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(642 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Rome | Batavian Revolt City in Gallia Narbonensis on both banks of the Rhodanus (modern Rhône) at the confluence with the Gère, modern Vienne (in the département of Isère) on the left bank and Saint-Romain-en-Gal and Sainte-Colombe (both in the département of Rhône) on the right bank. Late Celtic settlement of the Allobroges with an oppidum on the Pipet and Sainte-Blandine hills and a trading place at the confluence of the Gère. I…


(57 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] (modern Oléron, in the département of Charente-Maritime). Island in the Aquitanicus Sinus (modern Biscaya; Plin. HN 4,109;  Sid. Apoll. Epist. 8,6,12; Geogr. Rav 5,33), near the mouth of the Garumna. It assignment to the territory of the Santoni and hence to  Aquitania is hypothetical. Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) Bibliography P. Merlat, s. v. U., RE 9 A, 533 f.


(423 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | Gallia/Gaul (Οὐασίων/ Ouasíōn; modern Vaison-la-Romaine in the département of Vaucluse). Oppidum of Gallia Narbonensis, capital of civitas Vocontiorum (Vocontii; Str. 4,1,11; Mela 2,5,75; Ptol. 2,10,16; CIL XII 5669: c(ivitas) V(asio) V(ocontiorum); ILS 2709: res publica Iuliensium; decuriones, praetores, praefecti, aediles: CIL XII 1307; 1368 ff.; 1529; civitas foederata: Plin. HN 3,37; cf. 7,78). The name V. is pre-Celtic, cf. spring and river V. (CIL XII 1301; 1336). In late Antiquity civ…


(107 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] Celtic people in the Roman province of Narbonensis on the west bank of the Rhodanus (modern Rhône) in the mountainous country between the Cavari, the Vocontii and the Segovellauni (Liv. 5,34,5; 21,31,9; Sil. Pun. 3,466; Amm. Marc. 15,10,11). Ptol. 2,10,13 mentions Noviomagus [2] as main town of their civitas. Identification with modern Saint Paul Trois-Châteaux is likely; Augusta Tricastinorum at the time of Augustus, mentioned in Plin. HN 3,36 among the oppida Latina of the Narbonensis; Colonia Flavia Tricastinorum in the Flavian period (AE 1962, 143). Polfer, …


(79 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre Celtic oppidum of the Senones [2], conquered by Caesar's legate, C. Trebonius [I 1], in 52 BC (Caes. B Gall. 7,11,1; 7,11,4; 7,14,1). A precise location between Agedincum and Cenabum is not possible; Château-Landon and Terres-Blanches du Grand-Villon to the north of Montargis ( département of Loiret) are conceivable. Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) Bibliography M. Provost, Carte archéologique de la Gaule 45. Le Loiret, 1988, 161-163, 165 TIR M 31, 1975, 184.


(55 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] Celtic people in Gallia Narbonensis. The chief town of the V. in the Roman period was the colonia Apta Iulia Vulgientum, modern Apt (in the département of Vaucluse). Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) Bibliography P. Wuilleumier, s. v. V., RE 9 A, 1304 f.  R. Bedon, Atlas des villes, bourgs et villages de la France au passé romain, 2001, 78 f.


(673 words)

Author(s): Heucke, Clemens (Munich) | Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Et al.
(Μεδιολάν[ι]ον/ Mediolán[i]on). [German version] [1] Modern Milan This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Italy, languages | Pilgrimage | Regio, regiones | Rome | Batavian Revolt The modern city of Milan. It was founded in the early 4th cent. BC by the Insubres (Liv. 5,34,9) at the juncture of several Alpine valleys in the Padus/Po plain (Pol. 2,34,10); in 222 BC, it was captured by Cn. Scipio; it was later to become the most important city of that region (Pol.…


(84 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] Tributary of the Garumna, modern Tarn (Auson. Epist. 22,27-32; 26,31; Auson. Mos. 465;  Sid. Apoll. Epist. 5,13,1;  Sid. Apoll. Carm. 24,45), rising on Cebenna Mons, border river between Narbonensis and Aquitania. According to Plin.  HN 4,109 (correction of [1. 148]) border river between the Tolosani (Tolosa) and the Petrocorii. Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) Bibliography 1 E. Desjardins, Géographie historique et administrative de la Gaule romaine, vol. 1, 1876. H. Zeiß, s. v. T., RE 4 A, 2328  M. Provost, Carte Archéologique de la Gaule 81, Le Tarn, 1992, 44.

Segodunum Rutenorum

(95 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Capital of the Ruteni in Aquitania (Ptol. 2,7,21: Σεγόδουνον/ Segódounon; Notae Tironianae 87,46: Segundunum or Secundunum; Tab. Peut. 2,3: Segodum or Segoduni), modern Rodez on the Aveyron. The economy of the surrounding area comprised mining and artistic pottery (centre of production of Terra Sigillata at La Graufesenque in the Tarn valley, 2 km to the south of Millan). Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) Bibliography J. B. Keune, s. v. S. (1), RE 2 A, 1078-1080  Villes et agglomérations urbaines antiques du Sud-Oues…


(99 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] City in Gallia Narbonensis, in the pre-Roman period an oppidum of the Cavares, to the northeast of Avennio (modern Avignon), on the banks of the Sorgue ( Vindelicus amnis in Flor. Epit. 1,37,4; Isid. Orig. 9,2,96; Σούλγας/ Soúlgas in Str. 4,1,11), situated near its confluence with the Rhodanus, probably at Mourre-de-Sève (in the département of Vaucluse), between Sorgues and Vedène. In 121 BC, Cn. Domitius [I 3] Ahenobarbus defeated the Allobroges there (Liv. Epit. 61; Plin. HN 7,166; Oros. 5,13,2; Suet. Nero 2; Str. 4,1,11). Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) Bibliography…


(155 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] Celtic people (according to Caes. B Gall. 2,4,1 originally Germanic) in Gallia Belgica (Caes. B Gall. 2,4,9; cf. 7,75,3; 8,7,4; Oros. 6,7,14; 6,11,12; Ptol. 2,8,8: Οὐενελιοκάσιοι/ Ou eneliokásioi; Liv. Per. 67), in the north and to a limited extent also in the south of the lower reaches of the Sequana (modern Seine; in the south of the département of Seine-Maritime and in the north of the département of Eure). In the pre-Roman period, the capital of the V. was probably the oppidum of 'Camp de Calidou' near Caudebec, from the time of Augustus onwards Rotomagu…


(219 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] Ligurian/Celtic tribe in Aquitania (after Diocletian's reform in the province of Novempopulana) on both banks of the lower Garumna (Amm. Marc. 15,11,14: Vasatae; Ptol. 2,7,15: Οὐασάτιοι/ Ouasátioi); neighbours of the Bituriges Vivisci to the north, the Nitiobriges to the east and south, the Tarbelli to the southwest, and the Boeates in the west. Identification of the V. with the Vocates mentioned in Caes. B Gall. 3,23,7 is uncertain, these may rather have been the Boeates. The V. were one of the four peoples of southern Aquitania who at the time of the founding of the Ara …


(126 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] People in northeastern Gallia on the upper Sequana and the modern Aube in Lugdunensis, with the Senones [2], the Parisii, the Meldi, the Remi and the Lingones as neighbours (Plin. HN 4,107). Until the 1st cent. BC they were probably reckoned among the Senones. Augustus organised them as an autonomous civitas with Augustobona Tricassium (modern Troyes) as their seat of administration. In late Antiquity the T. were part of Lugdunensis II (Amm. 15,10,11 f.); in 588 the Notitia Galliarum has them as part of the later established Lugdunensis IV (Senonia). Polfer, Michel (…


(193 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: City in Gallia Celtica in the territory of the Aremorici (Aremorica), later in Lugdunensis, from the time of Augustus the chief town of the civitas of Os(s)ismi(i) (Ptol. 2,8,5: Οὐοργάνιον/ Ouorgánion; Tab. Peut. 2,2: V.; also the Maël-Carhaix milestone CIL XIII 9013), modern Carhaix (in the département of Finistère). In Late Antiquity, V. lost its rank as a civitas-capital to Gesocribate (modern Brest). Discussion of the identity of V. and Vorganium has been decided in the negative. Only V. represents Carhaix, Ptol. loc.cit…


(183 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] Suburb of a civitas in Aquitania, modern Lectoure (Département Gers), south of Aginnum (modern Agen). Other name evidence: Lacturatis, Notae Tironianae 87,77; Lactura, It. Ant. 462,5; Lactora, Tab. Peut. 2,2; Lacura, Geogr. Rav. 4,41; in provincia Novempopulana ... civitas Lactoratium, Notitia Galliarum 14; ordo Lactor( atium), CIL XIII 511. Oldest historical evidence is a honorary inscription of AD 105, mentioning a procurat( or) provinciarum Lugduniensis et Aquitanicae item Lactorae (CIL V 875 = ILS 1374). 22 altars testify to a taurobolium


(60 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] Town in the territory of the  Os(s)ismi(i), probably in Kérilien-en-Plounéventer (in the département of Finistère), where there is evidence of a pre-Roman settlement and an Imperial period  vicus (about 30 ha, theatre). V. is not identical to Vorgium, the chief town of the civitas. Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) Bibliography P. Galliou, Carte Archéologique de la Gaule 29, Le Finistère, 1989, 95-98.


(134 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] People in Lugdunensis (Plin. HN 4,107: Venelli) in the northwest of Normandy on the Cotentin peninsula. The V. capitulated in 57 BC to Caesar's legate P. Licinius [I 16] Crassus (Caes. Gall. 2,34), but rose up the following year (Caes. Gall. 3,11,14) and also sent troops to Alesia in 52 BC (Caes. Gall. 7,75). The V.'s chief town in the pre-Roman period was probably the oppidum on modern Mont-Castre, 17 km to the west of Carentan, in the Imperial period initially Crociatonum (Ptol. 2,8,2: Κροκιάτονον/ Krokiátonon; Tab. Peut. 2,1: Crouciaconnum; modern Carentan…


(90 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] Mansio or vicus of the civitas of the Pictones in the province of Aquitania, 33 leagues (72·6 km) from Lemonum and 18 leagues (39·6 km) from Portus Namnetum (modern Nantes) or from Iuliomagus (modern Angers) (Tab. Peut. 2,3). Of 12 different proposed locations, that of La Ségourie (community of Le Fief-Sauvain, département of Maine-et-Loire) is the most likely. Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) Bibliography A. Champigneulle, Le problème de S., in: Annales de Bretagne 70, 1963, 69-92  M. Provost, Carte Archéologique de la Gaule 49, Maine-et-Loire, 1988, 32 u…


(211 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] Chief town of the civitas of the Aulerci Cenomani in Gallia Celtica, later Lugdunensis (Tab. Peut. 2,3: Subdinnum; Ptol. 2,8,9: Οὐίνδινον), modern Le Mans (in the département of Sarthe), important communications node on the Sarthe. Probably a late La Tène period oppidum in the area of the modern Vieux Mans (Celtic sculptures in a 3rd cent. AD wall; Gaulish gold stater). Puits funéraires (well-like shaft graves) from the 1st cent. AD and traces of an orthogonal road network survive; the area of the Imperial period town has been estimated at …


(998 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] [1] Capital of the Suessiones This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Oppidum Capital of the Suessiones, occupied by Caesar in 57 BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,12). N. can be identified with the oppidum of Pommiers (west of Soisson, De partement of Aisne). This was abandoned at the latest under Augustus, by about 50 BC a new one had come into being in the plain near Villeneuve-Saint-Germain [1; 2]. With the founding of the Gallo-Roman capital civitas of Augusta Suessionum in about 20 BC other settlement came to an end. Schön, Franz (Regens…
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