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Figured bass period

(771 words)

Author(s): Waczkat, Andreas
Since the early 20th century, the historiography of music (Music, historiography of) has faced the same challenges as other cultural histories. Disciplines aimed at characterization of an historical style reflect on the abstract common distinguishing features of a canon of unknown works considered crucial for a specific epoch. Wilhelm Dilthey's Einleitung in die Geisteswissenschaften (Leipzig 1883, “Introduction to the Humanities”) presented a strong stance on this: he declared concentration on musical texts the only basis for historiography of…
Date: 2019-10-14

Notation, musical

(1,559 words)

Author(s): Waczkat, Andreas
1. Concept and functionThe word “notation” derives from the Latin verb  notare (“to mark,” “to designate”). Music is marked down and recorded in writing using notation. Some characteristics of notation, such as the numbering in figured bass, also tend towards shorthand, also fulfilling this aspect of notare in musical notation. Notation is accomplished, formally speaking, by the use of particular notation symbols. The principle of recording music in written form is also called notation. Apart from special cases (e.g. graphic notation in e…
Date: 2020-04-06

Galant style

(715 words)

Author(s): Waczkat, Andreas
Historiographers of music (Music, historiography of) use the term  galant style to describe compositions from the transitional period between Baroque and Classical (Classics, European). It is characterized by its rejection of the academic Baroque style with its strict contrapuntal forms (Counterpoint), exemplified by Christian Friedrich Hunold’s statement that contrivance spoils all galantry [1. 157]. An outward characteristic is a graceful and elegant facility, which establishes a relationship between the galant style and Rococo (1720–1780). …
Date: 2019-10-14


(2,320 words)

Author(s): Waczkat, Andreas
1. Term and genre in the early 17th century The concept of the cantata (Italian cantata or cantada, from Latin/Italian cantare, ‘to sing’), unlike that of the madrigal, for instance, is poetologically vague and permits no valid generic criteria to be proposed. In the early 17th century, the term cantata appeared in imitation of the word sonata, and at first it referred to Italian vocal compositions (Vocal music), the common musical features of which extend no further than their setting texts for between one and three solo voices with a figured bass accompaniment.The first attestation …
Date: 2019-10-14


(2,996 words)

Author(s): Breul, Wolfgang | Waczkat, Andreas | Schneider, Johann
1. Protestant churches 1.1. TerminologyThe term Pietism, from Latin  pietas (piety), came into use after the so-called Leipzig movement spearheaded by August Hermann Francke (1689/1690); it denoted the most significant religious reform movement within continental Protestantism after the Reformation. Adopting primarily pre-Reformation and radical 16th- and 17th-century ideas (Anabaptists; Spiritualism [Protestantism]), Pietism aimed to complement the reformation of doctrine with a “reformation of life.”Despite confessional, regional, and individual variati…
Date: 2020-10-06