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Portus

(1,551 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Artificially extended harbour complex near Ostia This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre An artificial harbour complex, created under the emperor Claudius (AD 41-54) to extend the harbour of Ostia (with plan) and enlarged under Trajan (AD 98-117), c. 3 km northwest of Ostia. The Claudian harbour basin ( c. 80 hectares) was protected from the sea by a mole structure (but not actually safe; in AD 62 almost 200 ships went down in a storm: Tac. Ann. 15,18) and marked by a lighthouse (cf. plan: 1) (according to Suet. C…

Hira

(70 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Ἱρή/ Hirḗ, Ἰρή/ Irḗ, Εἶρα/ Eîra). Mountain stronghold in the inaccessible ravined area in the south of the upper Neda on the northern border of Messenia, possibly on the 864 m high Hagios Athanasios near Kakaletri (traces of ancient fortifications).  Aristomenes [1] led the battle against the Spartans from here in 500-490/489 BC (Third Messenian War). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 3,2, 357 F. Kiechle, Messenische Studien, 1959, 86ff.

Nedon

(60 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νέδων; Nédōn).The largest river in Messenia after the  Pamisus; it rises on Mt. Taygetus and, following a south-westerly direction, it traverses Denthaliatis (Denthalii) with its numerous wellsprings (cf. Tac. Ann. 4,43; Steph. Byz. s.v. Δενθάλιοι), then flows into the Messenian bay at Pherae (Str. 8,3,29; 4,4; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ν.). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 3, 406.

Larinum

(123 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | (Λάρινα; Lárina). Town of the Dauni (Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ.), afterwards of the Frentani (Ptol. 3,1,65) in Samnium on Monte Arone (475 m) to the right of the Tifernus (modern Biferno), south of Cigno, surrounded by a tributary of the Tifernus; 1 km east of modern Larino. Municipium, tribus Clustumina, regio II (Plin. HN 3,105; Mela 2,66). From the middle of the 3rd cent. BC, Greek (Campanian) and Latin (Apulian) bronze coins (HN 28f.). Considerable remains: city wall, bat…

Hellespontus

(520 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἑλλήσποντος; Hellḗspontos, Dardanelles, Turkish Çanakkale Boğazı). Strait, formed from a river valley during the glacial epoch, between the Propontis in the north and the  Aegean Sea in the south, the Thracian peninsula Chersonesus [1] in the west (Europe) and the Troad in the east (Asia; cf. Plin. HN 4,49), c. 65 km long, between 1.2 km (between Sestus and Abydus [1]) and 7.5 km wide, between 57 m and 103 m deep. As in the  Bosporus [1], a strong (maximum 5 knots; cf. Hom. Il. 2,845; 12,30; Hsch. s.v. Ἑ.; Aristot. Mete. 2,8; A…

Helisson

(214 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Ἑλισσών; Helissṓn). [German version] [1] River in Arcadia River in Arcadia with abundant water at all seasons, tributary of the Alpheius [1], rises on the north-west slope of the Maenalum range, firstly flows south, then, turning west, in a narrow gorge penetrates the central mountains of Arcadia, composed of lime, flows through the Megalopolis Basin and flows out to the west of this into the Alpheius (Paus. 5,7,1; 8,29,5; 30,1f.). An important connecting route to northern Arcadia (today the Tripolis-Vitina road) runs through the upper valley of the H. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Li…

Neoclaudiopolis

(211 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νεοκλαυδιόπολις/ Neoklaudiópolis, Latin Neoclaudiopolis). City in the Paphlagonian district of Phazemonitis to the east of the lower Halys, near the village of Phazemon (Φαζημών/ Phazēmṓn, OGIS 532, 40f.) in the territory of the neighbouring township of Andrapa (Ἄνδραπα/ A'ndrapa, Ptol. 5,4,6,4; Hierocles, Synekdemos 701,7; Nov. 28 praef.); founded by Pompey in 65 or 62 BC with the name Neapolis (Strab. 12,3,38) as part of the new province of Bithynia et Pontus [7. 33f., 38f., 71ff.], renamed N. under Claudius (IGR 3…

Ithome

(290 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ἰθώμη; Ithṓmē). [German version] [1] Chalk mountain in Messenia This chalk mountain (modern Vurkano), rising to 802 m and dominating the Messenian plain, together with Eua, its southern secondary summit (modern Hagios Vassilios), forms the natural acropolis for the entire region of Messenia, and its centre in legend and history. The lengthy siege of Mt. I. was the main topic of Myron of Priene's prose novel on the First Messenian War (Paus. 4,9-13). During the major uprising of the helots in 464 BC, the…

Grudii

(64 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] One of the five tribes in Gallia Belgica dependent on the  Nervii (the others being the  Ceutrones [1],  Levaci,  Pleumoxii and  Geidumni: Caes. B Gall. 5,39,1). Their area of settlement lay in what is now Flanders. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography TIR M 31 Paris, 1975, 133 H. Boone, Ceutrones et Nervii, in: Mémoires de la Societé d'Emulation de Cambrai 73, 1926, 105-206.

Nonacris

(251 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Νώνακρις; Nōnakris). [German version] [1] Place in Arcadia Place in Arcadia (Paus. 8,18,7; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ν.; Suda s.v. Ν.; Hesych. s.v. Ν.; IG V 2, p. 83) in the valley of the upper Crathis [1] on the north-eastern slope of Aroania Ore (modern Helmos), famous because of the Styx waterfall, which was located in the N. area; N. is mentioned in classical literature only in this connection. If in the 5th cent. BC it was still an independent town (Hdt. 6,74), in the 4th cent. BC N. Belonged to Pheneus. I…

Vologesocerta

(75 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Zenobia (Plin. HN 6,122; Ptol. 5,20,6: Οὐλογαισία/ Ou ologaisía; Amm. Marc. 23,6,23: Vologessia; Tab. Peut. 11,4: Volocesia; Steph. Byz. s. v. Βολογεσσίας/ Bologessías). City in Babylonia, founded by the Parthian king Vologaeses I on the Naarmalcha near Seleucia [1] and in competition with it; presumably at modern Abū Ḫalafīya. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography A. Oppenheimer, Babylonia Judaica in the Talmudic Period (TAVO Beiheft B 47), 1983, 198-207.

Peirus

(66 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πεῖρος; Peîros). River in western Achaea, the source is on the northern slopes of the Erymanthus [1], flows past Phara and into the Gulf of Corinth 2 km northeast of Dyme [1], today again called P. (formerly Kamenitsa). Cf. Hdt. 1,145; Str. 8,3,11; Paus. 7,18,1f.; 22,1. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography R. Baladié, Le Péloponnèse de Strabon, 1980, 72-74  Müller, 822.

Cabira

(136 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hellenistic states (Κάβειρα; Kábeira). The residence of Mithridates VI, king of Pontus, on the southern slope of the Paryadres. Pompey elevated C. to city status as Diospolis and then embellished it. C. received numerous new names (Sebaste, Neocaesarea, Hadrianopolis); today, it is Niksar/Turkey with ruins of a large castle that reveals Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine and Seldshukian building phases. There are also inscriptions, a milestone on the g…

Ionia

(154 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἰωνία; Iōnía, Ἰωνίη; Iōníē). West Anatolian countryside between Aeolis in the north, Lydia in the east, the Aegean in the west and Caria in the south; it includes the settlement area in Asia Minor of the  Iones, who moved in there in connection with the post-Mycenaean migration and since about 700 BC were amalgamated in the Panionian Amphiktyonia (cf. the descriptions of I. in Str. 14,1; Plin. HN 5,112-120) with the cities of (cf. Hdt. 1,142-148; Aesch. Pers. 771) Miletus, Myus, Pri…

Selinus

(1,320 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
(Σελινοῦς/ Selinoûs). Name of several rivers and towns. [German version] [1] Tributary of the Alpheius [1] Southern tributary of the Alpheius [1] which enters west of Olympia, modern Krestena (Xen. An. 5,3,8; Paus. 5,6,6). Lienau, Cay (Münster) [German version] [2] River in Achaea River in Achaea, which originates on Mount Erymanthus near Leontium close to modern Vlasia, flows through the territory of Aegium and enters the Corinthian Gulf east of modern Valimitika. Today again known as S. (Str. 8,7,5 [1. 82 f.]; Paus. 7,24,5). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 R. Baladié, Le P…

Cyane

(115 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Κυάνη). Small stream steeped in legend that has its origin about 9 km south-west of Syracusae (as the crow flies) in a source of the same name and that after about 20 km, together with the Anapus, flows through a wide swampy area into the Great Harbour of Syracusae; modern Ciani. According to Ovid (Met. 5,413ff.), the nymph C., the wife of Anapus, tried to stop Hades (Pluto) when he was deflowering Kore and dissolved in tears on the spot where he split the earth and went down int…

Historical geography

(3,973 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] A. Definition (CT) Historical geography (HG) is a branch of geography or, to be precise, historiography and is concerned with the ever changing relationship between human beings and the landscape. As well as verbal (literary, epigraphic, numismatic) and representational (archaeological) evidence of the past, its main source is the topographical framework of historical events. Nowadays, HG is essentially characterized by two different paths of scholarly rese…

Olenus

(266 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Ὤλενος; Ṓlenos). City in Achaea between Dyme [1] and Patrae (Plin. HN 4,13; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὠ.), in whose territory the Peirus debouched into the Bay of Corinth (cf. Paus. 7,6,1; 7,18,1f.; 7,22,1); this can be presumed to be in the coastal plains near the modern villages of Kaminia and Tsoukalaika (cf. the distance data in Str. 8,7,4; Paus. loc. cit.). O. was one of the twelve Achaean cities existing in the Mycenaean period and was a member of the old Achaean League (Hdt. 1,145; Pol. 2,41,7; damiourgoi from O. me…

Crathis

(340 words)

Author(s): Parra, Maria Cecilia (Pisa) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
(Κρᾶθις; Krâthis). [German version] [3] River in Bruttium that rises near  Consentia and flows into the sea near Thurii, today known as Crati. Legend held that its water could be used to dye the hair of people and animals blond (Eur. Tro. 228; Ael. NA 12,36; Aristot. Mir. 169). The valley of C. formed the main connection between inner Bruttium and the plains of  Sybaris. The river received its name from Achaean colonists after the name of a river in their homeland (Hdt. 1,145); according to other sou…

Rhion

(196 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ῥίον; Rhíon). Flat coastal projection in Achaea, about 8 km to the northeast of modern Patras [1. 226-227; 2. 199 f.], modern Rhio, which, with Antirrhion (or also R. or Ῥίον τὸ Μολυκρικόν/ Rhíon tò Molykrikón after Molycrium; modern Antirio) to the north across the approximately 2 km wide sound (also called R., cf. Pol. 4,64,2; Liv. 27,29,9; Mela 2,52), forms the western entrance to the Gulf of Corinth (Corinth, Gulf of) (Thuc. 2,86,3; Ps.-Scyl. 35; 42; Scymn. 478; in Str. 8,2,3, as in Ptol. 3,15,5 incorrectly…
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