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Atalante

(536 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Ley, Anne (Xanten)
(Ἀταλάντη; Atalántē). [German version] A. Myth Mythological daughter of Schoeneus or of Iasius and Clymene. In a Boeotian version she is allowed to remain a virgin, but to do so she has to defeat all suitors in a race (Hyg. Fab. 185).  Hippomenes receives three golden apples from Aphrodite, which he drops in A.'s way during the competition, and which she picks up (Hes. fr. 72-76 M-W, Ov. Met. 10.560-680), whereby he wins. The pair consummate their union in a sanctuary of Cybele or Zeus and are, as pu…

Hermione

(132 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἑρμιόνη; Hermiónē). Daughter of  Helene and  Menelaus (Hom. Od. 4,12ff.), sister of Nicostratus (Hes. fr. 175 M-W). According to one version of the myth, Menelaus promises her to  Neoptolemus outside the gates of Troy (Hom. Od. 4,3ff.), in another version she is promised to  Orestes before the war (Soph. Hermione TrGF 4, 192f.; Eur. Andr. 966ff.; Ov. Epist. 8, slightly different in Eur. Or. 1653ff.). Neoptolemus abducts her but is killed by Orestes (Eur. Andr. 993ff.; 1085ff.; Hyg…

Andromeda

(183 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἀνδρομέδα; Androméda). Daughter of  Cepheus king of the Cephenes or Aethiopians, and  Cassiepea (Apollod. 2,43), who boasted that she was as beautiful as the Nereids. This angered Poseidon, who sent tidal waves and a sea monster onto the shore. An oracle then promises release from the plague, if A. would surrender herself to the sea monster. Cepheus then has A. bound to a rock at the shore, where  Perseus sees her on his return after the Gorgon adventure. After she promises to go …

Praxithea

(249 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Πραξιθέα/ Praxithéa). [German version] [1] Wife of Erechtheus Daughter or granddaughter of Cephisus; on the one hand, she is the wife of Erechtheus (Demaratus FGrH 42 F 4) and mother of several children (amongst them Creusa [2], Oreithyia, Procris); on the other, the wife of Erichthonius [1] and mother of Pandion [1] (Apollod. 3,190; Φρασιθέα/ Phrasithéa Tzetz. Chil. 1,174). According to an oracle, Erechtheus can only win the war against Eumolpus after sacrificing one of his daughters. In his play 'Erechtheus', Euripides allows P. to give detailed …

Galatea

(385 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Γαλατεία; Galateía). [German version] [1] Nereid Nereid, daughter of  Nereus and  Doris (Hom. Il. 18,45; Hes. Theog. 250; Apollod. 1,11), whose name probably refers to the milky-white colour, i.e. either to sea-foam or milk in its important role in pasture farming (Lucian 14,3; Eust. 1131,5 ad Hom. Il. 18,42). In Sicily, G. was venerated as the protector of herds (Duris FGrH 76 F 58). The love story between the Cyclops  Polyphemus and G. also originates from Sicily (Prop. 3,2,7f.; Nonnus, Dion. 39,25…

Lanassa

(170 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Λάνασσα; Lánassa). [German version] [1] Ancestress of the Molossian dynasty Daughter of Cleodaeus, granddaughter of Hyllus, great-granddaughter of Hercules [1], ancestress of the Molossian dynasty of Epirus (Plut. Pyrrhus 1,2; Lysimachus, FGrH 382 F 10). Neoptolemus abducts her from the Zeus temple of Dodona, marries her and has eight children with her, among them Pyrrhus (Iust. 17,3,4). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography P. Levêque, Pyrrhos, 1957, 643 M. Schmidt, s.v. L., RE 12, 617. [German version] [2] Wife of Pyrrhus and Demetrius Poliorcetes, 3rd cent. BC Daughter…

Alcmene

(274 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἀλκμήνη; Alkmḗnē). Daughter of king Electryon of Mycenae or Tiryns and of Lysidice, Eurydice or Anaxo (Hes.scut.3; Diod. Sic. 4,9,1; Apollod. 2,52). She marries  Amphitryon, who kills Electryon and has to flee with A. The marriage is to be consumated only after Amphitryon has avenged A.'s brother, who died in battle (Apollod. 2,55). He leaves, and Zeus comes in his form to A., tells of the victory and conceives  Hercules with her (Pind. Isthm. 7,5 ff.; Pherec. FGrH 3 F 69; Plaut. …

Tecmessa

(108 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Τέκμησσα/ Tékmēssa, Latin Tecmessa). Phrygian princess, given to Ajax [1] as a prize (Hom. Il. 1,138). With her he fathers Eurysaces. In Soph.  Aj. the character of T. is developed for the first time, her relationship with Ajax is defined by mutual respect and fidelity (Dictys 2,18; Quint. Smyrn. 5,521-567). Roman tragedy writers also took an interest in the subject, as did Horace (Carm. 2,4,5f.) and Ovid (Ars am. 3,517-520). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography J. Boardman, s. v. T., LIMC 7.1, 832  E. Oberhummer, s. v. T. (1), RE 5 A, 157 f.  K. Synodinu, T…

Oreithyia

(238 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ὠρείθυια/ Ōreíthyia). Mentioned in Homer (Il. 18,48) as a Nereid, but not in Hesiod's catalogue of Nereids (Theog. 240ff., Apollod. 1,11f.). Her name ('storming in the mountains') suggests she is a 'bride of the wind'. In Attic mythology, she is the daughter of the Attic king Erechtheus and of Praxithea. O. is abducted to Thrace by the wind god Boreas, who makes her his wife (Hdt. 7.189; Verg. G. 4,463). Their children are Cleopatra [I 1] and Chione [1] as well as Calais and Zetes…

Hippolyte

(215 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἱππολύτη). [English version] [1] Amazone, Tochter des Ares Amazone im Herakles- und Theseusmythos, Tochter des Ares und der Otrere. Herakles soll ihr im Auftrag des Eurystheus den Gürtel des Ares rauben (Apoll. Rhod. 2,778ff.; 966ff.; Hyg. fab. 30; Apollod. 2,98). In einigen Quellen tötet er dabei H. (Eur. Herc. 407ff.). Im Theseusmythos konkurriert H. mit Antiope [2] und Glauke [3] als Gemahlin des Theseus (Isokr. or. 12,193; Plut. Theseus 27,5,13). Theseus raubt H. und zeugt mit…

Alkmene

(269 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[English version] (Ἀλκμήνη). Tochter des Königs Elektryon von Mykenai oder Tiryns und der Lysidike, Eurydike oder Anaxo (Hes.scut.3; Diod. 4,9,1; Apollod. 2,52). Sie heiratet Amphitryon, der den Elektryon tötet und mit A. fliehen muß. Die Ehe soll erst vollzogen werden, nachdem Amphitryon A.s im Krieg gefallene Brüder gerächt hat (Apollod. 2,55). Er zieht aus, Zeus kommt in seiner Gestalt zu A., berichtet vom Sieg und zeugt mit ihr Herakles (Pind. I. 7,5 ff.; Pherek. FGrH 3 F 69; Plaut. Amph.; Dio…

Glauke

(332 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Γλαύκη). [English version] [1] Nereide Nereide (Hom. Il. 18,39; Hes. theog. 244; Hyg. praef. 8), deren Name die blauglänzende sowie vergleichbare Farbschattierungen des Meeres bezeichnet (Hom. Il. 16,34; Hes. theog. 440) und zu der Glaukos die männliche Entsprechung ist. G. wird an verschiedenen Orten auch als eine Nymphe dargestellt (Paus. 8,47,2f.; Tzetz. Theogonie 100-102). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [English version] [2] Quellnymphe, Braut des Iason Quellnymphe in Korinth, von einigen Autoren mit der Tochter des dortigen Königs Kreon gleichgesetzt, …

Auge

(154 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[1] s. Optik s. Optik Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [English version] [2] Königstochter aus Tegea (Αὔγη). Tochter des Königs Aleos von Tegea, der sie zur Athena-Priesterin macht [1. 368-385], um sie zur Keuschheit zu zwingen, da nach einem Orakel ihr Sohn ihre Brüder ermorden werde. Herakles vergewaltigt sie (Hes. fr. 165 Merkelbach-West, Apollod. 2,146f.). Aleos entdeckt ihre Schwangerschaft und läßt sie mit ihrem Sohn Telephos ins Meer werfen. In Mysien angeschwemmt, heiratet sie König Teuthras (Hekat. FGr…

Pandora

(543 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Πανδώρα/ Pandṓra). Her name ('She who gives everything') is used as an epiclesis of chthonic deities such as Gaia and Hecate (Orph. A. 974ff.; schol. Aristoph. Av. 971). It is not possible to discern a clear development of the figure of P. in the transmitted versions of the myth that would clarify her connection with those deities. P. as the original or first woman can first be found in Hesiodus (Theog. 570-591; Hes. Op. 57-105). At Zeus' order, P. is formed from earth and water by Hephaestus, adorned and equipped with skills by Athen…

Iocaste

(232 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἰοκάστη/ Iokástē, in older sources also Ἐπικάστη/Epicaste). Daughter of  Menoeceus, sister of  Creon, wife of  Laius, mother and later wife of  Oedipus. In spite of the negative oracle of Apollo in Delphi, Laius fathers Oedipus with I. After his birth, Oedipus is abandoned, later kills his father and, after solving the puzzle of the  Sphinx, marries his mother. In the older sources, the gods reveal the incest (Hom. Od. 11, 271-280), whereupon I. kills herself. Here, I. usually has…

Aerope

(147 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἀερόπη; Aerópē). Daughter of Catreus, granddaughter of Minos II. Because of a prophecy that Catreus will be killed by the children of A., Catreus hands her and her sister Clymene over to  Nauplius to be sold (Apollod. 3,15) or to be killed; possibly on account of a romantic attachment to a slave (schol. Soph. Aj. 1297 about Euripides' ‘Cretan Women’). Nauplius, however, protects them, and in Argus gives her to  Pleisthenes as wife. Both sons,  Agamemnon and  Menelaus (Hes. fr. 195…

Procris

(261 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Πρόκρις/ Prókris, Lat. Procris). Daughter either of Erechtheus and Praxithea (Apollod. 3,196) or Pandion (Hyg. Fab. 189; 241) or Iphiclus (Serv. Aen. 6,445). Renowned hunter, married to the Athenian hunter Cephalus [1], who, disguised, tests her fidelity by seducing her with gifts (cf. Pherecydes acc. to Schol. Hom. Od. 11,321, Ov. Met. 7,690-865, Antoninus Liberalis 41). Ashamed, she flees to Minos or Artemis, her hunting companion (Callim. H. 3,209). From Artemis or Minos, P. rece…

Papyri, Literary

(5,168 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Harder, Annette
Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Papyrus was the most important writing material in Antiquity [13]; it was also used for administrative and personal purposes (the so-called documentary papyri) and for the transcription of literary texts by Greeks who had settled in Egypt following the conquests of Alexander the Great. From ca. 300 BC to ca. 700 AD Greek texts were written on papyri in Egypt, and these papyri were preserved, re-used (for other texts or for use as wrap…

Myrrha

(212 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Μύρρα; Mýrrha). Daughter of the Cyprian king Cinyras and Cenchreis or of the Assyrian king Theias. The gods' anger causes her to fall in love with her father. She is able to have sexual intercourse with him without being recognized, and becomes pregnant. When he recognizes her he tries to kill her; Zeus or Aphrodite takes pity on her and transforms her into a tree; her tears are the resin of the myrrh tree. Later Adonis is born from that tree (Apollod. 3,183f. = Panyassis fr. 27 B…

Scylla

(385 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Σκύλλα/ Skýlla, Σκύλλη/ Skýllē, Lat. Scylla). [German version] [1] Sea monster Sea monster, daughter of Crataeis or Hecate and Phorcys; originally a young woman, transformed by Circe, Amphitrite or Poseidon into a monster (Hom. Od. 12,73-92; Anaxilas fr. 22,4 PCG 2; Verg. Ecl. 6,74-77; Verg. Aen. 3,426-432; Isid. Orig. 11,3,32; Them. Or. 22,279b-d compares the various depictions) out of jealousy when she was wooed by Glaucus [1] (Ov. Met. 13,900-968; 14,1-74; Hyg. Fab. 199). S. lived in a cave opposite Ch…
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