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Salodurum

(157 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] In the pre-Roman period a station on the road south of the Jura from Lake Geneva to the Upper Rhine with a bridge over the river Aare and good wharfs for trade, modern Solothurn. After the Roman occupation, S. was a beneficiarii post (CIL XIII 5170; [1. no. 130 ill.]). Out of the road post there grew a vicus , whose leading citizens ( magistri vici) and village inhabitants ( vicani Salodurenses) dedicated a temple to Iuppiter Optimus Maximus [1. no. 141]. The port district of the vicus was rebuilt in the 4th cent. AD as a castle (3,2 m thick walls). The medieval …

Lousonna

(177 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] Celtic oppidum on the site of Lausanne (Switzerland, canton of Vaud) on the northern bank of the lacus Lemanus . Nearby large Roman harbour facilities ( vicus) with forum, basilica, temple, sailors' schola, harbour quay and warehouses on the site of modern Vidy. The place name L. corresponds with Celtic names for bodies of water (cf. Sauconna = Saône). The vicus of L. was of commercial significance as a trading centre of the main roads Great St. Bernard - Geneva - Rhône and Aventicum - Augusta Raurica - Rhine. Of the Roman officials in the seaport of L., a curator civium Romano…

Tulingi

(99 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] Tribe, neighbouring the Rauraci and the Latobrigi, induced by the Helvetii to take part in their campaign (Caes. B Gall. 1,5,4; 1,25,6: T. are the rearguard of the Helvetian army; 1,28,3: after the battle of Bibracte in 58 BC they were sent by Caesar back to their homeland; 1,29,2: number of marchers 36,000). The role of the T. in the battle of Bibracte implies an experienced mercenary corps (as indeed in [1. 788]). On the homeland of the T. and their ethnic origin (Celtic or Germanic) Caesar says nothing. Walser, Gerold (Basle) Bibliography 1 P. Goessler, s. v. T., RE…

Vitudurum

(154 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] Vicus or late Roman fort at modern Ober-Winterthur (in the canton of Zurich in Switzerland). At the end of the 1st cent. BC, a station ( Statio ) was established there on the road connecting the Roman legionary camp in Vindonissa and the Raetian centre in Augusta [7] Vindelicum. In the two first centuries of the Roman Imperial period, V. grew into a vicus with a Gallo-Roman temple district, baths and a residential quarter. When, with the abandonment of the limes (III.), Roman rule in Germania collapsed, Diocletian had the old east-west connection secured by expanding the vicu…

Vindonissa

(595 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Legio | Limes | Raeti, Raetia | Batavian Revolt Roman military camp and civilian settlement on a tongue of land at the confluence of the Rivers Aare and Reuss at modern Windisch (in Switzerland), where a Celtic settlement in the pre-Roman period is assumed. In connexion with the Alpine War (in 15 BC) under Tiberius [1] and Claudius [II 24] Drusus a small fort may already have been established there. It was not until AD 16/17, however, that the military …

Augusta

(3,972 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Gaggero, Gianfranco (Genoa) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Walser, Gerold (Basle) | Et al.
(Αὐγούστα, Αὐγοῦστα; Augoústa, Augoûsta). [German version] [0] Title First to receive the name A. (‘the Sublime’) was  Livia [2], by the terms of the will of her husband  Augustus (Tac. Ann. 1,8,1; Vell. Pat. 2,75,3; Suet. Aug. 101,2), who at the same time adopted her into the Julian family (thus: Iulia Augusta). Hellenistic influence is disputed (in favour [1], against [2. 140-145]); the name Σεβαστή/ Sebastḗ with the same literal meaning was bestowed on the wives of Roman emperors in the Greek-speaking world independently of any conferring of the name of A…

Tigurini

(135 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] Sub-tribe of the Helvetii, who under Divico joined a looting campaign by the Cimbri and in 107 BC annihilated a Roman army under Cassius [I 11] on the (?) Garumna (modern Garonne). In 58 BC the T. protected the Helvetii crossing the Arar and were attacked by Labienus [3]. Caesar ascribed this success to himself (Caes. Gall. 1,12) (Plut. Caesar 18,1; see also [2]), in order to be considered as the avenger of the clades Cassiana 'defeat of Cassius' (cf. [3]). It is possible that the place name Tigring (near Klagenfurt) can be traced to the T.; cf. also inscriptions [1]. Walser, …

Aventicum

(245 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Celts | Batavian Revolt Roman decreed capital of the  Helvetii in the west of their tribal area, on an ancient highway between Lake Geneva and Aare, modern Avenches. From about 12 BC until into the 2nd cent. AD, the settlement was developed into a Roman town. In AD 69, A. only narrowly escaped plunder by the army of Vitellius (Tac. Hist. 1,69). Emperor Vespasian, whose family had connections with A. (Suet. Vesp. 1,3), …

Helvetii

(822 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] Celtic tribe of people who settled in the area of modern Switzerland in the Roman Imperial period. Borders of the settlement area: to the north of Rhine, only between the mouth of the Aare and Stein am Rhein (so-called Tabular Jura between Basle and Brugg) is the region of the Raurici; to the west the Folded Jura between Basle and Geneva; to the south Lake Geneva without the area of the colonia Equestris (Nyon); in the east the border towards Raetia is on a line from the eastern bank of Lake Geneva to Pfyn-Frauenfeld. The H. were subdivided into triba…

Genava

(395 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | | Gallia/Gaul | Celts | Batavian Revolt Most northerly oppidum of the Celtic tribe of the  Allobroges in the hilly area between the embouchure of the Rhône, Arve and Lake Geneva, modern Geneva. The name, like Genoa, is Ligurian. Even in the pre-Roman period the place was significant from the point of view of traffic policy: harbour complex on the south side of the embouchure of the Rhône for navigation on the Rhône and Lake Geneva, wooden bridge …

Eburodunum

(110 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Walser, Gerold (Basle)
This item can be found on the following maps: Rome | Rome [German version] [1] Main town of the Caturiges Main town of the Caturiges. On a rocky plinth towering above the Durance, the pre-Roman oppidum and the Roman town occupied the place of today's urban development (Embrun). Important station on the road from southern Gaul to northern Italy. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography P.-A. Fevrier, Archéologie dans les Hautes-Alpes, 1991, 242-244. [German version] [2] Gallo-Roman vicus, today Yverdon-les-Bains Gallo-Roman vicus with a pre-Roman sulphur spring still in use toda…

Turicum

(113 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] The earliest traces of settlement on the Lindenhof moraine hill in Zurich are ascribed not to a Celtic population but rather to Roman occupation in Augustus [1 G]' Alpine war (in 15 BC). The Roman military post was expanded into a fort, around which a vicus developed. Information about the further growth of the settlement is given by inscriptions, the most important of which also reveals the name of the vicus: a burial inscription for the child of a Roman toll collector, praepositus stationis Turicensis (CIL XIII 5244). Walser, Gerold (Basle) Bibliography W. Drack, R. …

Latobrigi

(124 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] In 58 BC the Helvetii persuaded three smaller Celtic neighbouring tribes to participate in their tribal emigration: Rauraci, Tulingi and L. (Caes. B Gall. 1,5,4); only with regard to the first do we know (cf. the future Colonia Augusta [4] Raurica) the original dwelling site east of the bend of the Rhine at Basle. After the battle of Bibracte the L., like the others, were sent back by Caesar to their old homeland that is not described in greater detail. [1] considers the Helvetia…

Viviscus

(102 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] Pre-Roman Celtic road station on the Lacus Lemanus (modern Lake Geneva; Ptol. 2,12,5: Οὔικος/ Oúikos; It. Ant. 352,1; Tab. Peut. 3,2 f.; Geogr. Rav 4,26) on a route from the Summus Poeninus (modern Great Saint Bernard Pass) to Genava, modern Vevey (in the canton of Vaud). At V., a road branched off northwards through Minnodunum (modern Moudon) to Aventicum (modern Avenches). This crossroads was secured by a guardpost of beneficiarii (CIL XII 164). Walser, Gerold (Basle) Bibliography J.-P. Petit et al. (eds.), Atlas des agglomérations sécondaires de la Gaul…

Noviodunum

(998 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] [1] Capital of the Suessiones This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Oppidum Capital of the Suessiones, occupied by Caesar in 57 BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,12). N. can be identified with the oppidum of Pommiers (west of Soisson, De partement of Aisne). This was abandoned at the latest under Augustus, by about 50 BC a new one had come into being in the plain near Villeneuve-Saint-Germain [1; 2]. With the founding of the Gallo-Roman capital civitas of Augusta Suessionum in about 20 BC other settlement came to an end. Schön, Franz (Regens…

Rauraci, Raurici

(319 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] Celtic tribe, neighbours along with the Tulingi and Latobici of the Helvetii (Caes. B Gall. 1,5,4). The R. migrated westwards from their homeland in 58 BC with the Helvetii. As Munatius [I 4] Plancus founded the colony of Augusta [4] Raurica (modern Augst (CH)) in the territory of the R. in 44 BC, it must be assumed that they lived between the Upper Rhine and the southern foothills of the Jura. The remark in Caes. B Gall. 1,1,4, according to which the Germani and Helvetii shared a…

Lepontii

(199 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] A Celtic tribe in the Central Alps where, according to Caes. B Gall. 4,10,3, the source of the Rhine is located. Most consider this passage to be a late interpolation because knowledge of the Central Alps only came with Augustus' Alpine War (between 25 and 15 BC): inscription of La Turbie ([1. 80ff.]; later Str. 4,6,6; 8; Plin. HN 3,134; 136f.). Regarding mistaken descriptions of the course of the Rhine [2. 303, 440]. Many placenames in the Swiss cantons Ticino, the Grisons and Va…

Curia

(144 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Raeti, Raetia Pre-Roman station servicing the road connections from the Upper Rhine to the Alpine passes (Bernardino, Spluegen, Julier) that lead towards Italy, today known as Chur. The place was most likely a Roman vicus from the time of the Augustan Alpine campaign. Despite the important traffic location, the Romanization between Lake Constance and the Alps was weak [1. 67-72]. Archaeological finds: modest Roman finds in the ‘Welschdörfli’. In the 4th cent. AD building of the…

Ocelum

(181 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Celtic place name from Spain to Britain Celtic place name from Spain to Britain, such as the station on the Turin - Mont Genèvre pass (Alpes Cottiae), located by [1] near Chiusa di San Michele on the Dora Riparia (cf. [2]). In the spring of 58 BC, Caesar passed through O., as a border point of Gallia Cisalpina, with five legions (Caes. B. Gall. 1,10). On the alleged battles with the Ceutrones [2] cf. [3. 57]. Walser, Gerold (Basle) Bibliography 1 TIR Mediolanum, 1966 2 L. Banti, s.v. O., in: RE 17, 1766 3 G. Walser, Bellum Helveticum, 1998. [German version] [2] City of th…

Isarci

(54 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] Raetian tribe in the Eisack valley in South Tyrol, subjugated by Augustus in the Alpine War (25-14 BC). The name is in the inscription on the Tropaeum Alpium from La Turbie. Walser, Gerold (Basle) Bibliography E. Meyer, Die röm. Schweiz, 1940, 70f., 80f., pl. I Id., Tropaeum Alpium, RE Suppl. 11, 1269.
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