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Authority

(6,234 words)

Author(s): Carl, Horst
1. Terminology and scholarly approaches Authority is a central element of social order, a “force field around which social relationships and tensions fall into place” [22]. Authority is generally understood as an asymmetrical mutual social relationship in which a person, group, or organization can (temporarily) impose subordination on others and expect compliance. In the early modern period, the degree of generality was extended: authority was understood as an organizing principle of the entire cosmos. In 1735 J.H. Zed…
Date: 2019-10-14

Napoleonic Wars

(3,875 words)

Author(s): Carl, Horst
1. Introduction The term “Napoleonic Wars” denotes the warfare in Europe between 1798/99 or 1803, and 1815. The attribute “Napoleonic” emphasizes the central role of Napoleon Bonaparte, who placed his political and military mark on this period in European history. As Emperor of the French, he took responsibility for a far-reaching hegemonic policy of conquest across Europe, the successes and ultimate failure of which were military in origin. The term Napoleonic Wars is mainly used in the English and French-speaking worlds [8]; [23]; [10]; [22], and it distinguishes this pha…
Date: 2020-04-06

Contribution

(932 words)

Author(s): Carl, Horst
1. DefinitionThe concept of “contributions” (in German, Kontribution from Latin  contributio) and the practice of collecting taxes and extracting resources in the early modern period is focused in exemplary fashion on the context of war, the financing of war (War, financing of), and state-building. The etymological connection between contribution and the Latin term  tributum (Tribute) itself points to the traditional context of wartime “levies,” which during the wars of the early modern period, in particular the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648)…
Date: 2019-10-14

Representation

(7,070 words)

Author(s): Carl, Horst | Stollberg-Rilinger, Barbara | Hufeld, Ulrich
1. General discussion 1.1. ConceptIn its original conceptual content, the semantic field of the Latin verb and noun  repraesentare/ repraesentatio encompass various modes of making something present – whether as “signification,” “portrayal,” or “manifestation.” In the Middle Ages, the cultic presence of Christ’s saving act in the celebration of the liturgy was understood in the latter sense [4]; [7]. In the late Middle Ages and the first centuries of the early modern period, the meaning of  repraesentare in the sense of “substitute for something or someone” finally …
Date: 2021-08-02

Office

(10,095 words)

Author(s): Carl, Horst | Schmidt, Patrick | Troßbach, Werner | Synek, Eva | Walter, Peter
1. Introduction 1.1. Definition and backgroundEven today the term  office (German  Amt) still covers a broad semantic spectrum that preserves the manifold references and contexts of premodern administrative activity (Government). It extends from the exercise of a specific function through the designation of a territorial administrative district to a local authority or even a building in which lower-ranking administrative bodies are housed. As a result of developments at the beginning of the early modern period, this semantic richness can be documented, for example, in the  Deu…
Date: 2020-10-06

Occupation

(2,972 words)

Author(s): Carl, Horst
1. DefinitionIn Roman law, occupation (Latin  occupatio) denotes seizure as a form of acquisition of property. In the early modern period, the term was modified by the adjective  bellica, which pointed to war as the legal basis for such acquisition, thus transferring it to the sphere of public law. It was in common use in the context of the law of war (War, law of), government law, and international law. The endpoint was reached with the concept of occupation in modern international law, which views military occupation ( occupatio bellica) of a territory as existing when the actua…
Date: 2020-10-06

King's peace

(2,987 words)

Author(s): Carl, Horst
1. DefinitionFrom the Middle Ages on, the term  king’s peace meant a blueprint for peace based on renunciation of the use of force – geographically defined, and originally usually limited to a specific period of time [17]. Peace was essentially to be achieved and maintained by making legal regulations and appropriate courts of law or arbitral authorities mandatory in the enforcement of particular legal claims or to punish wrongdoings instead of taking the law into one’s own hands (“law of the strongest”). In the narrower sense, the  king’s peace also means the framework of le…
Date: 2019-10-14

Brandschatzung

(854 words)

Author(s): Carl, Horst
Brandschatzung is a contribution paid to the enemy to prevent his destroying a village or town by fire”—so reads Zedler’s Großes Lexikon, defining the relationship between warfare and extortion that was characteristic of European warfare in the late Middle Ages and early modern period. The German word, which graphically combines the threat (fire) and the purpose (money) [2], has no equivalent in English or French, but this method of extorting money was common practice in European war zones during the first part of the early modern period [5]. In the 17th century, the term inc…
Date: 2019-10-14

Council of state

(1,599 words)

Author(s): Carl, Horst
1. Definition and development Council of state denotes a supreme central governmental council that was becoming established in European states in the early modern period. A common feature of such councils was their collegial structure, whereas there was a broad spectrum of difference in regard to their competencies and degrees of separation from other council committees (e.g. the Privy council). All councils of state, however, functioned as the supreme advisory council to the r…
Date: 2019-10-14