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Petron

(117 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Πέτρων; Pétrōn) of Himera. Considered by Diels/Kranz to be one of the older Pythagoreans (No. 16). In the only testimony, the authenticity of which is disputed (Hippys FGrH 554 F 5 = Phaenias fr. 12 Wehrli = Plut. De def. or. 23, 422de; cf. [1; 2]), the hypothesis that there are 183 worlds connected in a row with each other is attributed to him. Cosmology; Pythagoras; Pythagorean School Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) Bibliography 1 W. Burkert, Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism, 1972, 114 n. 35 2 L. Zhmud, Wissenschaft, Philosophie und Religion im frühen Pyt…

Lysis

(198 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Λύσις; Lýsis). Pythagorean of Tarentum, who according to Aristoxenus fr. 18 Wehrli, at a young age escaped together with Archippus [2] the arson attack on the Pythagoreans in Croton dated at around 450 and 440 or 415; he is said to have then migrated to Greece and to have become the teacher of Epaminondas in Thebes (cf. Aristox. ibid.; Dion Chrys. or. 49,5 etc.; [1]). L.'s pseudepigraphic letter to Hipparchus [3], in which the latter is urged to adhere to Pythagoras' instructions …

Cylon

(336 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Κύλων; Kýlon). [German version] [1] Athenian aristocrat, victor in Olympia in 640 BC, attempted to establish tyrannical rule in 632 BC Athenian aristocrat, son-in-law of  Theagenes of Megara, became Olympic victor in 640 BC. C. and his hetaireíahetairía  [2]) occupied the Acropolis in Athens around 632 in order to establish  tyrannical rule there -- possibly with support from Megara. C. did not manage to mobilize the population to support him. The rebels initially were besieged by a contingent of citizens, b…

Timycha

(70 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Τιμύχα; Timýcha). Spartan, 4th or end of the 6th cent. BC, wife of Myllias in a horror story told by Neanthes (FGrH 84 F 31). T. is mentioned in first place in the catalogue (perhaps dependent on Philochorus? [1]) of "most significant Pythagorean women" in Iambl. v.P. 267. Woman philosophers; Pythagoras [2]; Pythagorean School Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) Bibliography 1 W. Burkert, Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism, 1972, 10540.

Pythagoras

(2,937 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Et al.
(Πυθαγόρας/ Pythagóras). [German version] [1] Fictitious Spartan and adviser to Numa Pompilius Fictitious person, supposedly from Sparta, victor at the Olympic Games in 716 BC, emigrated to Italy where he became an adviser to king Numa Pompilius. It seems this person was constructed to establish a connection between P. [2] and Roman religion (Plut. Numa 1,2-3). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography F. Ollier, Pythagore de Sparta, REG 59/60, 1946/7, 139-149. [German version] [2] Philosopher, c. 600 BC Natural philosopher and charismatic teacher from the 6th and early 5th cent…

Myllias

(141 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Μυλλίας/ Myllías). Pythagorean from Croton. It is said that he was reminded by Pythagoras of an earlier incarnation as Midas, son of the Phrygian king Gordius [1], and then went to Asia Minor to carry out rituals at Gordius's grave as ordered by Pythagoras (Aristot. fr. 191 Rose = 174 Gigon = Ael. VH 4,17 and Iambl. v.P. 143). The name M. is also found in a horror story by Neanthes FGrH 84 F 31 (= Iambl. VP 192-194), in which Dionysius [2] II (or I according to [1]) uses torture i…

Phintys

(145 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Φίντυς; Phíntys). Pseudonymous female author of a work in Pythagorean spirit, Περὶ γυναικὸς σωφροσύνας ( Perì gynaikòs sōphrosýnas, 'On the self-control of women'; two relatively long fragments in Doric dialect are preserved in Stob. 4,23,61): a woman's characteristic virtue is self-control; some particular traits and abilities are common to both men and women, others are either male or female; philosophizing is common to both. A woman attains the good specific to her by means of five things: cha…

Cleinias

(469 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Κλεινίας; Kleinías). [German version] [1] Friend of Solon, heard of the seisáchtheia in advance and was able to unjustly enrich himself One of  Solon's, friends, who heard of the   seisáchtheia in advance and, therefore, was able to unjustly enrich himself (Plut. Solon 15,6-9; cf. [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 6,2). The story was probably invented in the late 5th cent. BC to discredit the descendants of these men (e.g., Alcibiades [3]). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 600 III Rhodes, 128f. Traill, PAA 575270. [German version] [2] Born c. 510 BC, son of Alcibiade…

Echecrates

(239 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Ἐχεκράτης; Echekrátēs). [German version] [1] Thessalian condottierre of Ptolemy IV, c. 217 BC Thessalian condottiere of Ptolemy IV, whose training of the army and especially the cavalry significantly contributed to the victory at Raphia in 217 BC. In that battle, he commanded the right wing of the cavalry. An anecdotally coloured representation of the battle is recorded in Diod. Sic. 16,26,6. PP 2, 2161. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] Pythagorean from Phleius Pythagorean from Phleius, who together with Phanton, Polymnastos and Diocles, who also came fro…

Lamiscus

(81 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Λαμίσκος; Lamískos). A Tarantine, member of the circle around Archytas [1]; he led the legation that the friends of Plato in Tarentum sent to Syracuse in 360 BC after the latter's break with Dionysius [2] II. L. succeeded in getting Dionysius to let Plato leave Syracuse (Pl. Ep. 7, 350a 7-b 4; derived from this are the mentions of L. in the two forged Archytas letters in Diog. Laert. 3,22 and 8,80). Pythagorean School Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)

Number

(5,221 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | I.A. | Folkerts | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Crubellier, Michel (Villeneuve d'Ascq) | Et al.
I. Mesopotamia [German version] A. Numerical systems Before systems for representing numbers in writing were (further) developed, counting stones, known as calculi or tokens, were used in arithmetic. As first-order representations they enabled operations such as increasing, decreasing, combining, separating, and distributing. Their relationship to the numerical notations recorded in the oldest ‘texts’ ( c. 3300 BC; Uruk) is still discussed [2]. The numerical signs in these texts do not represent absolute numbers but context-dependent units of count…

Mnesarchus

(336 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Μνήσαρχος; Mnḗsarchos). [German version] [1] Father of Pythagoras Father of Pythagoras (6th and early 5th cents. BC), whose historicity seems certain (cf. Heracl. fr. 17 Marcovich and Hdt. 4,95,1), even if the tradition is contradictory and sometimes legendary. M. is sometimes described as a Samian gem cutter (Diog. Laert. 8,1; Apul. Flor. 15; cf. Porph. Vita Pythagorica 1; [1]), sometimes as a merchant from the Tyrrhenian island of Lemnos who had settled on Samos (Neanthes FGrH 84 F 29a = Porph. ibid…

Hippasus

(555 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Ἵππασος; Híppasos). Name often used in epic texts for figures lacking any further characterization, particularly common in patronymic information about less important heroes. Esp. interesting in this context are [1] - [4]: [German version] [1] Father of Actor, the Argonaut  Father of Actor, the Argonaut (Apoll. Rhod. 1,112; Hyg. Fab. 14). Visser, Edzard (Basle) [German version] [2] Father of Charops  Father of  Charops [4] (Hom. Il. 11,426). Visser, Edzard (Basle) [German version] [3] Father of Hypsenor  Father of Hypsenor, killed by Deiphobus (Hom. Il. 13,411). Visser, Edzard …

Pythagoreische Schule

(1,519 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
Zur problematischen Überlieferungslage Pythagoras [2] A. [English version] A. Anfänge und Organisation Die Anfänge der P.Sch. sind in den Quellen legendenhaft verklärt: Bei der Ankunft in Kroton sollen Pythagoras' Erscheinung und seine Reden so überwältigend gewirkt haben, daß sich ihm eine große Zahl von Krotoniaten sowie einflußreiche Personen aus der Umgebung sogleich anschlossen (Dikaiarchos fr. 33 Wehrli mit Porph. vita Pythagorae 19; vgl. Nikomachos bei Porph. ebd. 20 und bereits Isokr. or. 11,29). In…

Hiketas

(507 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Ἱκέτας). [English version] [1] Syrakusischer Adeliger, Tyrann über Leontinoi, um 350 v. Chr. Syrakusischer Adeliger, Freund des Dion [I 1]. In den Wirren nach dessen Tod 353 v.Chr. gewann er die Tyrannis über Leontinoi. Er unterstützte zunächst die Syrakusier im Kampf gegen Dionysios [2] II. Bei seinem Zug gegen Syrakus 346 verständigte er sich jedoch wegen der anrückenden Karthager mit Dionysios und unterstützte dessen Hilferuf an die Korinther. Die Übermacht der Karthager bewog ihn dann zu einem neuen Fro…

Petron

(107 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[English version] (Πέτρων) von Himera. Von Diels/Kranz zu den älteren Pythagoreern gezählt (Nr. 16). Im einzigen Zeugnis, dessen Echtheit umstritten ist (Hippys FGrH 554 F 5 = Phainias fr. 12 Wehrli = Plut. de def. or. 23, 422de; vgl. [1; 2]), wird ihm die Lehre zugeschrieben, es gebe 183 Welten, die sich in einer Reihe aneinanderschlössen. Kosmologie; Pythagoras; Pythagoreische Schule Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) Bibliography 1 W. Burkert, Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism, 1972, 114 Anm. 35 2 L. Zhmud, Wiss., Philos. und Rel. im frühen Pythagoreismus, 1997, 69 Anm. 14. G. …

Echekrates

(216 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Ἐχεκράτης). [English version] [1] Thessalischer Kondottiere Ptolemaios' IV. um 217 v. Chr. Thessalischer Kondottiere Ptolemaios' IV., der durch die Ausbildung des Heeres und speziell der Reiterei wesentlich zum Sieg bei Raphia 217 v.Chr. beitrug. In der Schlacht kommandierte er die Reiterei des rechten Flügels. Eine anekdotisch gefärbte Darstellung der Schlacht ist bei Diod. 16,26,6 überliefert. PP 2, 2161. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [English version] [2] aus Phleius, Pythagoreer Pythagoreer aus Phleius, zusammen mit den ebenfalls aus Phleius stammenden Phanton, P…

Pythagoras

(2,796 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom) | Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Et al.
(Πυθαγόρας). [English version] [1] fiktiver Spartaner und Berater des Numa Pompilius Fingierte Person, angeblich aus Sparta, Sieger bei den Olympischen Spielen 716 v. Chr., nach It. ausgewandert, dort Berater des Königs Numa Pompilius; diese Konstruktion soll offenbar eine Verbindung zwischen P. [2] und dem röm. Sakralwesen schaffen (Plut. Numa 1,2-3). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography F. Ollier, Pythagore de Sparta, REG 59/60, 1946/7, 139-149. [English version] [2] Philosoph, um 600 v. Chr. Naturphilosoph und charismatischer Lehrer des 6. und frühen 5. Jh. v. Chr.,…

Damon

(278 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Princeton) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Δάμων). [English version] [1] Fürst der Telchinen Fürst der Telchinen. Schwiegervater des Minos und Ahn des Miletos. Während die Telchinen vom Blitz des Iuppiter erschlagen werden, weil sie Feldfrüchte vergiftet haben, wird D. mit seiner Familie zum Dank für erwiesene Gastfreundschaft verschont. Nur seine Tochter Macelo und deren Gatte sind ebenfalls unter den Opfern (Nik. im schol. Ov. Ib. 475). Bloch, René (Princeton) [English version] [2] Pythagoreer aus Syrakus Pythagoreer aus Syrakus, Freund des Phintias, für den er mit seinem Leben bürgte. Laut Aristoxenos…

Eurytos

(367 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Εὔρυτος). [English version] [1] Herrscher von Oichalia bei Homer Herrscher von Oichalia, erwähnt bei Hom. Il. 2,596; 730. Die Lage von Oichalia ist unklar (auf der Peloponnes?). Nach Hom. Od. 21,20ff. schenkt Iphitos, der Sohn des E., als er in Messenien nach seinen Pferden sucht, dem Odysseus den großen Bogen seines Vaters (mit dem Odysseus später die Freier tötet) und wird auf der Suche später von Herakles ermordet. E. selbst wird von Apollon, den er im Bogenschießen herausfordert, getötet (Od. 8,224-…
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