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African religion

(3,635 words)

Author(s): Rüther, Kirsten
1. Term, meaning, scope for research African Religion is a term used in recent scholarly literature to describe the common features of a plethora of religious practices in African societies as manifest in shrines and healing movements, divination practices and ancestor and cult figures. Largely uninfluenced in its constituent elements by the world religions as African religion may be, its description and analysis are closely linked to their narrative, and they form a stifling category or ba…
Date: 2019-10-14


(1,439 words)

Author(s): Rüther, Kirsten
1. Definition and political background The history of the Antonians in the Kingdom of Kongo, whose name goes back to St. Antony, is documented in the archives of the Italian Capuchins. The methods of oral history have also made it possible to reconstruct other aspects of the Antonians and their historical milieu. The secondary literature occasionally reduces the movement to the followers of the prophetess Kimpa Vita, whom some see as a heretic, others as a hero of resistance against European invaders…
Date: 2019-10-14

Christianity, global

(1,403 words)

Author(s): Rüther, Kirsten
1. Introduction Modern-period Christianity is generally understood to be a Christianity centered on Europe, and marked in theological as well as institutional terms by historical developments in Europe. Orthodoxy (Orthodox churches) has frequently been characterized as the third Christian confession alongside Catholicism and Protestantism. One consequence has certainly been that, within Europe, attention has been given to the interaction between the confessions mentioned, and that a his…
Date: 2019-10-14


(3,380 words)

Author(s): Noack, Karoline | Rüther, Kirsten | ter Haar, Barend J.
1. Concept and historical contextThe Christian term millenarianism is etymologically derived from “millennium” (Latin:  millen(n)ium) – also known as chiliasm (from the Greek  chília, “thousand”), though its roots are within ancient Judaism. It covers a broad spectrum of expectations of salvation taking place in this world rather than in the heavenly afterlife [2]. The idea of a thousand-year interim kingdom unstained by evil, as developed in the Gospel of John, was anticipated by various prophecies in the Hebrew Scriptures (e.g. Isa 24-27, 65…
Date: 2020-04-06


(839 words)

Author(s): Rüther, Kirsten
In the context of the global religious interaction of the early modern period, and in relation to the narratives of the gods of the other peoples and societies that Europeans and especially the missionaries working in the name of Christianization depicted and created, those gods were essentially subjected to demonization. In this process, the gods, spirits, and ancestors of non-European cultures were assigned to the categories “good” or “evil” and, in the case of the latter, defined almost exclu…
Date: 2019-10-14


(7,822 words)

Author(s): Laube, Martin | Reichmuth, Stefan | Kummels, Ingrid | Rüther, Kirsten
1. Christianity 1.1. Preliminary noteOne of the unique aspects of Christianity is that from the very outset it developed a theology, and in order to explicate its own faith made use of the conceptual tools of contemporary (i.e. Greek and Roman) philosophy. This interweaving of theological and philosophical thought was constantly reflected quintessentially in the doctrine of God. A series of fundamental tensions pervaded the development of the idea of God even in the early modern period. These includ…
Date: 2019-10-14

Settler colony

(6,012 words)

Author(s): Rüther, Kirsten | Rinke, Stefan | Stange, Marion | Wendt, Reinhard | Nolte, Hans-Heinrich
1. Introduction Colony (from the Latin  colere, “to cultivate”, “to till”) originally meant a human “plantation” or “offshoot” of the original society, and hence essentially a settlement. The word became more closely associated with foreign rule in the 19th century [5. 47 f.] (Colonialism). Since then, “settler colony” has become a sub-category of colony (alongside, for instance, “colony of control” and “trading colony” [8. 16–18]), particularly associated with aspects of inequality, difference, and gradients of authority. Until the 19th century and long…
Date: 2021-08-02


(5,651 words)

Author(s): Rüther, Kirsten
1. Definition and placementThe concept of Christianization correlates closely with terms that describe the implementation of the Christian religion and ways of life along with the conversion of societies and individuals to Christianity; they include those religious traditions that historically emerged from these interactions. Mission, Christianity, and conversion are therefore topics closely related to the concept of Christianization, which intertwine in the context of global interaction. Nowhere d…
Date: 2019-10-14

Mission school

(1,085 words)

Author(s): Rüther, Kirsten
1. Research trends Especially for the period after 1850, mission schools have been studied by historians. In Protestant schools, literacy was emphasized as the basis for reading the Bible and thus the most important precondition for conversion and leading a Christian life. General discipline and social control were also emphasized, which ruling groups of both colonial and indigenous provenance used for their own purposes. The establishment of mission schools assumed that the purpose of m…
Date: 2020-04-06

Religious interaction, global

(7,827 words)

Author(s): Rüther, Kirsten
1. Descriptive category 1.1. IntroductionReligious interaction in the early modern period cannot be described in global terms or using concrete global comparisons. Rather, it is a descriptive category that is based on a view rooted in empiricism. It makes it possible to understand religious aspects of exchange processes, interactions, and power-driven shifts that took place in the context of global interaction in multi-perspectival and interrelating ways, and to study the problems this reveals. Acco…
Date: 2021-08-02


(7,623 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Huber, Friedrich | Rinke, Stefan | Rüther, Kirsten
1. IntroductionMission (Neolatin  missio, “[act of sending]”; “dispatch”) denotes what was originally an exclusively Christian phenomenon: the active propagation of a religion, Christianity, by annunciation and sacramental incorporation into the church. A distinction is drawn between this “outer mission” ( missio externa) and the “inner mission” ( missio interna) that aims to recruit or recover to the faith people in already Christian countries.The literate religions that existed before and alongside Christianity did spread through migration, like Judaism…
Date: 2020-04-06

Health culture, global

(6,931 words)

Author(s): Rüther, Kirsten | Holler, Ursula | Deacon, Harriet | | Kummels, Ingrid | Et al.
1. Introduction It is not unusual in the contextualization of the global history of health-related practices and health cultures to bring in themes such as quarantine, epidemic, ecological imperialism and hence the Demographic Catastrophe and Columbian Exchange [2]; [3]. Yet the concept of health cultures, particularly in the context of global interaction, also allows us to shed light on the wide-ranging and variously-accented mechanisms of exchange and negotiation, because it includes all modes of action and thought related to …
Date: 2019-10-14

Colonial wars

(5,028 words)

Author(s): Rüther, Kirsten | Rinke, Stefan | Ahuja, Ravi
1. Introduction Colonial wars belong to the context of European expansionism. They include a variety of typical manifestations of physical violence against those colonized and being colonized, which might serve to maintain authority or to establish colonial rule (Colonialism). Colonial wars are to be distinguished from forms of settler violence independent of state action. They become more clearly definable, however, in the 19th century. It was at this late date that they tended to purs…
Date: 2019-10-14

Religiöse Interaktion, globale

(7,265 words)

Author(s): Rüther, Kirsten
1. Deskriptive Kategorie 1.1. GrundlagenDie R. I. ist für die Epoche der Nz. nicht weltumfassend oder mit konkreten globalen Vergleichen darstellbar. Vielmehr basiert diese deskriptive Kategorie auf einem empiriegestützten Blick; sie ermöglicht es, relig. Aspekte von Austauschprozessen, Wechselwirkungen und machtgeleiteten Verschiebungen im Kontext der globalen Interaktion multiperspektivisch und aufeinander bezogen zu erfassen und zu problematisieren. Dementsprechend gelten hier nzl. Religionen unter dem Blickwinkel der R. I. weder als fest abgrenzbar…
Date: 2019-11-19


(2,793 words)

Author(s): Rinke, Stefan | Rüther, Kirsten | Mann, Michael | Wendt, Reinhard
1. Einleitung Die vom 15. bis ins 19. Jh. aus unterschiedlichen Motiven unternommenen europ. E. sind ein prägendes Charakteristikum der Geschichte der Neuzeit. In einer traditionellen Geschichtsschreibung wurden sie als Schlüsselelement der europ. Expansion bzw. als Beginn der »Europäisierung der Erde« verstanden. Häufig diente und dient die Entdeckung Amerikas (1492), einer für die Europäer Neuen Welt, als Epochen-Scheide, die das »Zeitalter der großen Entdeckungen« vom MA trennt. Die Entdecker konnten aus dieser Perspektive als wahre Rena…
Date: 2019-11-19

Heilkulturen, globale

(6,365 words)

Author(s): Rüther, Kirsten | Holler, Ursula | Deacon, Harriet | Kummels, Ingrid | Sehrawat, Samiksha
1. EinleitungWenn es darum geht, die Geschichte von Heilpraktiken und H. global zu kontextualisieren, ist es nicht ungewöhnlich, Themen wie Quarantäne, Epidemien, ökologischen Imperialismus und damit auch die demographische Katastrophe oder den Columbian Exchange zu assoziieren [2]; [3]. Darüber hinaus erschließt das Konzept der H. aber gerade im Kontext globaler Interaktion den Zugriff auf weitreichende und unterschiedlich akzentuierte Mechanismen des Austausches und des Aushandelns, umfasst es doch sämtliche Handlungen und Denkweisen in Bezug auf Krankheit und Gesundh…
Date: 2019-11-19


(770 words)

Author(s): Rüther, Kirsten
Im Kontext der global stattfindenden religiösen Interaktionen der Nz. kam es in Bezug auf die Gottesnarrative anderer Völker und Gesellschaften, die Europäer und bes. die im Namen der Christianisierung aktiven Missionare abbildeten und schufen, grundsätzlich zur D. anderer Götter. In diesem Prozess wurden Götter, Geistwesen und Ahnen außereurop. Gesellschaften den Kategorien »gut« oder »böse« zugeteilt und im Falle der Kategorie »böse« fast ausschließlich als »Dämonen« definiert – ein Thema, das gerade in der Frühen Nz. vo…
Date: 2019-11-19


(10,459 words)

Author(s): Laube, Martin | Reichmuth, Stefan | Krochmalnik, Daniel | Kummels, Ingrid | Rüther, Kirsten
1. Christentum 1.1. VorbemerkungZur Eigenart des Christentums gehört, dass es von Anbeginn eine Theologie ausbildete und sich zur Auslegung des eigenen Glaubens der begrifflichen Mittel der zeitgenössischen, d. h. zunächst der griech. und röm. Philosophie bediente. In der G.-Lehre fand diese Verschränkung von theologischem und philosophischem Denken stets ihren exemplarischen Niederschlag. Dabei durchzog eine Reihe von Grundspannungen die ideengeschichtliche Entwicklung auch noch der Nz. Hierzu zählten (1) die Frage…
Date: 2021-06-18


(3,149 words)

Author(s): Noack, Karoline | Rüther, Kirsten | ter Haar, Barend J.
1. Begriff und historischer KontextDer jüd.-christl. Begriff M. geht etymologisch auf das Tausendjahr ( millen(n)ium) – auch Chiliasmus (von griech. chília, »tausend«) genannt – zurück. Er bezeichnet ein breites Spektrum an Heilserwartungen, die in der diesseitigen Welt anstatt im himmlischen Jenseits ihre Vollendung finden [2]. Der Idee von einem tausendjährigen Zwischenreich ohne Herrschaft des Bösen, wie sie in der Offenbarung des Johannes entwickelt wird, gingen at. Prophezeiungen voraus (z. B. Jes 24–27, 65; Dan 7–12; Hes 37–48). Versproc…
Date: 2019-11-19


(1,344 words)

Author(s): Rüther, Kirsten
1. Definition und politische AusgangslageDie Geschichte der A. im Königreich Kongo, deren Name auf den Hl. Antonius zurückgeht, ist in den Archiven ital. Kapuziner dokumentiert. Über die Methoden der oral history konnten weitere Aspekte der A. und ihres historischen Umfeldes rekonstruiert werden. In der Sekundärliteratur wird die Bewegung gelegentlich auf die Prophetin Kimpa Vita reduziert, die den einen als Ketzerin, den anderen als Heldin des Widerstands gegen die europ. Eindringlinge und wieder anderen als Vorläuferin einer spezifisch afrikan. geprägten ch…
Date: 2019-11-19
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