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(771 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Patrick
Any definition of the term Beigeordneter (“deputy mayor”) must on the one hand take account of different regional traditions of community constitution (especially mayor and magistrate constitution), and on the other had changes of meaning which the term has experienced in the past two centuries. From a historical perspective it must be noted that discrepancies occur between the Beigeordneter as analytical term and as source term. In the literature in modern administrative studies and also in a portion of the community constitutions in the Federal Republic of Germany all members of the parish leadership (in cities: magistrate) are referred to as Beigeordnete; Beigeordneter is then synonymous with Dezernent (leader of a
Date: 2019-10-14

Provisions, urban supply of

(1,308 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Patrick
1. Challenges and assumptionsIn the early modern period, practically without exception, grain products (Bread; Porridge) provided the basi…
Date: 2021-03-15

Guild artifacts

(972 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Patrick
1. Definition and nature The term guild artifacts denotes objects that were in the possession of the guilds and are thought to have been particularly associated with the communal activities of the guild members and to have helped establish the identity of the corporation. Such artifacts include guild seals, banners, and symbols [8], but also objects used in religious ceremonies and the commemoration of the dead – less commonly tools or products of crafts and trades. Frequently the guild artifacts are understood to include the so-called welcome cups and guild chests, which the literature on the history of crafts and trades characterizes as especially important for the group identity of craftsmen [6. 86 f.]. The chests were essential for legal acts within the guilds (because the official guild meetings, called morning parleys, took place only “with the chest op…
Date: 2019-10-14


(10,095 words)

Author(s): Carl, Horst | Schmidt, Patrick | Troßbach, Werner | Synek, Eva | Walter, Peter
1. Introduction 1.1. Definition and backgroundEven today the term  office (German  Amt) still covers a broad semantic spectrum that preserves the manifold references and contexts of premodern administ…
Date: 2020-10-06