen etymologically from a fusion of Celtic touto-tati-s ('father of the tribe') [2]. Among the little epigraphic evidence for T. is a silver tablet dedicated to Marti Toutati from Britain (CIL VII 84; uncertain CI…

Sucel(l)us

(321 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] Celtic god known from inscriptions ([1]; CIL XIII 6730 can be ruled out) who was also called mallet or hammer god because he is often seen holding a sceptre-like long-shafted mallet. The iconography of S. is substantiated by the altar of Saarburg, adorned with inscriptions (CIL XIII 4542), showing him with his cultic consort Nantosuelta: S. is here carrying his canonic attributes, the mallet and bowl ( olla), while the goddess holds a sceptre topped by a house-shaped object and a patera . A large number of pictorial dedications, predominantly…

Matres/Matronae

(403 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] Celtic goddesses of maternal fertility, canonically represented in three. The two Latin appellations are identical in content. Evidence of the Matres, scattered over a wide area in Gaul, northern Spain, Italy, and in the northwestern and northeastern provinces of the Roman Empire, began in southern Gaul no earlier than the middle of the 1st century AD. Evidence of the Matronae can be divided into two groups: Matronae without epithet are concentrated in Cisalpine Gaul from the 1st …

Bellovesus

(94 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] According to legend, because of overpopulation, the Gallic king Ambigatus sent his sister's sons B. (the killer) and Segovesus (the victorious) in search of new places to live (Liv. 5,34; 35,1). By drawing lots, B. turned with his army in the direction of Italy where they conquered the Etruscans and founded Mediolanum. The essence of this migratory legend is regarded as authentic. Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn) Bibliography H. Homeyer, in: Historia 9, 1960, 346ff. F. Fischer, in: Madrid. Mitt. 13, 1972, 122ff. Id., in: K. Bittel, W. Kimmig, S. Schiek (ed.), Die Kelte…

Smertrius

(186 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] Celtic god, connected with the Roman Mars. Only a building inscription on a temple in the territory of the Treveri (CIL XIII 11975) has preserved the complete name: Marti Smertrio. The reading Smert[ri]os on a relief on the Nautae Parisiaci monument (CIL XIII 3026c; [1]) is generally accepted; it shows a bearded god naked to the waist, holding a club in his raised right hand and a bow, rather than a snake, in front of himself. The inscription CIL XIII 4119 from Möhn, which was formerly ascribed to S., [2] reads Marti Sme[rtuli]t[a]no. The syllable Smer is also part of the n…

Cernunnos

(189 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] Celtic god with deer's antlers, who is often portrayed seated with crossed legs accompanied by snakes, deer and bulls. The interpretatio Romana does not apply to him; however, through the addition of the snakes, the purse or the coins running out of a sack, there is evidence of allusions to the Gallo-Roman god Mercury. With the latter and with Apollo he appears in the relief in Reims [1. V 3653]. Overall the graphic depictions indicate the fertile character of C., he is certainly not a god of the dead…
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