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Macistum, -us

(267 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μάκιστον, -ος; Mákiston, - os). Settlement in Triphylia (western Peloponnese) on the southern foot of Mount Kaiapha, on whose territory was the sanctuary of ‘Samian’ Poseidon [1. 37-42] on the western tip of the mountain range as well as other sanctuaries along the Minthe range (modern Alvena) and in the coastal plain south of Mount Kaiapha. In around 400 BC, Xenophon still refers to M. as an existing city (Xen. An. 7,4,16; Xen. Hell. 3,2,25; 30); later, all knowledge of it is lost, …

Alea

(231 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] [1] see Dice (game) see  Dice (game) Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Epiclesis of Athena in Arcadia (Ἀλέα; Aléa). Epiclesis of Athena in Arcadia, where Pausanias gives evidence of it for Alea (8,23,1), Mantinea (8,9,6), and above all Tegea (8,45,4-47,3), also a xóanon in Amyclae (3,19,7). The Tegeate sanctuary enjoyed the highest respect and held the right to grant asylum (Paus. 3,5,6); a boy administered the service. Scopas constructed the classical temple, which was the largest and most beautiful one on th…

Celts

(6,582 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] I. Name The name C. is first used by the Greek authors of the 5th cent. BC (Hdt. 4,49: Κελτοί; Keltoí; Scyl. 18). Their settlement area was called Keltikḗ (Κελτική). In around 270 BC, the term ‘Galatians’ (Γαλάται; Galátai) is found in Timaeus, the name exclusively applied to the C. in the east. The Greeks clearly distinguished between C. and Galatians. Confusion arose from the translation of Galli as Galatai by the Romans (Caes. B Gall. 1,1,1). Galatai as an alternative term for C. is surely connected with a second wave of Celtic immigration into Gaul in…

Crommyon

(78 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Κρομμυών or Κρεμμυών). Fortified port in the East of Corinthian territory on the Saronian Gulf south of the  Gerania mountains, 120 stadia ( c. 21 km) from  Corinth (Thuc. 4,45,1), probably near modern Hagios Theodori. According to legend Theseus killed the Crommyonian sow there. In the Classical period Crommyon was fortified. Evidence: Scyl. 55; Str. 8,6,22; Paus. 2,1,3; Xen. Hell. 4,4,13; 5,19; Steph. Byz. s.v. Κrommyon; Hierocles, Synekdemos 645,14. Epigraphy: IG IV 195f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Meclodunum

(76 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Town of the Senones on an island in the Sequana river (Seine). Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 7,58,2; 6; 60,1; 61,5) uses two forms: Meclodunum (‘fortress of Metlos’) and Metlosedum (‘residence of Metlos’ = ‘reaper’); modern Melun. Metlosedum is probably the Celtic form and Meclodunum the Latin form. At M. a bridge crossed the Sequana (Caes. B Gall. 7,58,5). Sources: It. Ant. 383; Tab. Peut. 2,4. Inscriptions: CIL XIII 3010. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Cenabum

(115 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Capital of the  Carnutes on the Loire, more likely Orléans than Gien (Caes. B Gall. 7; 8), derived from Genabum/C.; Celtic root gen, ‘mouth’, ‘river mouth’. C. was the starting point of the uprising of 52 BC under the command of  Vercingetorix; subsequently, Caesar ordered C. to be laid waste. Having suffered badly in the crises of the 3rd cent. AD, C. lost its name. From then on, it became capital of the civitas Aurelianorum. In AD 451, it was besieged by Attila. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography J. Debal, Les Gaulois en…

Messana, Messene

(2,692 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] Town in northeastern Sicily This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Socii (Roman confederation) | | Commerce | Italy, languages | Colonization | Punic Wars | Punic Wars (Μεσσάνα/ Messána, Ionian Μεσσήνη/ Messḗnē, Lat. Messana). Town in northeastern Sicily, modern Messina. The original name Zancle (Ζάγκλη/ Zánklē = Siculan: ‘sickle’) is derived from the topographically suggestive shape of the natural harbour (Thuc. 6,4,5). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] A. Foundation The site was settled at an early time because of its o…

Phigalia

(734 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Education / Culture (Φιγάλεια/ Phigáleia, Φιγαλία/ Phigalía, from the Hellenistic Period Φιάλεια/ Phiáleia). [German version] I. Location and historical development Town in southwest Arcadia on a very remote mountainous site above the north bank of the Neda (Pol. 4,3,5ff.; Str. 8,3,22; Paus. 8,39,1-42,13; Ptol. 3,16,19; Hierocles, Synecdemus 647,13), near present-day Figalia, and with close geographic and historical connections to Messana [2]. The town has a well…

Herculis portus

(121 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Ports of this name existed 1. on the Ligurian coast (in Ptol. 3,1,2 different from Monaco, maybe the bay of Villafranca east of Nice), 2. at Monte Argentario west of  Cosa (Str. 5,2,8; Rut. Namat. 1,293; Tab. Peut. 4,4; modern Port'Ercole), 3. on the west Bruttian coast near Cape Vaticano (Str. 6,1,5; Plin. HN 3,73), and 4. on the south coast of Sardinia (Ptol. 3,3,3). The best-known is 5. Herculis Monoeci portus, already mentioned in Hecat. FGrH 1 F 57 (Str. 4,5,6; Plin. HN 3,47;…

Letrini

(97 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λετρῖνοι; Letrînoi). Village on the road from Elis to Olympia with a sanctuary of Artemis Alpheiaia, to the north of Alpheius [1], localized near modern Pirgos or further west, near the village of Agios Ioannis. In Pausanias' time it only consisted of few remaining houses. References: Paus. 6,22,8-11; Xen. Hell. 3,2,25; 30; 4,2,16; Lycophr. Alexandra 54. The local form of the name is found on inscriptions and in Xen. Hell. 4,2,16 in MSS Λεδρῖνοι ( Ledrínoi). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography F. Carinci, s.v. Elide 1, EAA2, 447f. E. Meyer, s.v. L., RE Suppl. 11, 876.

Augustodunum

(151 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce Augustan foundation at the junction of the basins of the Loire, the Saône and the Rhône, modern Autun. Built as a replacement for  Bibracte as the capital of the Haedui, A. became a lively centre of Romanization. Marked by insurgencies in the 1st cent. AD (Tac. Ann. 3,43), A. was distinguished by its great prosperity up to the end of the 3rd cent (cf. archaeological finds). Despite its decline after the capitulation…

Carmanor

(169 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Καρμάνωρ; Karmánōr). [German version] [1] Cretan seer A Cretan seer and priest of purification, as such closely connected with  Apollo, the god of ritual purification, and with Delphi, his centre of cult worship. He purifies Apollo and Artemis after the killing of the snake  Python (in Tarrha, Phaestus or Dion on Crete, Paus. 2,30,3; Euseb. Praep. evang. 5,31); in his house Apollo loves the nymph Acacallis who becomes mother of the founding heroes of the Cretan city Elyrus (on the myth of abandonment …

Rhypes

(195 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Ῥύπες/ Rhýpes). Town in Achaea (Achaeans, Achaea [1], with map), probably to be identified with the few ancient remains (including traces of Mycenaean settlement [2. 123-127; 3. 35]) on the plateau of Trapeza at Koumaris, c. 6 km southwest of Aegium. The find sites on the fortified hill on the left bank of the Phoenix, c. 8 km northwest of Aegium [1. 193, 417-418] and on the right bank of the Tholopotamus, 5.2 km north west of Aegium, have also been suggested. With eleven other ci…

Lechaeum

(172 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Λέχαιον; Léchaion). Harbour of Corinth [1] on the Corinthian Gulf, 3 km north of the city, connected with it by a double wall in the classical period ( c. 450 BC) [1]. The inner harbour basin, which is silted up today to a large extent, is still recognizable, also an outer harbour, few other remains, e.g. a large early Christian basilica [2]. Xen. Hell. 4,4,12 mentions ship sheds, and sanctuaries of Poseidon (Paus. 2,2,3; Callim. H. 4,271) and of Aphro…

Gabali

(85 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Gallic tribe in Aquitania, south of the Arverni, north of the Ruteni, on the north-western foot of the Cevennes. Source references: Caes. B Gall. 7,7,2; 64,6; 75,2; Γαβαλεῖς ( Gabaleîs): Str. 4,2,2; Gabales: Plin. HN 4,109; civitas Gabalum of Aquitania I: notitia Galliarum 12,8, modern Gévaudan, Lozère. The Gabali were miners (silver mines) and bred cattle (cheese: Plin. HN 11,240). Main town: Anderitum (Ptol. 2,7,11; Sid. Apoll. Epist. 5,13,2; 7,6,7). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography D. Fabrié, Carte archéologique de la Gaule. 48 (Lozère), 1989.

Liger

(151 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] River in Gaul, modern Loire; rises on the Cebenna mons . Strabo (4,1,1; 14; 4,2,1-3; 3,4; 4,3; 5,2) erroneously assumes its course as parallel to that of the Garumna, Ptolemy (2,2) describes it more correctly. Authors of antiquity assert that the river is open to shipping for about 2,000 stadia (about 370 km, more today) and that it served as a trade route between Britannia, Massilia and Italy. Further sources: Caes. B Gall. 3,9; 7,5; 55; 59; Plin. HN 4,107; Ptol. 2,8,1; 6; 11f; 14; Cass. Dio 39,40; 44,42 (Λίγρος; Lígros); Auson. Mos. 461. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Ca…

Gortys

(239 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Γόρτυς; Górtys). Settlement in Arcadia near the modern Atsicholo between Dimitsana and Karytaina, where the valley widens on the right bank of the Gortynius, a tributary of the  Alpheius [1]. G. comprised a fortified acropolis which controlled the northern access to the plain of Megalopolis, and north-east of the acropolis a terrace towering over the gorge of the Gortynius. According to Paus. 8,27,4, it was one of a number of settlements whose inhabitants came from  Cynuria. G. became part of the territory of Megalopolis, but retained its status as a kómē [1]. In the …

Lasion

(61 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λασιών; Lasiṓn). City at the edge of the Pholoe tableland in the Elian mountainous country, in the upper valley of the Ladon [3], remains near modern Kumani. L. was disputed between Elis and Arcadia. Evidence: Xen. Hell. 3,2,30; 4,2,16; 7,4,12f.; Diod. Sic. 14,17,8; 15,77,1-4; Str. 8,3,5; 7,5. Inscription: SEG 11, 1172f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Pritchett 6, 1989.

Nitiobroges

(229 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Tribe in south-western Gaul on the middle Garumna (Caes. B Gall. 7,7,2; 46,5; Str. 4,2,2; Ptol. 2,7,14: Νιτιόβριγες/ Nitióbriges; Tab. Peut. 2,4f.; Sid. Apoll. Epist. 2,11,1: Nisiobroges) where they settled during the 4th cent. BC. Their neighbours to the north were the Bituriges Vivisci and the Cadurci, to the east were the Cadurci and Ruteni, to the south the Volcae Tectosages and the Ausci (to the river Tarnis, CIL XIII p. 117; Plin. HN 4,109) and to the west there were the Vasates. The capital of the N. was Aginnum (modern Agen). Originally amici populi Romani (‘friends…

Ratomagus

(194 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Commerce Capital of the Veliocasses, present-day Rouen, linked by the Sequana (Seine) and Autura (Eure) to the Liger (Loire) and inner Gaul (Gallia/Gaul), an important harbour for exports to Britannia in the 2nd cent. AD (Amm. Marc. 15,11,12; It. Ant. 382,3; 384,1; Ptol. 2,8,8: Ῥατόμαγος; Tab. Peut. 2,2 f.; CIL XIII 3475: Ratumagus vicus; Notitia Galliarum 2,2: civitas Rotomagensium; Not. Dign. Occ. 37,10; 37,21: Rotomagus). Originally, the Veliocasses fell within the area of Gallia Belgica (Caes. B Gall. 2…
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