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Mediolan(i)um

(673 words)

Author(s): Heucke, Clemens (Munich) | Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Et al.
(Μεδιολάν[ι]ον/ Mediolán[i]on). [German version] [1] Modern Milan This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Italy, languages | Pilgrimage | Regio, regiones | Rome | Batavian Revolt The modern city of Milan. It was founded in the early 4th cent. BC by the Insubres (Liv. 5,34,9) at the juncture of several Alpine valleys in the Padus/Po plain (Pol. 2,34,10); in 222 BC, it was captured by Cn. Scipio; it was later to become the most important city of that region (Pol.…

Arrianus

(958 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Heucke, Clemens (Munich)
[German version] [1] Author, 2nd cent. AD Author (probably 2nd cent. BC) of a Greek translation of  Virgil's Georgica, an epic about  Alexander [4] and numerous poems of praise of  Attalus. The works have been lost (Suda α 3867). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) [2] A. of Nicomedia Greek philosopher and historian, born around AD 85-90 [German version] A. Name Inscriptions attest to the existence of L. Flavius Arrianus. ‘Flavius’ harks back to the patron whom the family owed their Roman citizenship: perhaps L. Flavius, cos. suff. in 33 BC or not until Vespasian (if A. was a younger …

Anthropogeography

(147 words)

Author(s): Heucke, Clemens (Munich)
[German version] This term was coined in 1842 by L. F. Kämtz, who defined anthropogeography as that aspect of geography, ‘which above all else has to consider the influence of external natural conditions on the physical and spiritual constitution of human beings.’ [1. 273]. F. Ratzel established this term within geographical science [2]. Nowadays, anthropogeography is frequently equated with cultural or social geography, although not without contradiction [3. 180 f.]. Ancient authors often refer t…

Aquileia

(498 words)

Author(s): Heucke, Clemens (Munich) | Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] [1] The modern Aquileia, northern Italy This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Caesar | Venetic | Christianity | Wine | | Coloniae | Coloniae | Commerce | Pannonia | Punic Wars | Raeti, Raetia | Regio, regiones | Rome | Batavian Revolt The present-day town of A. in upper Italy, between  Natiso and Alsa (Plin. HN 3,126), c. 10 km from the Adria (Str. 5,1,8). The name is more likely to be derived from a river name (Zos. 5,29,4) than from an eagle in flight (Julian Or. 2,72 a). Attempts by the Gauls in 186 BC …

Bematistai

(62 words)

Author(s): Heucke, Clemens (Munich)
[German version] (βηματισταί; bēmatistaí, ‘step measurer’). Term for the geodesists in Alexander [4] the Great's army. Their tasks: calculating travel times and distances as well as the collection of regional data for the official journal (Str. 15,2,8). Bematistai known by name are  Baiton, Diognetus and Philonides (FGrH 119-121). Heucke, Clemens (Munich) Bibliography Berve 1, 44, 51f.; 2, no. 198, 271, 800.

Ravenna

(928 words)

Author(s): Heucke, Clemens (Munich) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Italy, languages | Regio, regiones | Rome | Rome | Batavian Revolt Harbour city in the territory of the Boii on the Ionios Kolpos (Adriatic). [German version] I. Foundation and Roman Period According to myth, R. was founded by Thessalians (Zos. 5,27); however, it was actually founded by Umbri in the 6th-5th cents. BC (Str. 5,1,2; 5,1,11; 5,2,1: Ῥάυεννα/ Rháuenna). The character of R.'s topography includes its proximity to the sea and protection by the natural geographic conditions - s…