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(10,095 words)

Author(s): Carl, Horst | Schmidt, Patrick | Troßbach, Werner | Synek, Eva | Walter, Peter
1. Introduction 1.1. Definition and backgroundEven today the term  office (German  Amt) still covers a broad semantic spectrum that preserves the manifold references and contexts of premodern administrative activity (Government). It extends from the exercise of a specific function through the designation of a territorial administrative district to a local authority or even a building in which lower-ranking administrative bodies are housed. As a result of developments at the beginning of the early modern period, this semantic richness can be documented, for example, in the  Deu…
Date: 2020-10-06

Church and state

(4,982 words)

Author(s): Unterburger, Klaus | Sparn, Walter | Schneider, Bernd Christian | Synek, Eva
1. Introduction The reciprocal but never symmetrical relationship between Church andState in early modern Europe was the result of a historical development that in some respects remained indebted to the political ethics of the New Testament (Rom 13; Rv 13), while in other respects confronting profound changes in both ecclesiastical and secular political institutions, specifically the emergence of the early modern territorial and nation state. At first, the underlying assumption was that the European states were…
Date: 2019-10-14

Ecclesiastical law

(5,792 words)

Author(s): Weitzel, Jürgen | Klippel, Diethelm | Synek, Eva
1. Foundations of Catholic and Protestant ecclesiastical lawThe ecclesiastical law of the early modern period is characterized by the loss of the religious unity that shaped the Middle Ages. In a revolutionary departure [2. 503] following the Lutheran Reformation in 1517, alongside the law of the Roman Catholic Church, summarized in the  Corpus Iuris Canonici, there now stood a different basic understanding of the role of law in the church. The recognition of Protestant teaching as having equal rights (in the 1555 Peace of Augsburg, 1555) and the extension of this status to the Reformed (Calvinism) by the 1648 Peace of Westphalia ensured the development of a highly diverse Protestant ecclesiastical law, homogeneous only in its basic principles. The Reformation and Catholic Reformation (in full swing after 1570), the confessionally committed state tending toward absolutism, state churches, the Enlightenment, and the legal secularization of church property, along with the debate over the consequences of the French Revolution (1789), a debate that lasted until the mid-19th century – all these constitute the setting for the new developments in …
Date: 2019-10-14


(9,112 words)

Author(s): Carl, Horst | Schmidt, Patrick | Troßbach, Werner | Walter, Peter | Synek, Eva
1. Einleitung 1.1. Begriff und GrundlagenDen dt. Begriff A. zeichnet bis heute ein weites Bedeutungsspektrum aus, das die vielfältigen Bezüge und Kontexte vormodernen Verwaltungshandelns bewahrt (Verwaltung
Date: 2019-11-19


(5,167 words)

Author(s): Weitzel, Jürgen | Klippel, Diethelm | Synek, Eva
1. Grundlagen des katholischen und protestantischen Kirchenrechts Das K. der Nz. wird durch den Verlust der das MA prägenden Glaubenseinheit charakterisiert. Neben das im Corpus Iuris Canonici zusammengefasste Recht der röm.-kath. Kirche trat mit der lutherischen Reformation seit 1517 in einem revolutionären Bruch […
Date: 2019-11-19

Kirche und Staat

(4,396 words)

Author(s): Unterburger, Klaus | Sparn, Walter | Schneider, Bernd Christian | Synek, Eva
1. EinleitungDas wechselseitige, aber nie symmetrische Gegenüber von K.u.S. im nzl. Europa ist das Ergebnis einer histor. Entwicklung, die einerseits an der politischen Ethik des NT (Röm 13; Offb 13) orientiert blieb, die aber andererseits tiefgreifende Veränderungen sowohl der kirchlichen als auch der staatlichen Institutionen, nämlich die Entstehung der nzl. Territorial- und Nationalstaaten, zu bewältigen hatte. Anfänglich war die Vorstellung leitend, dass die europ. Staaten in der Nachfolge des Röm. Reiches stünden, in dem das Christentum Staatsreligion geworden w…
Date: 2019-11-19