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Chasuarii

(71 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic people; ‘people of the Hase’ (easterly tributary of the Ems); neighbours of the Chamavi (Tac. Germ. 34,1), living south of the Suebi and west of the Chatti (Ptol. 2,11,11), they left their home country (possibly as early as c. AD 98) and under Gallienus took possession of Roman territory east of Mainz (Laterculus Veronensis 15,6). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography G. Neumann et al., s.v. Chasuarier, RGA 4, 375f.

Hermunduri

(338 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] The Germanic combat unit that was probably based on fealty, together with Suebi and Semnones in the mythical original tribe of the  Herminones (Plin. HN 4,100), pinpointed in the Augustan period as being located at the Elbe (Str. 7,1,3; Vell. 2,106,2), had possibly already lost its political and organizational connection at that time. H., searching for land, were settled by  Domitius [II 2]in 6/1 BC in the former Marcomannis (Cass. Dio 55,10a,2), possibly as a strategic help again…

Istaevones

(36 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Mythological ancient tribe of the Germani (Plin. HN 4,100; Tac. Germ. 2,2) with no concrete historical base. According to Plin. l.c. they lived proximi Rheno (near the Rhine).  Herminones Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)

Mons Cetius

(68 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Mountain range, intrinsically linked with Cetium, bordering Noricum in the east (Ptol. 2,13,1) and Pannonia in the west (Ptol. 2,14,1) reaching the Danube to the north between Vindobona and Cetium. Essentially the Vienna Woods and the contiguous Styrian Alps to the south, the modern Karawanken and the Carnic Alps. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR M 33,61  G. Winkler, s.v. Cetium, RE Suppl. 14, 91.

Gelduba

(178 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt (modern Krefeld-Gellep). Place in Germania inferior, field camp and battle site of the Batavian wars (Tac. Hist. 4,26,3; 32,1; 35,3; 36,1; 58,4); after AD 70 auxiliary fort (Plin. HN 19,90), which after three wood and earth stages was converted into stone before 150. The occupying force was for a long time the cohors II Varcinorum equitata. In the wake of Postumus' uprising in 259 (tombs of the fallen!) and in 275/6 G. was destroyed by the Franks, redesigned into a fortress around 295…

Burgundiones

(381 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Eastern Germanic tribe (first mentioned in Plin. HN 4,99; etymologically linked with * burgund -- ‘the high-lying’), possibly originating from the island of Bornholm; from the 2nd cent. BC, they settled in the western part of eastern Pomerania, in the 2nd cent. AD in central northern Germany between the Oder and the Vistula. Hypothetically linked with the Luboszyce culture [1]. In the 3rd cent., they migrated to the south-west and, together with the Vandali, were defeated by Aurelius  Probus in…

Condrusi

(71 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic people, listed by Caesar (B Gall. 2,4,10) among the Germani cisrhenani together with the  Eburones, Caerosi and Paemani; lived as clients of the  Treveri (ibid. 4,6,4) between them and the Eburones (ibid. 6,32,1). The Condroz region on the river Maas between Namur and Liège, which is called pagus Condrustus in medieval documents, recalls the C. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography G. Neumann et al., s.v. C., RGA 5, 78-80.

Hercynia silva

(292 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Geography Collective term for the central European low mountain ranges, first mentioned in Aristot. Mete. 1,13. It took nine days to cross it from north to south (Caes. B Gall. 6,25-28; interpolated according to [1]), and 60 from west to east; the forest, abundant with unknown wild beasts, extended from the borders of the Helvetii, Nemetes, and Rauraci along the Danube to the border region ( fines) of the Dacians and Anartes (further source references easily accessible through the indices in [2]). Even though the Roman occupation and discovery…

Ad Lunam

(52 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Statio of the Tab. Peut. 4,1 f., possibly the modern Urspring-Lonsee (Alb-Donau-Kreis): two-phase cohort fort (1.8 hectares) from c. AD 80 and   vicus . Coin finds until AD 153/154.  Cohors;  Castellum Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography Coins: Fundmz. Röm. Deutschland 2,4, 1964, no. 4550. Literature.: J. Heiligmann, Der ‘Alb-Limes’, 1990, 88-101.

Lentia

(224 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Principal town of the Traun plain, favourably situated from the point of view of communications at the point where the Danube intersects with the salt road to Bohemia, with probably an originally Celtic name (perhaps ‘the bend, the meander’), modern Linz on the Danube. With the wood-earth camp that originates at the earliest in the Tiberian period (0.66 ha, ala I Thracum?), Noricum joined the Claudian series of forts in Raetia west of Oberstimm (in between only small forts); extended before AD 160 into a much bigger stone fort ( ala I Pannoniorum Tampiana Victrix, around 2…

Chatti

(248 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe (first mentioned in Str. 7,1,3f.; etymology uncertain), renowned for their martial discipline; settled by Rome in the region around the mouth of the Main, they later occupied particularly the basins of the Hessian depression south of the Cherusci and east of the Usipetes. Classed with the  Hermiones in Plin. HN 4,100, they lost the battle for a saline river to the Hermunduri in AD 58, but inflicted a devastating defeat on the Cherusci. In constant opposition to Rome…

Angrivarii

(108 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe on the middle reaches of the Weser, partly separated from their south-western neighbours, the Cherusci, by a wide ager (Tac. Ann. 2,19); they sided with Rome in AD 16, seceded, and, after their defeat, joined the   fides (Tac. Ann. 2,24,3); in AD 97, in order to evade the Chauci, the A., together with the Chamavi, occupied land belonging to the Bructeri on the upper reaches of the Amisia (modern Ems; Tac. Germ. 33; cf. Ptol. 2,11,9; Laterculus Veronensis 13,13). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography R. Wenskus, s. v. Angriwarier, RGA, 333 R. Wolters, Rö…

Adrana

(21 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Probably the modern Eder, river in the territory of the  Chatti (Tac. Ann. 1,56,3). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)

Licates

(77 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (Λικάττιοι; Likáttioi, Str. 4,6,8; Λικάτιοι; Likátioi, Ptol. 2,12,4; Plin. HN 3,137). Vindelician tribe that probably settled on the upper course of the Lech ( Licca). The main town was Damasia. L. were still serving as auxiliary soldiers [1] in the Roman army around AD 160. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 RMD, 119, 170. TIR L 32, 84f. H. Wolff, Einige Probleme der Raumordnung im Imperium Romanum, in: Ostbairische Grenzmarken 28, 1986, 152-177, esp. 166.

Abodiacum

(135 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Raeti, Raetia Modern Epfach, district of Landsberg am Lech, Germany (CIL III 2,5780); Roman garrison from just before BC to about AD 50, late antique fortifications along the long, steep-sided, island-like Lorenzberg in a bow of the river Lech. 300 m away, underneath the village of Epfach, there is a Flavian road- vicus on the   via Claudia , north-east of the turn-off to Gauting. Building remains on Epfach hill dating from the 3rd and 4th cents. AD; possibly late antique/early Chri…

Medulli

(93 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Alpine tribe, subjugated by Augustus (CIL V 7817 = Plin. HN 3,137); they lived east of the Vocontii and south of the Allobroges (Str. 4,1,11; 4,6,5; Ptol. 2,10,7) along the upper course of the Arc near modern Modane, and, according to Vitr. De arch. 8,3,20, were particularly prone to suffer from goitre. They belonged to the tribes governed by Cottius [1] (CIL V 7231) and later to the prov. Alpes Cottiae. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR L 32,92 G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1975, 334-337.

Limes

(12,382 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Et al.
[German version] I. General In the religious and administrative theory of the land surveyors, the Latin word limes denoted the path marking the boundary between two pieces of land, while in military and political usage (Tac. Ann. 1,50; Frontin. Str. 1,3,10) it meant the border between Roman and non-Roman territory (SHA Hadr. 12). Over recent years, research has led the military connotation of the term limes, which has been used almost exclusively from the 19th cent., to be expanded to comprehend also the historico-geographical and socio-economic fields. Where the limites were origin…

Caelius Mons

(377 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) | Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] [1] Hill in Rome Hill in Rome, c. 2 km long, 400-500 m high. Although Caelius Mons (CM) is counted amongst the oldest of the city's hills (Dion. Hal. 2,50,1; Tac. Ann. 4,56; 11,24), its largest part was outside the   pomerium . Even though graves were still sited there in the Republican age, the area later developed into a fashionable residential district (Cic. Off. 3,16,66; Plin. HN 36,48; Tac. Ann. 4,64); in the Imperial Age, when the slopes of the Esquilin and the Colosseum were built up with insulae, the fashionable district moved to the upper part of the hill. …

Batavian Revolt

(604 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Final phase in the civil war that took place after Nero's death between August of AD 69 and September/October 70 north of the Alps (sources in [1]). Tacitus is the main source for a description of the complex chain reactions entailing breaches of faith and new solidarities (Hist. 4,12-37; 54-79; 5,14-26). Some authors (for instance Brunt) claim that Tacitus depicts a believable and consistent overview of the separatist movement against Rome which aimed at a Gallic world empire (cf…

Am(p)sivarii

(176 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe, ‘the people who live on the (lower) Ems’; in AD 9, they stayed loyal to Rome under the leadership of Boiocalus, but during Nero's reign (middle of the 1st cent. AD), following their eviction by the Chauci, they tried in vain to settle in the military territory on the eastern bank of the Lower Rhine [1]. Despite their fifty years of allegiance to Rome, the Romans drove them out; the tribe found no admittance with the  Usipetes, nor the  Tubantes,  Chatti and  Cherus…

Cimbri

(675 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe, who apparently suddenly descended upon Gaul and Italy, but whose origins and itinerary remained a mystery to the Romans (Plut. Marius 11,4; sources in [1], cf. [3. 23-28]). Jutland is assumed to be their homeland, on the basis of a modern hypothesis; that they were driven out by the slow encroachment of the sea, is probably no more than an ancient presumption (Posidon. in Str. 2,3,6; 7,2,1f.). It is a contentious question whether the C. changed their way of life, r…

Aenus

(328 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] [1] Modern Enez This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Thraci, Thracia | | | Colonization | Moesi, Moesia | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Pompeius | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (Αἶνος; Aînos). The place today known as Enez on the Turkish bank of the Maritza, mentioned by Hom. Il. 4,520 as the home of  Peirous. The name Poltymbria (Str. 7,7,1) is a later construct. Systematic archaeological investigation is not possible because of buildings built over the relevant sites. Traces of a prehisto…

Ovilavis

(149 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Pannonia | Rome Road junction, already inhabited in Celtic times, with a crossing of the river Traun, modern Wels. Occupied after the incorporation of Noricum into the Roman Empire; municipium (CIL III 11785b; IX 2593) under Hadrian, colonia Aurelia Antoniniana (CIL III 5630; CSIR III 3, 1981 [1]) under Caracalla . It is disputed whether O. was the civilian capital city of Noricum Ripense [2]. Several centres of habitation formed within the walls of O. in the 7th/8th cent. ( castrum Ueles fortified in 776). Dietz, Karl…

Chamavi

(170 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe (of uncertain etymology); they preceded the Tubantes and Usipetes as inhabitants of land on the lower Rhine, which was later to become Roman military land (Tac. Ann. 13,55,2); before 12 BC they lived east of the Tencteri, west of the  Bructeri and north of the Marsi (cf. the early medieval district of ‘Hamaland’ around Deventer between IJssel and Rhine). After the defeat of the Bructeri in AD 98, the C. from the west began to settle in the Bructeri's former territor…

Cetium

(158 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Today St. Pölten. A town in  Noricum, situated at the intersection of ancient roads frequented from early times; etymologically probably linked to Celtic * keto -- ‘wood, forest’ (cf.   Cetius mons ). The municipium Aelium Cetensium of the time of Hadrian (CIL III 5630; 5652; 11799) was destroyed in the wars against the  Marcomanni, but soon recovered [1]. Since 1949 significant excavations on the site of the ancient town, which has been built up in modern times. Some slight evidence of Christianity in what little r…

Aguntum

(311 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pannonia The modern Dölsach and Nußdorf-Debant on the road through the Drau valley (unknown etymology); when the Celtic Laianci came into contact with the Romans at the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC, the municipium Claudium A. (Plin. HN 3,146) with   forum ,   capitolium ,   basilica and  thermae [1] developed about 2 km east of the original town. Mining and processing of metal ensured the economic prosperity of A. and its territory -- from the Felber Tauern to the Kärntner Tor, from the Lie…

Alta Ripa

(100 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Today Altrip near Speyer. ‘Bell-shaped’, fort with its long side facing the Rhine from the Valentinian period (Cod. Theod. 11,31,4, AD 369) part of the fortress system of the Neckar confluence (Not. Dign. occ. 39; cf. the fortifications providing safe shipping, Symm. Or. 2,20 [1]). Destroyed in the New Year's night of AD 406/7 by  Alani,  Suebi and  Vands.  Castellum Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 A. Pabst, 1989, 147 f., 332 ff. S. V. Schnurbein, H.-J. Köhler, Der neue Plan des valentinianischen Kastells A. (Altrip), in: BRGK 70, 1989, 507-526 S. von…

Langobardi

(572 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (etym. Lang(a/o)-bardoz, ‘the long beards’ [9]). Germanic tribe which Tacitus (Germ. 40,1) and Ptolemy (2,11,9) count among the Suebi; according to tribal mythology [1], they wandered out of southern Sweden as the Winniler into territories south of the Baltic Sea around 100 BC and fused with other peoples. The L. are archaeologically confirmed on the lower course of the Elbe (in the Bardengau) from the 1st cent. BC onwards. Briefly driven back to the east bank by Tiberius in AD 5 (…

Dieburg

(45 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Roman civilian settlement, main settlement of the civitas Auderiensium with good infrastructure (archaeological finds: e.g., a Mithraeum). Heyday about AD 300, but victim of Alamannic raids. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography E. Schallmayer, D., in: D. Baatz, F.-R. Herrmann (ed.), Die Römer in Hessen, 21989, 250-255.

Aviones

(46 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] A Germanic people who according to Tac. Germ. 40,2 worshipped  Nerthus with the Reudigni, Angli, Varini, Eudoses, Suardones and Nuithones; it is not possible to work out their exact location in spite of the etymology ‘water dwellers, island inhabitants’ Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)

Arae

(260 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] Flaviae This item can be found on the following maps: Limes Today Rottweil on the Neckar. Central locality founded by Cn. Pinarius Clemens AD 73/74 (CIL XVII 2,654; [2]) on a road junction (it also became a location for the  ruler cult) to open up the so-called   decumates agri . In addition to troops (five known forts), in AD 186 it is attested that a flourishing   municipium developed there [1]. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 A. Ruesch, Das röm. Rottweil, 1981 2 B. Zimmermann, Zur Authentizität des ‘Clemensfeldzuges’, in: Jahresber. aus Augst …

Augusta

(3,972 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Gaggero, Gianfranco (Genoa) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Walser, Gerold (Basle) | Et al.
(Αὐγούστα, Αὐγοῦστα; Augoústa, Augoûsta). [German version] [0] Title First to receive the name A. (‘the Sublime’) was  Livia [2], by the terms of the will of her husband  Augustus (Tac. Ann. 1,8,1; Vell. Pat. 2,75,3; Suet. Aug. 101,2), who at the same time adopted her into the Julian family (thus: Iulia Augusta). Hellenistic influence is disputed (in favour [1], against [2. 140-145]); the name Σεβαστή/ Sebastḗ with the same literal meaning was bestowed on the wives of Roman emperors in the Greek-speaking world independently of any conferring of the name of A…

Cannenefates

(101 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe, also known as Can(n)anefates, in their ‘extraction, dialect and bravery equal to the Batavi’ (Tac. Hist. 4,15,1; cf. Plin. HN 4,101), in the western part of the insula Batavorum, between Oude Rijn and Mosa (Helinium); cf. ‘Kennemerland’. Possibly subjugated by Tiberius (Vell. Pat. 2,105,1), they provided at the least one ala and one cohors (Tac. Ann. 4,73,2; Hist. 4,19,1). Their capital of Voorburg-Arentsburg became Forum Hadriani and municipium. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR M 31, 59 B. H. Stolte, s.v. Cananefaten, RGA 4, 329f. W. W…

Genauni

(99 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Alpine tribe in Raetia (Hor. Carm. 4,14,10), subjugated by Drusus in 15 BC, which, like the Breuni, was thought of as Illyrian (Str. 4,6,8); Plin. HN 3,137 has Caenauni, Ptol. 2,12,4 Βένλαυνοι ( Bénlaunoi). It is thought that their dwelling places were, e.g., in the eastern Inn Valley in the Tyrol. Allocation by Paus. 8,43,4 (Britannia) is uncertain [1]. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 J. G. F. Hind, The ‘Genounian’ part of Britain, in: Britannia 8, 1977, 229-234. R. Frei-Stolba, Die Räter in den ant. Quellen, in: B. Frei (ed.), Das Räterproblem in ge…

Aquileia

(498 words)

Author(s): Heucke, Clemens (Munich) | Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] [1] The modern Aquileia, northern Italy This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Caesar | Venetic | Christianity | Wine | | Coloniae | Coloniae | Commerce | Pannonia | Punic Wars | Raeti, Raetia | Regio, regiones | Rome | Batavian Revolt The present-day town of A. in upper Italy, between  Natiso and Alsa (Plin. HN 3,126), c. 10 km from the Adria (Str. 5,1,8). The name is more likely to be derived from a river name (Zos. 5,29,4) than from an eagle in flight (Julian Or. 2,72 a). Attempts by the Gauls in 186 BC …

Nahanarvali

(89 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (variant Naharvali). Powerful subtribe of the Vandals/Lugii, which is mentioned in Tac. Germ. 43, 3f. along with the Harii, Helvecones, Manimi and Halisones (Helisii?). The Romans reached these tribes via the ‘Amber Road’ (Amber), which had been open since the time of Nero (AD 54-68). In a holy grove belonging to the N., the Alcis, who were comparable with the Dioscuri, were worshipped in an all-Lugian cult. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR M 33,63  G. Perl, Tacitus, Germania, 1990, 247f.  D. Timpe, Romano-Germanica, 1995, 107f., 127-131.

Cherusci

(199 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe (first mentioned in Caes. B Gall. 6,10,5; etymology uncertain, possibly connected with * herut, German ‘Hirsch’ [deer]?). They settled south of the Angrivarii and west of the Langobardi, between Weser and Elbe, and north of the Harz mountains. In a state of permanent internal dispute, they were subjugated by Claudius Drusus (in 12 and 9 BC), and by Tiberius (AD 4). However, in AD 9,  Arminius, who was in Roman service, led a successful uprising against Quinctilius  Varus by parts …

Confluentes

(337 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) | Cüppers, Heinz (Trier)
[German version] [1] Modern Koblenz Modern Koblenz, traffic node and commercial port, at the confluence ( ad C.) of the Moselle and the Rhine, on the Mainz-Cologne road along the Rhine Valley and the routes leading from Trier over the Hunsrück mountains and Maifeld to the Rhine (CIL XVII 2,675). A straight pile frame bridge crossed the Rhine to Ehrenbreitenstein from 49 BC (dendrochronology [1]). The Moselle bridge with stone pillars on a pile frame is dendrochronologically younger (AD 104/176). A late Tiberian/early Claudian fort, which was abandoned in AD 70, and a vicus towards the R…

Bodobrica

(80 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] now Boppard. About 1 km east of a vicus from the 1st-3rd cents. AD, the late Roman castle B. of the milites balistarii (Not. Dign. occ. 41,23), with 28 round towers, was developed in the middle of the 4th cent.; in places the walls still reach up to 9 m in height. Early Christian church. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography H.-H. Wegner, in: H. Cüppers(ed.), Die Römer in Rheinland-Pfalz, 1990, 344-346 E. Dassmann, Die Anf. der Kirche in Deutschland, 1993, 62-65.

Asciburgium

(146 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt Modern Asberg near Moers (etymologically ‘Eschenberg’ -- ash mountain; cf. Old High German ask). In this location opposite the mouth of the river Ruhr (CIL XIII 2,2,8588-8597), five phases of an auxiliary fort, from 12/11 BC to its abandonment in AD 83/85, with an area of 1.6 to 2.3 ha. have been verified, as well as an Augustan   vicus , and a harbour which was silting up at the end of the 1st cent. AD. After the withdrawal of the military, A. remained an important staging post between Castra Vetera and Novaesium with   be…

Baiovarii

(121 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Mixed Romano-Germanic tribe (Bavarians), first recorded in Iord. Get. 55,280 as living in southern Germany east of the river Lech (cf. Venantius Fortunatus, Vita Martini 4,640-645). Etymologically most likely the ‘descendants of those living in Bai(a)-haim (= Bohemia)’; the foederati, archaeologically evident in the Friedenhain-Přeštovice pottery, were most likely -- initially independently, later tolerated by the Ostrogoths (Theoderic the Great) -- to have formed the military core, around which, with Regensburg at its…

Noricum

(1,975 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
Roman province, essentially the eastern Alpine region, to the south of the Danube, east of Raetia and west of Pannonia. [German version] A. From the beginning until incorporation into the Imperium Romanum There are various hypotheses [2] on the formation of the Celtic Norici people, who probably gained strength through the amalgamation of individual peoples (dedications from Mt Magdalen in Corinthia mention eight Norican tribes [1. 280-284, 294]), especially regarding their relationship to the postulated pre-Celtic Nori (Norei…

Ingaevones

(63 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] A mythological Germanic tribal group attested probably as early as in Pytheas of Massilia (Plin. HN 37,35 Detlefsen with conjecture) (Plin. HN 4,96; 99; Tac. Germ. 2,2;  Herminones), which, although the closest to reality of the three Mannus groups, merely functioned as a fictitious blanket term for Cimbri, Teutoni, and Chauci. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography D. Timpe, Romano-Germanica, 1995, esp. 20-24.

Biriciana

(78 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Raeti, Raetia Modern Weißenburg in Bavaria. Large fort (5.1 ha.) of the ala I Hispanorum Auriana; nearby the fort ‘Breitung’ (3.5 ha.), possibly of the cohors IX Batavorum. Civilian settlement of more than 30 ha. in size, with restored thermae; magnificent treasure trove of the 3rd cent. AD. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography H.-J. Kellner, in: W. Czsyz, K. Dietz, Th. Fischer, Id. (ed.), Die Römer in Bayern, 1995, 534-536.

Licca

(27 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (Λικίας; Likías). Righthand tributary of the Danube (Ptol. 2,12,1; 4; Venantius Fortunatus Carm. praef. 4, Vita Martini 4,642), modern Lech. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)

Bürgle

(75 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Late Roman fortification (0,16 ha.) on a hill crest at the foot of the steep terrace at Gundremmingen, possibly Pinianis, a fort of the cohors V Valeria Frygum (Not. Dign. Occ. 35,29), or -- assuming a shift in name to Febian(i)s -- that of a part of the equites stablesiani iuniores (ibid. 35,15). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography W. Czysz, B., in: Id., K. Dietz, Th. Fischer, H.-J. Kellner (ed.), Die Römer in Bayern, 1995, 430f.

Aduatuci

(100 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Descending from the  Cimbri and  Teutoni (Caes. B Gall. 2,29,4 f.), the A. lived among the Germani Cisrhenani, without being part of them, between the Nervii and the Eburones in Gallia Belgica on both banks of the Maas river between Liège/Namur and Limbourg. The main town was Aduatuca (Tungrorum), modern Tongeren, with an early Roman garrison [1]. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 A. Vanderhoeven (et al.), Tongern, Tongres, Tongeren, in: Spurensicherung, 1992, 387-402, 579. J. R. Marichal, Les frontières des Aduatiques et des Germains cisrhé…

Breuni

(120 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (Breones). Tribe living in the inner Alps in  Raetia, subjugated by Drusus in 15 BC; often mentioned in connection with the Genauni (e.g. Hor. Carm. 4,14,11: veloces; Plin. HN 3,137), they were wrongly associated with the Brenner Pass. Under the name of Breones, they were still active as a group in late antiquity (Cassiod. Var. 1,11,2; Venetius Fortunatus, Vita Martini 4,645; Carm. praef. 4), and gave their name to a diocese (Acta Conc. Oec. IV 2,135 § 18 v. 591). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR L 32,39 H. Wolfram, Tiroler Randgruppen, in: FS A. Betz, …

Chauci

(170 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Warlike Germanic seafaring tribe (etymologically related to the Gothic háuhs, Old High German hôh- ‘high’; Str. 7,1,3; idealized in Tac. Germ. 35). The C. lived north of the Angrivarii on the North Sea coast, on both banks of the lower Weser, and were divided into the ‘lesser’ and the ‘greater’ C. (Tac. Ann. 11,19,2; Ptol. 2,11,7; 9; Plin. HN 16,2-5). They were fought by Drusus and subjected to Roman rule in AD 5; despite a Roman occupational force and the fact that they had to supply auxiliar…

Batavis

(295 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Raeti, Raetia Today, the historic centre of Passau. The name was recorded rather late (Not. Dign. Occ. 35,24; Eugippius, Vita Severinus 19,1; 22,4; 24,1; 27,1; Batavini: ibid. 20,1; 22,1; 27,3). Located in  Raetia, across from Boiodurum/Innstadt in Noricum. A late Celtic oppidum between the Danube and the Inn was discontinued c. 100 years before the Roman settlement. The Roman settlement was quite dense since late Flavian times, but not yet clearly organized: the narrow, rectangular houses bel…
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