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Ostrog

(151 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[English Version] Ostrog, 250 km nordöstlich von Lemberg (Ukraine) gelegener Sitz der ruthenischen Udel-Fürsten von O.; seit der Mitte des 14.Jh. konsequent zu einer Verteidigungsfestung gegen Einfälle der Tataren ausgebaut. Mit dem Aufstieg der Fürsten von O. in die Magnatenschicht der polnisch-litauischen Adelsrepublik gewann O. bes. Bedeutung als polit. und kulturelles Zentrum zur Verteidigung der ruthenischen Interessen und Stärkung der Position der Ostkirche im Prozeß der Konfessionalisierung…

Weißrußland

(777 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[English Version] . Der seit 1991 unabhängige Staat W. (weißruss. Belarus') hat die Grenzen der BSSR (s.u.) von 1945 beibehalten. Für das Siedlungsgebiet ostslaw. Stämme zw. dem oberen Neman und dem mittleren Dnepr' erscheint im 17.Jh. Belarussia (lat. Alba Russia) als offizielle Landesbez.: Rus' weist auf die Einbindung der Region in die Kiever Rus' des MA (Kiev, Rußland) während bela (»weiß«) trotz vielfacher Deutungsversuche ungeklärt bleibt. Kurz nach der Taufe der Rus' (988) wurde die Eparchie von Polock gegründet. Parallel mit dem Ausbau der Eparchialstr…

Simeon Polockij

(244 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[English Version] (Samuil Emelianovič Petrovskij-Sintianovič; 1629 wahrscheinlich Polock – 1680 Moskau), wirkte als Theologe, Pädagoge, Dichter und Dramatiker in Moskau, wo er großen kulturpolit. Einfluß in einer Zeit gewann, als Schulbildung und Wissensvermittlung durch die enger werdenden Beziehungen zur westlichen Welt existentielle Bedeutung erlangten. Seine Studien schloß S.1651 im Kiever Mogila-Kolleg (Kiev: II.) ab und begann nach Studien an jesuitischen Kollegien im Ausland seine Lehrtätig…

Ol'ga,

(162 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[English Version] Großfürstin der Rus' (skandinavisch Helga, nach ihrer Taufe Helena; um 890–969 Kiev; Gedenktag: 11.7.), übernahm als Fürstin von Pskov aus dem Herrscherhaus der Rjurikiden nach der Ermordung ihres Mannes, des Großfürsten Igor, 945 die Regentschaft im Kiewer Reich. Durch die Schaffung von Steuerbezirken trug sie wesentlich zum Ausbau territorialer Herrschaft bei, die zugleich durch die zunehmende Christianisierung der Ostslawen gefördert wurde. O. selbst empfing die Taufe 955 oder…

Rahoza

(151 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[English Version] Rahoza, Michail (ca.1540?–1599 Kiev [?]), Metropolit von Kiev und Halič, in dessen Amtszeit die Union mit Rom angenommen wurde. Dem ruthenischen Kleinadel entstammend, erscheint R. 1579 als Archimandrit des Himmelsfahrtsklosters in Minsk. An seine Ernennung 1589 knüpfte Patriarch Jeremias II. von Konstantinopel die Hoffnung auf Erneuerung der Kirchenprovinz Kiev. Auf Synoden in Brest 1590 und 1594 bemühte R. sich um Reformen innerhalb der Kirche, beurteilte aber das wachsende Inte…

Pociej

(164 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[English Version] Pociej, Ipatij (Hypatius, vor der Mönchsweihe Adam; 12.8.1581 Rozˇanka, Großfürstentum Litauen – 18.7.1613 Wilna), gilt als der gebildetste ruthenische Kirchenfürst in der Epoche der Konfessionalisierung. Nach dem Besuch der calvinistischen Schule des Fürsten Nikolaus Radziwiłł (des Schwarzen) verließ er die Ostkirche, kehrte jedoch 1574 in sie zurück. Bis zu seiner Mönchsweihe und der Ernennung durch Sigismund III. zum Bischof von Wladimir in Wolhynien (1593) war er Senator und b…

Tichon

(276 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[English Version] von Zadonsk (1724 Korock, Gouvernement Novgorod – 13.8.1783 Zadonsk), einer der bedeutendsten Hierarchen des 18.Jh. in Rußland, wurde als Sohn eines Kirchendieners geboren und auf den Namen Timofej getauft. Er besuchte das Geistl. Seminar am Bischofshof in Novgorod, als dessen Präfekt er nach der Mönchsweihe 1758 mit Namen T. wirkte. 1759 wurde T. als Prof. für Theol. an das Geistl. Seminar von Tver' berufen, dem er bald als Rektor vorstand. 1761 zum »Bf. von Keksholm und Ladoga« …

Rutsky, Josef

(292 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (1574, Ruta, near Vilnius – 1637, Ruta), third metropolitan of the Uniate church (since 1596; Unions with Rome) of the Kiev (II) metropolitanate. His career in the church reflected the situation in the nobles’ republic in the age of confessionalization. After attending the Calvinist school in Vilnius, Rutsky studied at the universities of Cracow, Prague, and Würzburg and at the Greek College in Rome. Pope Clement VIII (1592–1605) won him to the side of the Eastern Rite. In 1606 he…

Skovoroda, Hryhory

(261 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (1722, Chornukhy, Poltava Oblast – 1794, Ivanivka, near Kharkiv), is considered the most important poet and mystic of the Ukrainian Baroque. From 1734 to 1753 (with interruptions) he studied at the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy in Kiev (II). From 1745 to 1750 he pursued his interests in the Stoics, Plato, and Pietism in Europe. In his epistemology, he combined patristic influences with the Plato renaissance of his period. Between 1753 and 1769, he held various teaching positions: initially …

Mohilev

(186 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] After the Union of Brest in 1596, Orthodox laity, supported by the church brotherhoods, opposed a union with Rome (Unions with Rome) and called for the restoration of the Eastern church hierarchy. The election of Vladislav IV (1632–1648) enabled the Orthodox nobility to obtain the decree for the “Establishment of peace for the Russian people of ¶ Greek religion in the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Latvia,” and in 1632 achieved the foundation of the Mohilev archbishopric for the Eastern church in the Grand Duchy, within whose …

Rohoza, Mykhailo

(182 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (Mikhail Ragoza; c. 1540? – 1599, Kiev?), metropolitan of Kiev and Halič. In Rohoza’s period in office, union with Rome (Unions with Rome) was agreed. He came from the lesser Ruthenian nobility, and appears in 1579 as archimandrite of the Monastery of the Ascension in Minsk. On his appointment in 1589, Patriarch Jeremiah II of Constantinople had high hopes for the renewal of the church province of Kiev. At synods in Brest in 1590 and 1594 Rohoza worked for reforms within the churc…

Ostrog

(167 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (250 km northeast of Lviv [Lemberg], Ukraine), chosen seat of the Ruthenian Udel princes of Ostrog; from the mid-14th century steadily built up as a defensive fortress against Tartar attack. With the rise of the princes of Ostrog to the highest rank of the Polish-Lithuanian aristocratic republic, Ostrog gained particular importance as a political and cultural center for the defence of Ruthenian interests, and the strengthening of the position of the Eastern Church in the process o…

Ukraine

(2,557 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] I. Term The term “Ukraine” with the meaning of “borderland” appears in the chronicles of the 12th and 13th centuries as a designation of the border areas lying between the sedentary and the nomadic civilization of the Kievan Rus. From the 16th century onward, Polish sources refer to the middle reach of the Dnieper River as the Ukraine. In the 17th century, the term was used to designate the domain of the Dnieper Cossacks. The territory that has been defined as the Ukraine since Worl…

Poty, Ipaty

(171 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (Hypatius, secular name Adam; Aug 12, 1581, Rozhanka, Grand Duchy of Lithuania – Jul 18, 1613, Vilnius) is considered the most learned Ruthenian church dignitary in the era of confessionalization. After attending the Calvinistic school of Prince Nicholas Radziwiłł (“the Black”), he left the Orthodox Church but returned to it in 1574. Before he became a monk and was appointed bishop of Volodymyr-Volynskyi (1593) by Sigismund III, he served as a senator and held the office of castel…

Constantine of Ostrog

(170 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (1524/1525 – Feb 13/23, 1608 Ostrog, Volhynia [Ukraine]), voivode of Kiev and marshal of Volhynia, played an important role in the public life of Poland-Lithuania in the age of confessionalization. He was concerned at times with reaching an agreement with representatives of the Reformation, as well as an understanding with Rome. He rejected the union of an Eastern Orthodox state church with Rome without the participation of all patriarchs of the East, a…

Balaban, Gedeon

(116 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (1530?–1607), Orthodox bishop of Lemberg (Ukrainian L'viv) from 1569. He opposed the introduction of the Gregorian calendar (1582). In 1590, he participated in unification negotiations (Unions, Church) with the Roman Catholic Church, but remained opposed to union following the conclusion of the Union of Brest in 156…

Przemysl

(178 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] Przemysl, on the River San on the Polish-Russian border, originally a staging place on the trade route from Regensburg to Kiev. In 1078 it became part of the principality of Halich. After Christianization, there is evidence of both Latin and Byzantine-Slavic congregations. The first mention of an Orthodox bishopric in Przemysl in a chronicle dates from 1220. After Przemysl was incorporated into the kingdom of Poland in 1344, a Latin bishopric was established in 1387. During the pr…

Mohilever, Samuel

(158 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (Apr 15, 1824, Glubokoye near Vilnius – Jun 9, 1898, Bialystok), scholar and rabbi. Even before the notorious Russian pogroms of 1881, he called for the return of the Jews to Palestine on the basis of an active settlement effort in the spirit of the Torah. With great organizational and propagandistic dedication, he set about reconciling the secular and orthodox elements within the emerging Chibbat Zion (Heb. “Love of Zion”), the Russian forerunner of the Zionist Organization (Zion…

Olga (Saint)

(184 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (in Scandinavian: Helga; after her baptism: Helena; c. 890–969, Kiev; feast day Jul 11), grand duchess of Kievan Rus. As duchess of Pskov from the Rjurikid dynasty, she became regent in Kievan Rus in 945, after the murder of her husband, Grand Duke Igor. Through the formation of tax districts she made a significant contribution to the strengthening of territorial power, which was also furthered by the increasing Chris-¶ tianization of the eastern Slavs. Olga herself received baptism in 955 or 957. Negotiations conducted in Constantinople in connect…

Bukharev, Aleksandr

(184 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (1824–1871), one of the most prominent Orthodox theologians during the reform era of Tsar Alexander II, became a monk (religious name: Feodor) in 1846 and taught as professor of Bible and dogmatics at the Theological Academies of Moscow and Kazan. In 1848, he attracted public attention with his Three Letters to N.V. Gogol (N. Gogol), supporting the latter's embrace of the Orthodox tradition. In 1860, there appeared his controversial On Orthodoxy and its Relationship with the Contemporary World. His effort in this work was to bridge …
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