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Heracles

(3,370 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Ley, Anne (Xanten) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Ἡρακλῆς; Hēraklês). [German version] [1] Greek hero The most prominent Greek hero ( Hero cult) in myth and cult. In his myths, which have not resulted in any outstanding work of poetry that is focussed on him, he is connected especially to Thebes, Argos and the countryside around Trachis; in the cult he is honoured almost panhellenically, without any place being able to display a hero's grave. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) I. Cult and Myth [German version] A. Name His name was connected with  Hera's already in antiquity: it follows the customary formation of Greek anthropo…

Memnon

(1,680 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μέμνων; Mémnon). [German version] [1] Mythical King of the Ethiopians Mythical King of the Ethiopians, son of Tithonus and Eos, brother of Emathion (Hes. Theog. 984-5). His entry into Troy as an ally of the Trojans after the death of Penthesilea, his successful single combat with Antilochus, his death at the hands of Achilles and the immortality conferred upon him by Zeus at the behest of Eos were, as the summary of Proclus (Chrestomathia 172) shows, depicted in the lost Cyclic epic Aithiopís . Hom. Od. 4,187-8 and Pind. P. 6,28-39 also refer to his single combat with Antiloc…

Meno

(805 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μένων; Ménōn). [German version] [1] Recipient of Athenian citizenship according to Demosthenes For his support for the Athenians in their attack on Eion [1] on the Strymon, M. of Pharsalus was, according to Demosthenes (Or. 13,23), awarded atéleia or (Or. 23,199) Athenian citizenship [1. 20-23]. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Military official under Cyrus the younger, ca. 400 BC M. of Pharsalus, was, like his ancestors, closely connected to the Thessalian dynasty of the Aleuadai (M. was the erṓmenos, ‘beloved’, of Aristippus) and bound by paternal hosp…

Hagnon

(282 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
(Ἅγνων; Hágnōn). [German version] [1] Strategos in Athens, 5th cent. BC Father of Theramenes [1. 191], in 440 BC stratēgós in the war of Athens against rebellious Samos (Thuc. 1,117,2). H. founded Amphipolis in 437/6 (Thuc. 4,102,3; 5,11,1). At the beginning of the Peloponnesian War he held the office of strategos again in 431/0 and 429/8 (Thuc. 2,58,1; 6,31,2; 2,95,3 [2. 117, 121]). According to Plutarch (Pericles 32) he was one of the opponents of  Pericles. In April 421 he signed, among other things, the peace treaty (Peace of Nicias) betwe…

Dionysodoros

(520 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Folkerts, Menso (München) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Διονυσόδωρος). [English version] [1] Taxiarch des Theramenes um 400 v. Chr. Taxiarch des Theramenes, wurde von Agoratos an die Dreißig verraten (Lys. or. 13,30; 39-42). Diesen verklagte 399/98 v.Chr. der Bruder und Schwager des D., Dionysios, der Sprecher der 13. Rede des Lysias. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [English version] [2] Thebaner und olympischer Sieger, Gesandter und Teilnehmer an Schlacht von Issos Thebaner und olympischer Sieger. Als Gesandter zu Dareios [3] geschickt und mit anderen griech. Gesandten nach der Schlacht von Issos von Parmenion i…

Xenophilus

(338 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Ξενόφιλος/ Xenóphilos). [German version] [1] Comedy writer of the 5th cent. BC Comedy writer of the 5th cent. BC, victorious once at the Lenaia [1. test. 2] and possibly also once at the Dionysia [1. test. 1]; neither play titles nor fragments survive. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 803. [German version] [2] X. of Chalcidice Pythagorean and music theorist, c. 400 BC Pupil of Philolaus [2] (Diog. Laert. 8,46) and one of the last of the Pythagoreans (Iambl. v.P. 251; cf. Pythagoras [2]). X. was thought remarkable in Antiquity prim…

Hephaestion

(1,281 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
(Ἡφαιστίων; Hēphaistíōn). [German version] [1] Commander under Alexander the Great, 4th cent. BC H. of Pella, friend and probably lover of  Alexander [4]. Their relationship was soon likened to that of  Patroclus and  Achilles [1] and correspondingly embellished. It is doubtful whether he was a childhood friend of Alexander (Curt. 3,12,16), as he was not banished by  Philippus II in 337 BC. The wreath offered to Patroclus at Troy and the scene described in the vulgate version ( Alexander historians) of the c…

Parmenion

(607 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ax, Wolfram (Cologne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Παρμενίων/ Parmeníōn). [German version] [1] General under Philippus [4] II Son of Philotas from Upper Macedonia, born in 400 BC, successful general under Philippus[4] II (cf. Plut. Mor. 177c); involved in 346 in the peace treaty with Athens (Dem. Or. 19,69; Philocrates [2]). After Philippus' marriage to Cleopatra [II 2], the niece of Attalus [1], P. gave him his daughter, shared with him command of the troops in Asia in 336 and then had him killed at the command of Alexander [4] the Great (Curt. 7,1,3). Thus he established his Hausmacht. Under Alexander he was the leader of the w…

Aristobulus

(1,172 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἀριστόβουλος; Aristóboulos). [German version] [1] Judas A. I., High Priest 104-103 BC Judas A. I, son and successor of John  Hyrcanus, High Priest in 104-103 BC, had his mother and brother incarcerated or killed to secure his rule. This and his philhellenic leanings determined his negative image in Jewish tradition. The claim of Josephus that he took on the title of king is thrown into doubt by (rare) coins with the Hebrew legend: ‘Judas the High Priest and the Council of Elders of the Jews’. During his ca…

Memnon

(1,503 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μέμνων). [English version] [1] myth. König der Äthioper Mythischer König der Äthioper, Sohn des Tithonos und der Eos, Bruder des Emathion (Hes. theog. 984-5). Sein Eintreffen in Troia als Verbündeter der Troer nach dem Tod der Penthesileia, der erfolgreiche Zweikampf mit Antilochos, der Tod durch Achilleus und die ihm von Zeus auf Bitten der Eos verliehene Unsterblichkeit wurden, wie die Inhaltsangabe des Proklos (chrestomatheia 172) zeigt, in dem uns verlorenen kyklischen Epos Aithiopís dargestellt. Auf seinen Zweikampf mit Antilochos beziehen sich auch Hom. Od. 4…

Aristobulos

(1,118 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[English version] [1] Iudas A. I., Hoherpriester 104-103 v. Chr. Iudas A. I., Sohn und Nachfolger des Iohannes Hyrkanos, Hohepriester 104-103 v. Chr., ließ zur Sicherung seiner Herrschaft seine Mutter und seine Brüder einkerkern bzw. töten. Dies und seine philhell. Neigungen bestimmen sein negatives Bild in der jüd. Überlieferung. Die Behauptung des Iosephos, er habe den Königstitel angenommen, wird durch (seltene) Münzen mit der hebr. Legende: ›Iudas der Hohepriester und der Ältestenrat der Juden‹ in Fra…

Hekataios

(1,431 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ἑκαταῖος). [English version] [1] Tyrann von Kardia, 4. Jh. v.Chr. Tyrann von Kardia, von Alexandros [4] im Amt belassen, obwohl sich Eumenes [1] um die Befreiung der Stadt bemühte (Plut. Eumenes 3). Im Lamischen Krieg unterstützte er Antipatros [1] (Diod. 18,14,4). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) [English version] [2] Berater von Alexandros [4] d.Gr., 4. Jh. v.Chr. Einer der Hetairoi von Alexandros [4], von ihm 336 v.Chr. mit der Kaltstellung von Attalos [1] beauftragt, den er ermordete (Diod. 17,2,5; 5,2). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, Nr. 292 (nicht mit N…

Hephaistion

(1,223 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
(Ἡφαιστίων). [English version] [1] Heerführer unter Alexandros d.Gr., 4. Jh. v. Chr. H. aus Pella, Freund und wahrscheinlich Geliebter von Alexandros [4]. Ihr Verhältnis wurde schon früh dem von Patroklos und Achilleus [1] angeglichen und entsprechend ausgeschmückt. Ob er Jugendfreund des Alexandros war (Curt. 3,12,16), ist zweifelhaft, da er von Philippos II. 337 v.Chr. nicht verbannt wurde. Der dem Patroklos bei Troja dargebrachte Kranz und die in der Vulgata (Alexanderhistoriker) ausgemalte Szene der Ver…

Parmenion

(570 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ax, Wolfram (Köln) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Παρμενίων). [English version] [1] General unter Philippos [4] II. Sohn des Philotas aus Ober-Makedonia, geb. 400 v.Chr., unter Philippos [4] II. erfolgreicher General (vgl. Plut. mor. 177c); 346 am Friedensschluß mit Athen beteiligt (Demosth. or. 19,69; Philokrates [2]). Nach Philippos' Vermählung mit Kleopatra [II 2], der Nichte des Attalos [1], gab P. seine Tochter an ihn, befehligte mit ihm 336 die Truppen in Asien und ließ ihn dann auf Alexandros' [4] d.Gr. Befehl ermorden (Curt. 7,1,3). So veranker…

Iolaos

(497 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Princeton) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Ἰόλαος). [English version] [1] Neffe des Herakles Neffe des Herakles, Sohn von dessen Halbbruder Iphikles und der (schattenhaften) Automedusa. Er begleitet Herakles auf praktisch allen seinen Abenteuern (v.a. als Wagenlenker), wird der erste Olympionike (Bild in Olympia, Paus. 5,17,11), erhält von Herakles Megara zur Frau und tötet schließlich Eurystheus in Attika (Paus. 1,44,10, Grab), wozu er eigens für einen Tag verjüngt wurde (Eur. Heraclid. 843-863, vielleicht nach Aischyl. fr. 361); er starb in …

Demarchos

(462 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Tinnefeld, Franz (München)
(Δήμαρχος). [English version] [1] Lykier, in Samos geehrt Sohn des Taron, Lykier, wegen seiner Verdienste um die Samier (zur Zeit ihrer Verbannung) und um Phila auf Samos mit Bürgerrecht und Ehrenvorrechten ausgezeichnet (Syll.3 333). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) [English version] [2] Syrakusischer Stratege, um 400 v.Chr. Syrakusischer Stratege, der 411 v.Chr. als einer der Nachfolger des verbannten Hermokrates das Flottenkontingent der Syrakusier in der Ägäis kommandierte (Thuk. 8,85,3; Xen. hell. 1,1,29) und 405/4 von Dionysios I. als po…

Nearchos

(844 words)

Author(s): Mommsen, Heide (Stuttgart) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München)
(Νέαρχος). [English version] [1] att.-sf. Vasenmaler, um 560 v. Chr. Attischer sf. Vasenmaler und Töpfer der Hocharchaik, um 560 v.Chr. Sein Name erscheint auf acht Gefäßen, wobei eine Maler- und vier Töpfersignaturen gesichert sind. Die Bed. des N. beruht v.a. auf den Frg. des großen Kantharos von der Akropolis mit der Malersignatur (Athen, NM Akr. 611 und AP 67), auf dem Achilleus bei der Anschirrung seines Gespanns und die Waffenübergabe dargestellt sind. Durch die Wahl des Motivs der Anschirrung - hie…

Olympias

(678 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Brändle, Rudolf (Basel) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ὀλυμπιάς). [English version] [1] Tochter des Neoptolemos [2] Tochter des Neoptolemos [2], geb. um 375 v.Chr. Den Namen O. erhielt sie erst nach dem Olympischen Sieg des Philippos II. im J. 356 v.Chr. (vgl. Plut. mor. 401b). Sie heiratete Philippos 357 als seine fünfte Gemahlin (Athen. 13,557b) und gebar ihm Alexandros [4] d.Gr. (356) und Kleopatra [II 3]. Die Geburt eines Nachfolgers erhöhte O.' Stellung, doch ist polit. Einfluß nicht nachzuweisen. Nach Philippos' Eheschließung mit Kleopatra [II 2] flo…

Menon

(714 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Engels, Johannes (Köln) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μένων). [English version] [1] nach Demosthenes Träger des attischen Bürgerrechts M. aus Pharsalos wurde wegen Unterstützung der Athener beim Angriff auf Eion [1] am Strymon nach Demosthenes (or. 13,23) atéleia bzw. (or. 23,199) das attische Bürgerrecht verliehen [1. 20-23]. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [English version] [2] mil. Funktionsträger unter dem jüngeren Kyros, ca. 400 v.Chr. M. aus Pharsalos, der wie seine Vorfahren in enger Beziehung zur thessal. Dyn. der Aleuadai stand (M. war erṓmenos, “Geliebter”, des Aristippos) und den väterliche Gastfreundschaft …

Hagnon

(256 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
(Ἅγνων). [English version] [1] strategos in Athen, 5. Jh. v.Chr. Vater des Theramenes [1. 191], 440 v.Chr. stratēgós im Krieg Athens gegen das aufständische Samos (Thuk. 1,117,2). H. gründete 437/6 Amphipolis (Thuk. 4,102,3; 5,11,1). Zu Beginn des Peloponnesischen Krieges übte er 431/0 und 429/8 erneut das Strategenamt aus (Thuk. 2,58,1; 6,31,2; 2,95,3 [2. 117, 121]). Nach Plutarch (Perikles 32) zählte er zu den Gegnern des Perikles. Im April 421 unterzeichnete er neben anderen den Friedensvertrag (sog. Nikias-…

Hippostratos

(167 words)

Author(s): Schulte-Altedorneburg, Jörg (Marburg) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἱππόστρατος). [English version] [1] Verführer der Periboia Sohn des Amarynkeus, verführte Periboia, Tochter des Hipponoos (Apollod. 1,74; Hes. fr. 12 M-W). Schulte-Altedorneburg, Jörg (Marburg) [English version] [2] Neffe von Attalos [1] Neffe von Attalos [1], Bruder von Kleopatra, wurde nach deren Tod von Alexandros [4] d. Gr. hingerichtet (vgl. Iust. 11,5,1). Mit anderen Männern dieses Namens nicht zu identifizieren. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, Nr. 390. [English version] [3] H. Soter Indogriech. König des 1. Jh. v. Chr. in Ghandhara (Pakistan) einer …

Aristonicus

(1,329 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀριστόνικος; Aristónikos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (2nd half 4th cent. BC) of Marathon, a wealthy man whose political allegiances lay with  Lycurgus and  Demosthenes (Plut. Mor. 846a); in 336/335 BC, he proposed the act about the  Panathenaea (LSCG no. 33), in 335/334 BC, together with Lycurgus, the psephisma for the deployment of the Athenian fleet against pirates (IG II2 1623, B 276-285), and prior to 322 BC, several laws to the   nomothetai (Alexis PCG 2, fr. 131,2). In 324/323 BC, A. faced prosecution in the trials of Harpa…

Stratonice

(826 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Στρατονίκη; Stratoníkē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Alexander [2] I, c. 500 BC Daughter of the Macedonian king Alexander [II 2] I. In the winter of 429/8 BC, she was married by her brother Perdiccas [2] II to Seuthes [1], nephew of the Odrysian king Sitalces [1], in exchange for Seuthes' having achieved the withdrawal of Thracian troops from Macedonia (Thuc. 2,101,5 f.). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) [German version] [2] Wife of Antigonus [1], 4th cent. BC Daughter of one Corrhagus, married to Antigonus [1], mother of Demetrius [2] Poliorketes and a Philippus, who died…

Chares

(964 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Χάρης; Chárēs). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos, 4th cent. BC Athenian strategos of the 4th cent. BC. In 367/6 he supported Phleius when it was hard-pressed by Argos and Sicyon. The aid he gave to the oligarchs on Corcyra led to that island's leaving the 2nd Athenian League, and brought Athens discredit among its confederates. Not re-elected as strategos until 357/6. The treaty between Athens and the Thracian kings  Berisades, Amadocus I and Cersobleptes under C. in 357 both confirmed the division of Thracian rule and established Athenian poss…

Leonidas

(1,431 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Λεωνίδας; Leōnídas). Cf. also Leonides. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 5th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), son of Anaxandridas, around 490/89 BC he succeeded his stepbrother Cleomenes [3] I. In 480, after the evacuation of the positions in the Vale of Tempe, L. was given the task of defending the gates of Thermopylae against the army of Xerxes, while the Greek fleet was to thwart the advance of the Persian squadrons at Artemisium (Northern Euboea) (Hdt. 7,175). At best, L. had 8,000 men at his disposal (among them 1,000 perioikoi and 300 Spartiates),…

Marsyas

(971 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Μαρσύας; Marsýas). [German version] [1] Phrygian rivergod and Celaenae's god of protection Phrygian river god and Celaenae's god of protection, represented as satyr or silenus. The name is derived from a toponym that can be found repeatedly throughout Asia Minor and Syria; the river, at the source of which Celaenae lies, also carries this name (M. [5]). M. was considered the discoverer of flute playing ( aulós), the inventor of the bandage used for flute playing ( phorbeiá) and of songs for the worship of the goddess Cybele. According to the myth, the possibility to pla…

Meleager

(1,931 words)

Author(s): Gordon, Richard L. (Ilmmünster) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Μελέαγρος/ Meléagros, Lat. Meleager). [German version] [1] Hero from the pre-Trojan period, Argonaut, [1] Hero from the pre-Trojan period, Argonaut Mythological hero. Hero from the generation before the Trojan War, from Calydon [3], the capital city of the Aetolians. As one the Argonauts ( Argonautae) M. participated in the funereal games for Pelias (Stesich. PMG 179; Diod. 4,48,4). As the brother of Deianeira he is also linked with the Hercules cycle (Bacchyl. 5,170-175; Pind. fr. 70b). First and foremost, however, he is associated with the local legend of Calydon. In the archaic …

Demaratus

(514 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Et al.
(Δημάρατος; Dēmáratos). [German version] [1] Corinthian aristocrat 7th cent. BC Corinthian aristocrat, member of the  Bacchiadae family. D. made his fortune as a merchant around the middle of the 7th cent. BC, mainly through trade with Etruria. When he had to leave Corinth during the rule of  Cypselus he settled in Tarquinii with his followers and married an Etruscan aristocrat. According to ancient tradition the marriage produced two sons, one of whom became the first Etruscan king of Rome,  Tarquinius P…

Diphilus

(1,242 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Δίφιλος; Díphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian operator of a silver mine c. 330 BC Athenian operator of a silver mine. In 330 BC, he was charged by Lycurgus with illegally mining the mesokrineís (pillars), which served both as markers to separate the various leases within the mine but also as safety props, and sentenced to death. His assets of 160 talents were confiscated and distributed amongst the citizens (Ps.-Plut. Mor. 843D).  Mining Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. Engels, Studien zur polit. Biographie des Hypereides, 21993, 224-237 M. H. Hansen, Demography…

Diphilos

(1,137 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi (Latina)) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Δίφιλος). [English version] [1] Athener. Betreiber eines Silberbergwerks um 330 v. Chr. Athener. Betreiber eines Silberbergwerks. Er wurde um 330 v.Chr. wegen gesetzwidrigen Abbaus der mesokrineís (Pfeiler), die als Markscheiden für die Grubenanteile und als Sicherheitsstützen dienten, von Lykurg angeklagt und zum Tode verurteilt. Das Vermögen von 160 Talenten wurde eingezogen und an die Bürger verteilt (Ps.-Plut. mor. 843D). Bergbau Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. Engels, Studien zur polit. Biographie des Hypereides, 21993, 224-237  M.H. Hansen, Demogra…

Marsyas

(872 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Ziegler, Konrat † (Göttingen) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Μαρσύας). [English version] [1] phryg. Flußgott und Schutzgottheit von Kelainai Phrygischer Flußgott und Schutzgottheit von Kelainai, dargestellt als Satyr oder Silen. Der Name ist aus einem im kleinasiatisch-syr. Raum mehrfach vorkommenden Toponym abgeleitet; auch der Fluß, an dessen Quelle Kelainai liegt, trägt diesen Namen (M. [5]). M. galt als Entdecker des Flötenspiels ( aulós), Erfinder der Binde, die beim Flötespielen verwendet wurde ( phorbeiá) und von Liedern zur Verehrung der Göttin Kybele. Dem Mythos zufolge ist die Möglichkeit, mit einer Flöte …

Meleagros

(1,672 words)

Author(s): Gordon, Richard L. (Ilmmünster) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Μελέαγρος, lat. Meleager). [English version] [1] Heros aus vortroian. Zeit, Argonaut Myth. Held aus der Generation vor dem Troianischen Krieg, aus Kalydon [3], der Hauptstadt der Aitoler. Als Argonaut (Argonautai) nimmt M. an den Leichenspielen für Pelias teil (Stesich. PMG 179; Diod. 4,48,4). Als Bruder der Deianeira ist er auch mit dem Herakles-Zyklus verbunden (Bakchyl. 5,170-175; Pind. fr. 70b). In erster Linie wird er jedoch mit der Lokalsage von Kalydon assoziiert. In der archa. Epoche gab es zwei Varianten des Mythos. Der einen zufolge wird M., der Sohn des…

Demaratos

(482 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Decker, Wolfgang (Köln) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Et al.
(Δημάρατος). [English version] [1] Korinthischer Aristokrat, 7. Jh.v.Chr. Korinthischer Aristokrat, Angehöriger der Familie der Bakchiadai. D. gelangte um die Mitte des 7. Jh.v.Chr. als Kaufmann bes. durch den Handel mit Etrurien zu Wohlstand. Als er unter der Herrschaft des Kypselos Korinth verlassen mußte, ließ er sich mit seinem Gefolge in Tarquinii nieder und heiratete eine etr. Aristokratin. Antiker Tradition zufolge gingen aus der Ehe zwei Söhne hervor, u.a. der erste etr. König Roms, Tarquinius P…

Leonidas

(1,269 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Λεωνίδας). Vgl. auch Leonides. [English version] [1] Spartan. König, 5. Jh. v. Chr. Spartan. König, Agiade (Agiadai), Sohn des Anaxandridas, etwa 490/89 v.Chr. Nachfolger seines Stiefbruders Kleomenes [3] I. L. erhielt 480 nach der Räumung der Tempe-Stellung den Auftrag, die Thermopylen gegen das Heer des Xerxes zu verteidigen, während die griech. Flotte bei Artemision (Nordeuboia) die Weiterfahrt der pers. Geschwader vereiteln sollte (Hdt. 7,175). L. verfügte allenfalls über 8000 Mann (darunter 1000 Perioi…

Aristonikos

(1,210 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Köln) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀριστόνικος). [English version] [1] Athen. Politiker (2.H. 4. Jh. v. Chr.) Aus Marathon, reich und polit. auf Seiten des Lykurgos und des Demosthenes (Plut. mor. 846a), beantragte 336/5 v. Chr. das Gesetz über die kleinen Panathenäen (LSCG Nr. 33), 335/4 mit Lykurgos das Psephisma über den Einsatz der athenischen Flotte gegen Piraten (IG II2 1623, B 276-285) und vor 322 Gesetze bei den Nomothetai (Alexis PCG 2, fr. 131,2). 324/23 wurde A. in den Harpalosprozessen (Harpalos) angeklagt (Deinarch. fr. XXVII und fr. 4 p. 146 Conomis). 323/22 bewirkte…

Chares

(906 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom) | Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Χάρης). [English version] [1] Athenischer Stratege, 4.Jh. v.Chr. Athenischer Stratege des 4.Jh. v.Chr. Unterstützte 367/6 das von Argos und Sikyon bedrängte Phleius. Seine Hilfe für die Oligarchen auf Korkyra führte zum Austritt der Insel aus dem 2. Att. Seebund und brachte Athen bei den Bundesgenossen in Mißkredit. Erst 357/6 wieder zum Strategen gewählt. Im Vertrag zwischen Athen und den thrak. Königen Berisades, Amadokos I. und Kersobleptes wurde unter Ch. 357 die Teilung der thrak. Herrschaft und d…

Dioscorides

(1,511 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Διοσκουρίδης; Dioskourídēs). [German version] [1] Son of Polemaeus, naval commander in 314-313 BC Son of Polemaeus, nephew of  Antigonus [1] Monophthalmus. Led the fleet to a few victories as naval commander in 314-13 BC. Nothing further is known about his life. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography R. A. Billows, Antigonus the One-Eyed, 1990, 381f. [German version] [2] Polyhistor of the 4th and 3rd cents. BC Polyhistor of the 4th and 3rd cents. BC, pupil of Isocrates (Ath. 1,18,11 A). Of his works, the following titles are known (cf. FGrH 3 B 594): 1. Apomnēmoneúmata (‘Memorabil…

Agathocles

(1,543 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Ἀγαθοκλῆς; Agathoklês) [German version] [1] of Athens Archon 357/56 BC Archon 357/56 BC (Dem. Or. 47,44; Diod. Sic. 16,9). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Tyrant King of Syracuse (316-288 BC) Later king of Syracuse, born 361/0 BC in Thermae in Sicily. Son of Carcinus, who had been banned from Rhegium, and who under  Timoleon had received citizenship in Syracuse and had a pottery manufactory. A. had an adventurous youth, participated in several martial undertakings and early on fostered broad-reaching politica…

Nicaea

(1,521 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νίκαια; Níkaia). [German version] [1] Naiad Naiad, daughter of the Phrygian river god Sangarius and the goddess Cybele. As a huntress, N. spurns love and remains a virgin. In Memnon of Heracleia, she does not yield to Dionysus and so he resorts to a ruse and turns into wine the spring from which N. is accustomed to drinking. She becomes drunk and falls asleep. Dionysus overpowers her in her sleep and fathers with her 'satyrs and others' (Memnon FGrH 434 F 41, 8f.). In Nonnus, Dion. 15,169-16,405, the…

Philocles

(895 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Φιλοκλῆς; Philoklês). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue Athenian demagogue, elected to the office of stratēgós in 406/5 BC and dispatched with the fleet to Conon [1] at Samos, both of whom thereupon were in command of the fleet in the Hellespont. Re-elected as a stratēgós, and subsequently partially to blame for the defeat in 405 BC at Aigos Potamos, P. was captured and executed by Lysander [1] for having had the crews of two captured Spartan triremes thrown into the sea (Xen. Hell. 1,7,1; 2,1,32f.; Diod. Sic. 13,104,1f.; Paus. 9, 32,9; Plut. Lysander 13,1f.; Plut. Sulla 42,8). Schmi…

Lysimachus

(2,226 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Λυσίμαχος; Lysímachos). [German version] [1] Athenian, 5th cent. BC Athenian, son of Aristides [1], born around 480 BC, is a dialogue partner in Plato's Láchēs (178ff.), where he is represented as the prototype of the unsuccessful son of a celebrated father. A decree mentioned by Demosthenes (20,115; cf. Plut. Aristides 27), according to which L. is said to have been granted support from the state because he was penniless after the death of his father, is probably a construction from the 4th cent. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography Davies 1695 III-IV. [German version] [2] G…

Nicanor

(1,649 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
(Νικάνωρ; Nikánōr). [German version] [1] Military official under Alexander the Great, died 330 BC Second son of Parmenion. Under Alexander [4] the Great he led the hypaspistaí of the hetaîroi in the major battles. During the pursuit of Darius [3], Alexander commanded him to pursue the Persian king with a group of riders who had given up their horses and the Agrianes under Attalus [2] as fast as possible (Arr. Anab. 3,21,7-8). He died soon after (330 BC). His brother Philotas stayed behind with an escort for his funeral. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 554. …

Andronicus

(836 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Et al.
(Ἀνδρόνικος; Andrónikos). [German version] [1] from Olynthus Macedonian officer (2nd half of the 4th cent. BC) Participated in all campaigns of  Alexander [II 4]. 315 BC officer of  Antigonus [1] at Tyre, then advisor of  Demetrius [2], whom he advised 312 to decline the battle at Gaza. In the battle he commanded the cavalry at the right flank and escaped after the defeat to Tyre, where he took over command and was able to hold the city for a time. At the end, delivered by the garrison to  Ptolemaeus [1], by whom he was honoured as a friend. Diod. Sic. 19. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliograph…

Cleopatra

(4,237 words)

Author(s): Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Κλεοπάτρα; Kleopátra, Lat. Cleopatra). I. Mythology [German version] [I 1] Daughter of Boreas and Oreithyia Daughter of  Boreas and  Oreithyia, first wife of  Phineus. C. was rejected in favour of  Idaea [3], whom Phineus married as his second wife; her sons were blinded (Apollod. 3.200; Hyg. Fab. 18). Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva) [German version] [I 2] Daughter of Idas and Marpessa Daughter of  Idas and  Marpessa, wife of  Meleager. After her abduction by Apollo she was also called ‘Alcyone’ after her mother's …

Clearchus

(1,254 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Κλέαρχος; Kléarchos). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Rhegion Bronze sculptor from Rhegion. Because of his statue of Zeus Hypatus in Sparta, a   sphyrelaton according to the description, C. was wrongly considered the inventor of bronze statues by Pausanias. According to tradition he was a student of  Dipoenus and Scyllis or of  Daedalus as well as the teacher of  Pythagoras and, therefore, was active in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck No. 332f., 491 P. Romanelli, in: EAA 4, 365f. J. Papadopoulos, Xoana e sphyrelata, 1980, 82 F…

Attalus

(2,358 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Dingel, Joachim (Hamburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Ἄτταλος; Áttalos). [German version] [1] Friend of  Philippus, rival of Alexander the Great at the court of his father Friend of  Philippus who did not punish him for an insult inflicted on Pausanias. At the wedding of his niece Cleopatra (II) to Philippus (337 BC) he called  Alexander [4] the Great a nothos (illegitimate son) and was attacked by him, whereupon Alexander and Olympias were banned (Plut. Alex. 9 among others). With his father-in-law (Curt. 6,9,18) Parmenion, he commanded the invading army in Asia. After Philippus' death, Alexander …

Polyclitus

(1,987 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Πολύκλειτος/ Polýkleitos). [German version] [1] Greek bronze sculptor from Sicyon, 5th or 4th cent. BC the Greek bronze sculptor Polyclitus. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) [German version] I. General Bronze sculptor from Sicyon, pupil of Ageladas in Argos. Biographical detail on P. is scanty. His sons were regarded as less successful. P. [2] may, judging by his name, have been a nephew, and Naucydes thus P.'s brother. Six pupils, with mostly unrevealing names, are recorded. However, various family and artistic lineages have b…

Archelaus

(1,291 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Pietsch, Christian (Mainz) | Et al.
(Ἀρχέλαος; Archélaos). [German version] [1] Macedonian king (ca. 413-399 BC) Son of  Perdiccas, king of Macedonia about 413-399 BC, who according to Plato's spiteful representation (Gorg. 471) was the son of a slave woman and had ascended to the throne by murder. However, he appeared about 415 in a contract with Athens in third place after Perdiccas and his brother Alcetas, i.e. as legitimate (IG I3 89,60). Murdering other pretenders to the throne was not uncommon among the  Argeads, who had no firm rule of succession. He was on a good footing with the Atheni…

Antigonus

(1,768 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀντίγονος; Antígonos). [German version] [1] Monophthalmus Diadoch (‘The One-eyed’), 382-301 BC.  Hetairos of  Philippus and  Alexander [4], married to  Stratonice, was the father of  Demetrius. During Alexander's invasion of Asia, commander of the Greek hoplites, satrap of Greater Phrygia from 333 until Alexander's death [323]. He defeated rebels and remnants of Persian troops, he gained Lycaonia and in 331 he received in addition the administration of Lycia-Pamphylia. In Priene he was honoured for an achievement, the nature of which is unknown. (IPriene 2). After Alexander's…

Neoptolemus

(2,308 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Νεοπτόλεμος; Neoptólemos). [German version] [1] Son of Achilles and Deidamia The son of Achilles [1] and Deidamia, the daughter of king Lycomedes [1] of Scyros. Rare but explainable variants of the mother's name are Pyrrha (Heliodorus 3,2 = Anth. Pal. 9,485,8) and Iphigenia (Duris of Samos FGrH 76 F 88; on this FGrH 2 C 130). Homer only knows the name N., and Pyrrhus probably only becomes more common in the 4th cent. (first Theopompus FGrH 115 F 355) because of dynastic considerations of the Epirote king…
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