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Marginalized groups

(2,172 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] A. Definition Since the 1920s sociologists (Chicago School) have studied the phenomenon of marginalized groups (MG). In the German-speaking countries scholars have used the term ( Randgruppen) since the 60s. MG are defined as minorities ‘who are seen by the majority as outside of the social norm, and who therefore have the status of social outsiders ... groups who are socially declassed and/or are socially despised. A significant percentage of them live in poverty’ [3. 666]. Population groups whose values,…


(105 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Celtic people in the area around Comum (Str. 4,6,6: Οὐέννωνες/ Ouénnōnes), subjugated by the Roman proconsul P. Silius [II 7] in 16 BC (Cass. Dio 54,20,1: Οὐέννιοι/ Ouénnioi), probably identical with the Vennonetes mentioned by Plin. HN 3,136 in an inscription on the Tropaeum Alpium (CIL V 7817; Tropaea Augusti ). The V. mentioned in Str. 4,6,8 as a subtribe of the Vindelici should probably be distinguished from the latter, and similarly the Vennonenses located by Plin. HN 3,135 on the upper reaches of the Rhenus [2]; these in turn are presumably the Οὐέννονες ( Ou énnones…


(41 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Ligurian tribe in the  Alpes Maritimae, subjugated by Augustus (Plin. HN 3,137;  cf. the inscription on the Augustus Arch in Segusio: CIL V 7231). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Barruch, Les peuples préromaines du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 360 f.


(55 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] (Οὐίντιον). Municipium in the Alpes Maritimae in the territory of the Ligurian Nerusii (Ptol. 3,1,41; Notitia Galliarum 17,8), modern Vence to the west of Nice; a bishopric since the 5th century  (Greg. Tur. Franc. 9,24). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 368 f.  Rivet, 342.


(288 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) | Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] [1] Roman fort in Germania Inferior Roman fort in Germania Inferior (Germani [1] II.) on the road from Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne) to Confluentes [1] (Koblenz), modern Remagen. At least from the Claudian era a wood and earth fort existed; from the Flavian era, a stone fort stood in the same place. Numerous stone inscriptions are extant. R. was a beneficiarii station from the 2nd half of the 2nd to the middle of the 3rd cents. AD. A hoard of coins from AD 270/280 (274/5?) has been connected with the occupation of …

Lacus Pelso

(302 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] (also L. Pelsois, L. Pelsodis). Lake in Pannonia (today 591 km2, 106 m above sea level, average depth 3 m), important as a shipping route with many overland connections, modern Balaton in western Hungary. Pliny (HN 3,146) has Lacus Pelso (LP) border on the territory of the Norici ( Noricum) and the deserta Boiorum ( Boiohaemum), which commonly led to the assumption that Lake Neusiedel was also called LP [1. 26f.; 2; 3. 61]. While the area west of LP is supposed to have been dependent on the Norici in the early 1st cent. AD [4. 15f.]…

Iugum Cremonis

(36 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Modern Mont Cramont on the route of the Little St Bernard Pass, over which, according to Coelius Antipater (HRR fr. 14 = Liv. 21,38,7), Hannibal crossed the Alps. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)


(117 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Batavian Revolt Mod. Ivrea, Celtic settlement at the confluence of the Dora and the Padus. the Roman citizen colony was founded in 100 BC at the order of the Sibylline oracle (Plin. HN 3,123) within the territory of the  Salassi (Ptol. 3,1,30; falsely Vell. Pat. 1,15,5 in Bagiennis). According to Str. 4,6,7, there was a slave market in E. for the subjugated Alpine tribes, and Plin. HN 21,43 mentions E. for its perfume production. In late antiquity, it becam…


(148 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Capital of the Veragri on the route through the Great Saint Bernard pass from Italy to Gaul, modern Martigny. In 57 BC the battle between the Twelfth Legion under Sulpicius Galba and the Gauls took place there (Caes. B Gall. 3,1,4); Roman occupation in c. 15 BC. Under Claudius in c. AD 47, O. was refounded as Forum Claudii Augusti or Vallensium with Latin rights (Plin. HN 3,135). In the subsequent period it grew into a reloading point for Alpine traffic, laid out like an insula, with forum (with basilica), baths, nymphaeum, amphitheatre, Gallo-Roman peripteral tem…


(207 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Celtic tribe in the valley of the Duria Maior (modern Dora Baltea); according to Cato in Plin. HN 3,134, part of the Taurisci. The S. controlled the western passes of the Alps (Liv. 21,38,7; Str. 4,6,11) and collected road tolls (Str. 4,6,7; App. Ill. 17). Rich gold deposits allowed them to mint their own coins, but led to conflicts with neighbouring tribes and Roman publicani ('tax farmers'; Plin. HN 18,182). In 143 BC, Claudius [I 22] subjugated the S. (Cass. Dio 22 fr. 74,1; Liv. per. 53; Obseq. 21; Oros. 5,4,7). When the…

Alpes Graiae

(80 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Alpes Graiae (AG) was connected with the legendary march through the Alps by Heracles. Procuratorial province at the Little St. Bernhard (likely since Claudius), often administered with the Alpes Poeninae; capital is Axima (today Aime). From the 2nd until the end of the 3rd cent. AD (Diocletian), AG is replaced by the name Alpes Atrectianae; from then it is under the praeses of the dioecesis Galliarum. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Walser, Via per A. Graias, 1986.


(69 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] A navigable river having its source in the Norian Alps (Plin. HN 3,147), flowing into the Danube at Mursa in Pannonia, modern Drava. Some cosmographers also have the Draus rise in the Danube (cosmographia 1,20; 24; Iulius Honorius, cosmographia B 24). The Draus was an important transportation route (Ven. Fort. Vita Martini 4,649) and enjoyed veneration in Pannonia as a river deity. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)


(240 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Legio | Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia now Ljubljana (Laibach). Favourably situated on the amber route and on the link between the Balkans and Italy on the banks of the navigable Ljubljanica. Intensively settled from the 12th cent. BC (Necropoleis from the Urnfield culture and the early Iron Age). Probably a military settlement under Augustus (garrison of the legio XV Apollinaris). City founded as colonia Iulia Emona (Plin. HN 3,147), systematically designed in rectangular form (522 × 432 m) around the   cardo and   dec…

Alpes (Alps)

(825 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] A. Knowledge of the Alps Proto-Indo-European term for ‘mountain’. Ancient etymology Fest. 4,9 f. (from the white colour of the snow); Serv. Georg. 3,474; Aen. 4,442; 10,13; schol. Luc. 1,183; Isid. Orig. 14,8,18 (Celtic ‘high mountains’). Other mountain ranges are also called Alpes (Pyrenees, Alpes Bastarnicae, Numidicae). First mentions at Hdt. 4. 49. 2 (Alpis river) and Lycoph. 1361 (Salpia) are uncertain. Since Hannibal's march in 218 BC, more exact information is available. Expansi…


(69 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] (Τρικόριοι; Trikórioi). Celtic people of Gallia Narbonensis (Plin. HN 3,34) in the valley of the Drac in the Alps (Str. 4,1,11; 4,6,5). In 218 BC Hannibal [4] marched through their territory (Liv. 21,31,9; Amm.  Marc. 15,10,11). In 58 BC they joined the march of the Helvetii  (cf. App. Celt. 1,8: Τρίκουροι). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 325-330.


(60 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Name of two tributaries of the Po (Plin. HN 3,118). The shorter of the two, today called the Dora Riparia, flows along the Alpine pass at Mont Genèvre (Liv. 5,34,8); the longer, gold-bearing (Str. 4,6,7) Dora Baltea flows through the Aosta valley past Ivrea, and joins the Po near Industria (near modern Crescentino). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)


(229 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Common Roman cognomen, initially an individual epithet ('bow-legged', cf. Plin. HN 11,254). Recorded for Alfenus [3; 5], Aternius, Licinius [I 46-47], Quinctilius [I 1-3; II 7-8], Vibius. The best known bearer was P. Quinctilius [II 7] V. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCap., 149 Id., FCIR, 271 Kajanto, Cognomina, 242. [German version] [2] Sophist from Perge, c. 150 (Οὔαρος/ Oúaros). Sophist from Perge, c. AD 150, from a noble family, presumably the Plancii (Plancius; cf. [1. 22; 2]). Son of one Callic…


(1,427 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Roads and bridges, construction of see Roads and bridges, construction of Eder, Walter (Berlin) [German version] [2] Voting bridge The term pons (generally in the plural form of pontes) was also used for the narrow 'voting bridges' in Rome which members of the comitia had to cross on the way to cast their votes. It is argued that the saying Sexagenarios de ponte (deicere) with its incitement to throw sixty-year olds from the bridge (Cic. Rosc. Am. 100; Fest. 452; Macrob. Sat. 1,5,10) stemmed from the demand by younger voters to bar older o…


(70 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Celtic people in the western Alpes, subjugated by  Augustus (G.) between 25 and 14 BC (Plin. HN. 3,137). A treaty of hospitality (σύμβολον πρὸς Οὐελαυνίους) with a Greek city is recorded by a Greek inscription on a bronze hand (2nd/1st cent. BC, IG XIV 2432, now in the Cabinet des Médailles in Paris). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 372 f.


(74 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Alpine people in the modern Val Trompia (regional name Trumplia: CIL III 7452); subjugated in 16 BC by P. Silius [II 7]  (Plin. HN 3,136) and assigned to the municipium of Brixia. The T. are mentioned in an inscription at the Sebasteion in Aphrodisias [1] (AE 1982, 892 o). A princeps and a praefectus cohortis Trumplinorum (CIL V 4910) attest to recruiting from the tribe by the Roman army. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
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