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Edessa

(672 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Syria | Christianity | Zenobia | | Coloniae | Commerce | Asia Minor | Limes | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Rome (Ἔδεσσα; Édessa). [German version] [1] City in central Macedonia This item can be found on the following maps: | Macedonia, Macedones City in central Macedonia at the eastern entrance to the Kara-Burun pass from Lower to Upper Macedonia, today known as Edessa, formerly as Vodena. In previous times, E. was wrongly regarded as the old Macedonian royal seat of  Aegae [1]. E. was first men…

Calchedon

(726 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Byzantium | Christianity | Diadochi and Epigoni | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Oracles | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Delian League (Καλχηδών; Kalchēdṓn, also Chalkedon; Lat. Calchedon, Calcedon, Chalcedon). [German version] I. Prehistory to Roman Period Prehistorical settlement area on the south-eastern entrance into the  Bosporus (map); in c. 685 BC, the harbour town was founded as a Megarian colony; modern Kadıköy. Its territory extended along the e…

Messana, Messene

(2,692 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] Town in northeastern Sicily This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Socii (Roman confederation) | | Commerce | Italy, languages | Colonization | Punic Wars | Punic Wars (Μεσσάνα/ Messána, Ionian Μεσσήνη/ Messḗnē, Lat. Messana). Town in northeastern Sicily, modern Messina. The original name Zancle (Ζάγκλη/ Zánklē = Siculan: ‘sickle’) is derived from the topographically suggestive shape of the natural harbour (Thuc. 6,4,5). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] A. Foundation The site was settled at an early time because of its o…

Beroea

(1,229 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
(Βέροια; Béroia). [German version] [1] In Macedonia This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture In Macedonia. Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) [German version] A. Hellenistic and Roman periods City in Macedonian  Bottice, east of the Bermium; now Verria. First mentioned in the 5th cent. BC (Thuc. 1,61,4), B. had its development, like many Macedonian cities, principally in the Hellenistic period; the Antigonids seem to have particularly favoured…

Euboea

(1,553 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
(Εὔβοια; Eúboia). [1] Greek island [German version] I. Location The largest Greek island other than Crete extends parallel to the eastern coast of central Greece (Locris, Boeotia and Attica). E. is about 160 km long, about 5.5 to 50 km wide and has an area of 3,580 km2. It is separated by a strait from the mainland which narrows at its centre to a 40-m wide channel, the  Euripus [1]. Since the 5th cent. BC several bridges linked E. at this point to the mainland. Because of its steep cliffs the east coast is almost inaccessible with Cyme a…

Nicopolis

(1,739 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νικόπολις; Nikópolis). [German version] [1] Town on the upper Nestus river This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia Town on the upper Nestus river on the road from Philippopolis to the Aegean coast (Ptol. 3,11,13: Ν. ἡ περὶ Νέσσον; 8,11,7; Hierocles, Synekdemos 636,5), near modern Goce Delčev (Bulgaria), founded in AD 106 by Traianus. From the 2nd to 4th cents. AD, N. reached a high economic and cultural level (minting from Commodus to Caracalla: HN 287; thermal baths, peristyle buildings, sculpt…

Mesambria/Mesembria

(837 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] [1] City on the west coast of the Black Sea This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Thraci, Thracia | Colonization | Apollo | Moesi, Moesia (Μεσ(σ)αμβρία, Μεσ(σ)ημβρία/ Me(s)sambría, Me(s)sembría). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] I. Location A city on the west coast of the Black Sea ( Pontos Euxeinos), situated at the northern entrance to the bay of Burgas, on a small rocky peninsula, 850 m long and 300 m wide, now known as Nesebâr (in modern Bulgaria). It is connected with …

Sinope

(550 words)

Author(s): Marek, Christian (Zürich) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Caesar | Christianity | Xenophon | | Coloniae | Diadochi and Epigoni | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Patricius | Education / Culture (Σινώπη/ Sinṓpē). [German version] I. Location, Early History City on the southern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) with an excellent harbour, present-day Sinop, founded in the 7th cent. BC on the eastern edge of the cape that reaches far into the sea (the northernmost cape of Anatoli…

Argolid

(641 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
(Argives; Ἀργολίς, Ἀργεῖοι; Argolís, Argeîoi). By modern common practice collective name for the north-eastern region of the  Peloponnese, consisting of the Argive plains and its fringes and the mountainous Argolic Acte. In ancient times, too, the term A. was used in the modern sense, parallel with the more common form of the ethnic Ἀργεῖα ( Argeîa), which was mostly exclusively restricted to the territory of  Argos (Plut. Ages. 31). In its landscape and climate, the entire region is part of the arid zone of eastern Greece (πολυδίψιον Ἄργος: Hom. Il…

Xystus

(510 words)

Author(s): Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] (presumed) bishop of Rome 117-125 (Ξύστος/ Xýstos). In sixth place (as successor to an Alexander) in his list of sources of the Apostolic tradition ( traditio apostolica) in Rome, Iren. Adversus haereses 3,3 mentions a X., who may therefore have been considered the most important member of the Christian community in Rome in the first half of the 2nd cent. This list was later understood as a list of bishops and X. was placed as Sixtus I with a period in office from 117 to 125. Petrus [1] D Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) Bibliography E. Caspar, Geschichte des Papsttums,…

Collectiones canonum

(213 words)

Author(s): Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
[German version] Collections of council decisions, later also papal letters of disciplinary content establishing normative standards (overview: [1]), which were quoted in lawsuits, councils and internal Church conflicts [3]. From the 4th cent. onwards, collectiones canonum [ c.c.] were created in various places, including a collectio of Greek council texts in Antioch, which in partially divergent translation exerted a decisive influence on the West [2]. Of the numerous Latin collectiones canonum of the 5th and 6th cents. from Africa, Gallia, Spain and Italy, the c…

Apollonia

(1,493 words)

Author(s): Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλωνία; Apollōnía). [German version] [1] City in southern  Illyricum This item can be found on the following maps: | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Delian League City in southern  Illyricum, in antiquity on the north bank of the Aous, c. 6 km from the sea, near modern Pojani (Albania). Founded by Corinthians at the beginning of the 6th cent. BC, with the participation of Corcyra (mythical oikist Gylax). Hdt. 9,93-95, Paus. 5,22,3 f. and inscriptions attest to the wealth of A. during the 5th cent. BC; …

Lebadea

(917 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones | Oracles | Boeotia, Boeotians (Λεβάδεια, Λεπάδεια; Lebádeia, Lepádeia). Boeotian city on the south-west end of a bay in a plain which spreads out towards the north-east to the western shore of the former Lake Copais and which encroaches on the northern side of the Helicon [1]. L. lay immediately at the exit of a narrow rock canyon from which the river Hercyna emerges, which is fed by additional rich springs, some of them warm, nea…

Nicomedia

(1,111 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Byzantium | Christianity | | Coloniae | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Limes | Natural catastrophes | Pergamum | Pompeius | Patricius | Rome | Rome (Νικομήδεια/ Nikomḗdeia, Latin Nicomedia). [German version] I. From the foundation to the death of Nicomedes IV Town at the northeast end of the gulf of Astacus or N., modern İzmit or Kocaeli. Founded and named by Nicomedes [2] I in 264/3 BC as the capital of the Bithynian kingdom (Memnon FGrH 434 F 12; Arr. FGr…

Hippolytus

(1,509 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
(Ἱππόλυτος; Hippólytos). [German version] [1] Son of Theseus and an Amazon Son of  Theseus and an Amazon ( Antiope [2] or  Hippolyte). His mythical-literary image was shaped essentially through the H. dramas by Sophocles ( Phaedra, lost) and esp. by Euripides, the lost earlier H. Kalyptómenos (‘The Veiled H.’) and the extant H. Stephanēphóros (‘The Garlanded H.’). The point of departure for both authors is his stepmother  Phaedra's love for H., which he rejects, whereupon Phaedra accuses him of sexually pursuing her. The enraged Theseus curses H.…

Ambracia

(566 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Acarnanians, Acarnania | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars (Ἀμβρακία; Ambrakía). South Epirote town in Thesprotia, originally about 80 stades upriver of the mouth of the Arachthus (navigable up to A.) into the Gulf of A. (Scyl. 33), the location of the modern Arta. The older form of its name, up to the 4th cent. BC, was Ἀμπρακία ( Amprakía; Hdt.; Thuc.; coins), derived from the castle of Ambrakos in the lagoons south of the town (Pol. 4,61,4 ff…

Arcadians, Arcadia

(879 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
(Ἀρκάδες, Ἀρκαδία; Arkádes, Arkadía). [German version] A. Geography Central inland mountainous region of the  Peloponnese with a mean height of 500 m above sea level. The borders of ancient A. are not identical with those of the modern nomos Arkadia with its chief place of Tripolis (founded in the 14th cent. AD, Turkish name: Tripolitsa). To the north, A. extended to the massifs of  Cyllene (Ziria, 2376 m), Oroania (Chelmos, 2355 m), and  Erymanthus (Olonos, 2224 m); in the south-west, the sanctuary of …

Anchiale

(384 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Ἀγχιάλη; Anchiálē). [German version] [1] Cretan nymph Cretan nymph, mother of the Idaan  Daktyloi Tities and Cyllenus (birth myth in Apoll. Rhod. 1,1129-31) and, as lover of Apollo, mother of Oaxes also, the founder of the Cretan city of Oaxus (Serv. ecl. 1,65). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] (Anchialos) City on the western coast of Pontus This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Christianity | Moesi, Moesia (Anchialus; Ἀγχίαλος; Anchíalos) City on the western coast of Pontus, present-day Pomorije, founded by and dependent on  Apollon…

Aulon

(252 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] Common designation for glens and gorges (αὐλών; aulṓn) Common designation for glens and gorges: 13 instances in [1], 17 in [2]. Ath. 5,189 documents for Attica several hieroi Aulones (‘sacred aulones’), but only that of Dionysus is known [3]. The south Attic Aulon, a small mining area, appears in several mining lease certificates and possibly lay in the territory of the deme  Phrearrhii [4]. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Pape/Benseler 1, 176 2 A. Milchhoefer, s.v. A., RE 2, 2413ff. 3 J. Jessen, s.v. Auloneus, RE 2, 2415 4 H. Lohmann, Atene, 1993, 53, …

Thebes

(6,143 words)

Author(s): Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Fell, Martin (Münster) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Klodt, Claudia (Hamburg) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Et al.
[German version] [1] City in the 4th upper Egyptian nome This item can be found on the following maps: Egypt | Commerce | Egypt The Egyptian Thebes, city in the 4th upper Egyptian nome. Quack, Joachim (Berlin) [German version] I. Names Actually Ws.t ('the strong'), from which derived, no later than the 17th dynasty, a female personification Ws.t nḫt.tj ('victorious Thebes'). Beginning with the Middle Kingdom ( c. 1990-1630 BC), often called simply njw.t, 'the city (par excellence)' - from which also the Hebrew form no (Ez 30:14 f.; Jer 46:25; Nahum 3:8) and Assyrian Ne [10. 260] -- o…
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