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Merops

(177 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μέροψ/Mérops). [German version] [1] Mythical king of the Meropians Mythical king of the Meropians on the island of Cos (Q. Smyrn. 8,6,71). From grief and longing for his spouse Echemeia, who had been sent to Hades, he is transformed into an eagle by Hera, and finally catasterized (Hyg. Astr. 2,16). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Father of Eumelus Father of Eumelus [2] (Antoninus Liberalis 15; Agron [1]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Mythical king of the Ethiopians Mythical king of the Ethiopians, husband of Clymene [1] (Ov. Met. 1,755f.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) …

Membliarus

(50 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μεμβλίαρος; Memblíaros, also Βλίαρος; Blíaros). Mythical Phoenician settler, member of the expedition undertaken by Cadmus [1] in search of his sister Europa [2]. He stayed behind on the island of Thera, whence he colonised the nearby island of Anaphe (Hdt. 4,147; Paus. 3,1,7f.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Orbona

(73 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] Roman goddess. Her name is derived from orbus ('childless') and explained as an evil power that robs parents of their children. To appease her, a sanctuary was dedicated to her near the temple of the Lares (Cic. Nat. D. 3,63; Plin. HN 2,16; Tert. Ad nat. 2,15,2). According to Arnob. 4,7, she was the goddess of parents who have lost their children. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography Latte, 53  Radke, 240f.

Polyphemus

(485 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πολύφημος/ Polýphēmos, Latin Polyphemus). [German version] [1] Lapith, Argonaut who fought agains the centaurs A Lapith (Lapithae) from Larisa in Thessaly, son of Elatus [2] and Hippea (the daughter of Anthippus), brother of Caeneus. P. fought against the centaurs (Hom. Il. 1,264) and was one of the Argonauts (Apoll. Rhod. 1,40-44). Having stayed behind in Mysia with Heracles [1] in search of Hylas, he founded Cius und fell in battle against the Chalybes (Apoll. Rhod. l.c. und 1,1240 ff.; Apollod. 1,113 und 117). In Euphorion he is the son of Poseidon and lover of Hyl…

Phronime

(106 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φρονίμη; Phronímē). Daughter of Etearchus, the mythical king of Oaxus in Crete, and his first wife; mother of Battus [1], the mythical founder of Cyrene. Hdt. 4,154f. tells her story evidently according to a Cyrenian source: on the basis of a slander by his second wife, Etearchus hands his daughter over to the merchant Themison to be drowned. He does throw her into water in accordance with his promise, but pulls her out again. In Thera Polymnestus takes her as a concubine and fathers Battus with her. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography W. Aly, Volksmärchen, Sage und Novel…

Proetus

(468 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Προῖτος/ Proîtos, Lat. Proetus). Mythical king of Argos (Hom. Il. 6,157; Pind. Nem. 10,77), or Tiryns (Apollod. 2,25; Schol. Eur. Or. 965), son of Tersander and father of Maera [1] (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 170b), more commonly however son of Abas [1] and Aglaea (Schol. Eur. Or. 965; Paus. 2,16,2; Apollod. 2,24 f.). P.' conflict with his twin brother Acrisius originates as early as their time in the womb (Apollod. 2,24 f.) or after P. has seduced Acrisius' daughter Danae (Apollod. 2,34 f…

Podaleirius

(210 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ποδαλείριος; Podaleírios). Son of Asclepius and Epione, brother of Machaon, and like him a heroic or divine physician (Hom. Il. 11,833; cf. ibid. 2,731). He is mentioned among the suitors of Helen [1]  (Apollod. 3,131). In the cyclic epics he heals Philoctetes (Apollod. epit. 4,8; cf. Soph. Phil. 1333), diagnoses the madness of Ajax [1] and is finally cast away in Caria, where he founds Syrnus (Apollod. epit. 6,2; 6,18; Paus. 3,26,10). Apart from that, like Asclepius's other child…

Nyctimene

(41 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Νυκτιμένη/ Nyktiménē). Daughter of Epopeus, the mythological king of Lesbos; after seducing her father (or being raped by her father) she is transformed into an owl by Athena (Ov. Met. 2,590ff.; Hyg. Fab. 204; 253). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Oeleus

(84 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (ᾨλεύς/ Ōileús). Mythological king of Locris [1], son of Hodoedocus and Agrianome or Laonome, the daughter of Perseon; also son of Apollo (Hyg. Fab. 161); son of Eriopis, father, by her, of 'Little' Ajax [2], also father of Medon (illegitimate, by Rhene). He was one of the Argonauts (Hom. Il. 2,726-728; 13,694-696, Apoll. Rhod. 1,74-76; Hes. Cat. 82). For the original form of the name (ιλεύς) and its meaning see [1]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 W.A. Oldfather, s.v. O., RE 17, 2175-2187.

Phlegyas

(116 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φλεγύας; Phlegýas). Eponym of the Phlegyans, a mythical people in Thessalia (Hom. Il. 13,302), also localized in Boeotia, Phocis or Epidaurus (Erythraean Paean [1. 372-374]). Son of Ares and Dotis, father of Ixion (Eur. TrGF fr. 424) and Coronis [1], mother of Asclepius (H. Hom. 16; Pind. Pyth. 3,8-11; Isyllos IG IV2 1, 128,37-56 = Paean 40 E Käppel [1. 382]). The Phlegyans were a people of brigands (H. Hom. 3,278), and P. himself set fire to the temple of Apollo in Delphi, thus becoming one of the penitents in the Underworld (…

Isyllus

(277 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ἴσυλλος; Ísyllos) from Epidaurus, son of Socrates. Around 300 BC, poet of a consecutive series of poems (in trochaic tetrametres, dactylic hexametres, ionics, elegiac distichs), extant as inscriptions, for the cult of  Asclepius of  Epidaurus (IG IV 12 128 = [1. 380-383]). In these, I. creates on the one hand a specific Epidaurian mythology of Asclepius, which relocates the roots of the god to the healing sanctuary that had been of increasing importance since the 5th cent. BC. The traditional myth, on the other hand…

Molus

(71 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μόλος/ Mólos). Mythical Cretan, son or brother of Deucalion, uncle or brother of Adomenes, father of Meriones (Hom. Il. 10,269; Apollod. 3,17; Diod. Sic. 5,79). There is a report about a Cretan festival in Plut. De def. or. 14, in which a headless doll called M. makes an appearance: this doll symbolises M.'s beheading as a punishment for ravishing a nymph. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography Nilsson, Feste, 440, 468f.

Phobos

(122 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φόβος/ Phóbos, Latin Pavor ). Personification of terror, esp. terror in war (cf. Aesch. Sept. 45); therefore, along with his brother Deimos, son of Ares and Aphrodite (Hes. Sc. 195f., 463f.). The brothers are found in Homer in connection with their father's chariot (Hom. Il. 4,440f.; 13,299f.; 15,119f.); they appear on the shield of Agamemnon together with Gorgo [1] (Hom. Il. 11,36f.), P. alone appears on the aegis of Athena (Hom. Il. 5,739) and of Heracles [1] (He…

Nasamon

(40 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Νασάμων; Nasámōn). Son of Amphithemis (Garamas according to Apoll. Rhod. 4,1492) and the nymph Tritonis, great-grandson of Minos. N. was the progenitor and eponym of the Nasamones in Libya (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 4,1322). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Ochimus

(55 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὄχιμος/ Ochimos). Mythological king of Rhodes, the oldest of the Heliadae. His brother Cercaphus married Cydippe [3], the daughter of O., although she was betrothed to another man, and the couple had to flee; following their return Cercaphus became O.'s successor (Hellanicus FGrH 140 F 37; Diod. Sic. 5,56f.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Ouroboros

(189 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Οὐροβόρος; Ourobóros). Snake biting its own tail, frequently used as a symbol by ancient alchemists but also appearing frequently in Graeco-Egyptian magical papyri (PGM 7, col. 17; cf. PGM 1,145f.; 12,203f.; 12,274f.; 36,184). It represents the unity of all forces and processes in the cosmos. By investigating a single matter accurately one understands everything: the macrocosm is reflected in the microcosm. The formula that explains the symbol is evidently meant to express the pri…

Typhoeus, Typhon

(499 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Τυφωεύς/ Typhōeús, Τυφῶν/ Typhôn; also Τυφάων/ Typháōn, Τυφώς/ Typhṓs). Gigantic mythical monster, according to Hesiod the offspring of Tartaros and Gaia, with a hundred dragons' heads (spitting fire) and serpents' feet (for pictorial representations, see [1]), set up by Gaia as a rival ruler to Zeus after the fall of the Titans but defeated by him and cast into the underworld. From then on, he causes storms and volcanic eruptions (Hes. Theog. 820-880). His union with Echidna produces more monster progeny: Orthus, Cerberus, Hydra [1], Chimaera and others ( ibid. 306-…

Menesthius

(84 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μενέσθιος; Menésthios). [German version] [1] Boeotian at Troy Son of Areithous and Philomedusa, from Ame in Boeotia, killed in Paris in the Trojan War (Hom. Il. 7,9; Tzetz. ad Hom. Il. 132). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Myrmidonian, a general of Achilles Myrmidonian, one of Achilles's generals in the Trojan War, son of Polydora and the river god Spercheus or the giant Pelor (Hom. Il. 16,173; Str. 9,433; Apollod. 3,168 with various genealogical and matrimonial variations for Polydora). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Macris

(53 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μάκρις; Mákris). Daughter of Aristaeus [1], wet-nurse of Dionysus on Euboea. After she was banished by Hera she lived on Corcyra, which was named M. after her, in a grotto which was later the place where Iason and Medea got married (Apoll. Rhod. 4,540; 990; 1130ff.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Thaletas

(134 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Θαλήτας/ Thalḗtas; in some authors wrongly Thales, e.g. Paus. 1,14,4; Plut. Lycurgus 4), choral lyricist of the 7th cent. BC, from Gortyn (in Crete). Besides Xenodamus of Cythera, Xenocritus [1] of Locri and others, he was involved in various musical innovations in Sparta in the generation after Terpander (Plut. De musica 9,1134b-c). Like these, he composed paeans (Plut. loc.cit.) and hyporchḗmata (Schol. Pind. Pyth. 2,127). According to later authors of musical theory, he introduced paeonic and cretic rhythms to Sparta…

Myscelus

(82 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μύσκελ[λ]ος/ Mýskel(l)os). Mythical founder of Croton. Son of Alemon of Rhypes in Achaea. According to Ov. Met. 15, 12-59, his foundation of Croton was connected with Heracles [1] (according to others, with the Delphic Apollo): after his home town indicted Myscelus because of his illegal plan to found a city, Heracles turned the black voting stones white at the ballot, thus enabling the foundation (variants in [1. 254f.]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 F. Bömer, P. Ovidius Naso, Metamorphosen, vols. 14-15, 1986.

Phocus

(169 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Φῶκος; Phôkos). [German version] [1] Mythical hero of Aegina Mythical hero of Aegina, son of Aeacus and the Nereid Psamathe; the latter had attempted in vain to stop Aeacus from raping her by turning herself into a seal ( phṓkē): hence the name P. for the child of this union (Hes. Theog. 1004f., Apollod. 3,158 and 160; Pind. Nem. 5,12). In Phocis P. marries the princess Asterodia and gives his name to this region (Apollod. 1,86). P. is ultimately killed by his step-brothers Peleus and Telamon, and he is buried in Aegina (Paus. 2,29,…

Phaeaces

(445 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φαίακες/ Phaíakes, Latin Phaeaces, the Phaeacians). Mythical seafaring people, ruled by King Alcinous [1] (together with 12 other 'kings') and his wife Arete [1]. The P. live on the island of Scheria, to which they were led by Nausithous [1] from Hyperea (Hom. Od. 6,5; 7,58). There are comprehensive accounts of the P. in Hom. Od. books 6-8 and 13. The P. receive Odysseus as their guest after the king's daughter Nausicaa discovers him shipwrecked on the beach. They entertain him lavi…

Nysus

(44 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Νύσος/ Nýsos). Male counterpart of Nysa [1]. He is the tutor of Dionysus. He exercises power in Thebes during the latter's campaign to India, but it is seized back again on his return (Hyg. Fab. 131, 167, 179). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Ogygia

(183 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὠγυγία/ Ōgygía, epic -η/ ē). Mythical island on which the goddess Calypso lives (Hom. Od. 1,49ff.; 5,13ff.) and on which Odysseus stayed for almost ten years. In the 'Odyssey', O. is situated in the west (cf. Hom. Od. 5,271ff.) - as omphalòs thalássēs ('navel of the sea', cf. on this aspect [1. 2070ff.]). Since antiquity the geographical position has been a contentious issue: (1) near Crete (Antimachus fr. 142 Wyss); (2) in or near Italy: (a) Gozo (Callim. fr. 470), (b) Lacinium (Scylax 13 GGM), (c) Nymphaea (Apoll. Rhod…

Rhea, Rheia

(196 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ῥέα/ Rhéa, Ῥέη/ Rhéē, Ῥεία/ Rheía, Ῥείη/ Rheíē). Greek goddess; daughter of Uranus and Gaia, sister and consort of her brother Kronos, and by him the mother of Zeus, Hera, Demeter, Hades, Poseidon and Hestia (Hes. Theog. 453-463). Kronos devours the children in order to avoid the danger of being deprived of his power by one of them. However R. hides Zeus in Crete and instead gives Kronos a stone wrapped in swaddling bands. When Zeus is grown up he frees his brothers and sisters and with…

Peirithous

(396 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πειρίθοος, -θους/ Peiríthoos, - thous; Περίθοος, -θους/ Períthoos, - thous; Latin Pirithous, Perithous etc.). Thessalian, later also Attic hero, king of the Lapithae, son of Zeus (Hom. Il. 2,741; 14,317f.; cf. Hom. Od. 11,631; Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 134; Pl. Resp. 391c-d) or Ixion (Ephorus FGrH 70 F 23; Diod. Sic. 4,63,1; 4,69,3; Ov. Met. 8,403f., 567, 613; 12,210, 338; Apollod. 1,68) and Dia [3], brother of Clymene [6], husband of Hippodamia [2], father of Polypoetes [1] (Hom. Il. 2,740-742; 1…

Milye

(45 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μιλύη; Milýē). Daughter of Zeus, sister and wife of Solymus, eponym of the Lycian people of the Solymi, who were called Milyae after M. (Hdt. 1,173; 3,90; 7,77); later wife of Cragus, after whom Mount Cragus was named. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Oenopion

(93 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Οἰνοπίων; Oinopíōn). Son of Dionysus and Ariadne (also son of Rhadamanthys: Diod. Sic. 5,79; Paus. 7,4,8f.), husband of the nymph Helice, and with her the father of Merope [2] (also husband of Merope: Pind. fr. 72 M.). When  Orion [1] rapes O.'s daughter Merope, O. blinds him; when Orion is healed and returns for revenge, he cannot find O., who is hiding underground (Eratosth. Katasterismoi 32; Hyg. Poet. Astr. 2,34; Hes. fr. 148a M.-W.). For other variants cf. Apollod. 1,25f.; Parthenius 20; Serv. Aen. 1,535; 10,763. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Manto

(155 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μαντώ; Mantṓ). Daughter of Teiresias, from Thebes, like her father gifted as a seer, priestess of Apollo Ismenios (Eur. Phoen. 834ff.). When the Epigoni [2] conquer Thebes, M. is consecrated to Apollo at Delphi (Apollod. 3,85; Paus. 9,33,2; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,308). Diod. Sic. 4,66,5f. calls her Daphne [2], and describes her as an excellent poet, from whom even Homer took some verses. Later, M. participates in the founding of the colony of Colophon [1] in Asia Minor (with the or…

Mentes

(71 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μέντης; Méntēs). [German version] [1] Ciconian leader in the Trojan War Mythical commander of the Cicones in the Trojan War. Apollo assumes his guise to spur Hector on to battle (Hom. Il. 17,13). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Prince of the Taphians in the Trojan War Mythical Prince of the Taphiae. Athena assumes his guise to appear to Telemachus (Hom. Od. 1,105; 1,180; Mentor [2]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Peisidice

(103 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πεισιδίκη; Peisidíkē). [German version] [1] Name of various mythical figures Name of various mythical figures: daughter of Aeolus [1], wife of Myrmidon (Apollod. 1,51f.), daughter of Nestor [1] ( ibid. 1,94), daughter of Pelias ( ibid. 1,95; Hyg. Fab. 24). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Daughter of King Lepethymnus of Methymna Daughter of King Lepethymnus of Methymna; love prompted her to betray her home city to its besieger, Achilles [1], but she was stoned to death for this on his orders (Parthenius 21). The same story is also told o…

Oeonus

(75 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Οἰωνός; Oiōnós). Son of Licymnius [1], from Midea in the Argolid, companion of Heracles [1], first winner of a race in the Olympic games (Pind. Ol. 10,64ff. with schol.); he was slain in Sparta by the sons of Hippocoon because he had killed their dog; a grave of O. was shown there (Apollod. 2,143f.; Paus. 3,15,3ff.). O.' death is considered the reason for Heracles' fight against the Hippocoontids. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Salmoneus

(238 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Σαλμωνεύς/ Salmōneús). Son of Aeolus [1], brother of Athamas, Sisyphus and Cretheus. S. had delusions of grandeur and endeavoured to have himself worshipped as Zeus, driving around on a chariot drawn by horses, producing artificial lightning flashes and making bronzen cauldrons resound to give the impression of thunder. Zeus flung him into Tartarus. S.' daughter Tyro distanced herself from her father, was spared and married Cretheus (Hes. fr. 10a, 25-27 M.-W.; fr. 30,1-30 M.-W.; A…

Phoroneus

(109 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φορωνεύς; Phorōneús). Son of Alpheius [2], ancestor of the Pelasgian race (in contrast to the more recent Hellenic race, whose ancestor is Deucalion) and hence the 'first man' (Akusilaos FGrH 2 F 23a; Hes. fr. 122 M.-W.; Hellanikos FGrH 4 F 1; Hyg. Fab. 143 and 274) [1. 84]. Like Prometheus he was the inventor of fire (Paus. 2,19,5), bringer of culture, and judge in the dispute over Argos between Poseidon and Athena (Paus. 2,15,5). He is the subject of the epic Phorōnís ( c. 600 BC) [2; 3; 4]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 Preller/Robert 2 PEG I, 118-121 3 EpGF, 153-155 4…

Phalantus

(123 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φάλανθος/ Phálanthos; Lat. Phalant[h]us). Mythological founder of Taranto (Taras; Antiochus of Syracuse FGrH 555 F 13; Ephorus FGrH 70 F 216; Paus. 10,10,6-8 and elsewhere). According to Antiochus l.c., P. founded Taranto as a result of the instruction by the oracle of Delphi after an uprising by the Parthenians, led by him, against Sparta during the first Messenian War had failed; according to Ephorus l.c., the Spartans persuaded the Parthenians to emigrate. However, according to Paus. l.c., Taranto already existed. Apart from that, Paus. 10,13,3 report…

Oebalus

(107 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Οἴβαλος/ Oíbalos, Latin Oebalus). [German version] [1] Spartan king Mythical king of Sparta, son of Cynortas or his son Perieres, husband of Perseus's daughter Gorgophone; she, or the Naiad Batea, is the mother of their children Tyndareos,  Hippocoon and Icarius [1] (various versions in Apollod. 3,116f.; Paus. 3,1,3ff.; schol. Eur. Or. 457 et al.) [1]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Italic hero Italic hero, son of king Telon of the Teleboae and the nymph Sebethis; mythical ruler of Capreae; ally of Turnus against Aeneas [1] (Verg. Aen. 7,733ff. w…

Pierus

(146 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πίερος; Píeros). [German version] [1] Eponym of the Macedonian region Pieria Eponym of the Macedonian region Pieria (Pierides), son of Macedon [1] (Schol. Hom. Il. 14,226). His association with the Muses is evident from alternative genealogies: son of Linus (Suda s.v. Ὅμηρος; Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi 47), father of Oeagrus and Calliope [1] (l.c.; Paus. 9,30,4; Suda l.c.). The first to write poetry to the Muses (Plut. De musica 3), he introduced the cult of the nine Muses to Thespiae (Thespia) (Paus. 9,2…

Phthonos

(54 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (φθόνος/ phthónos, Latin invidia). 'Envy, jealousy', particularly what was known as phthónos theôn, the 'jealousy of the gods', which is directed against humans who aspire to transgress the boundaries with the divine (Hybris); (cf. Hdt. 1,32; 3,40 etc.); as a personification P. appears in Eur. Tro. 768 etc. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Navius Attus

(117 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (also Atius Navius). Legendary Roman augur ( augures ) from the period of the monarchy (Cic. Att. 10,8,6), at the time of Tarquinius Priscus (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 30,70,1). He opposed an attempt to amend the centuriate system (Cic. Rep. 2,36). So as to discredit NA, Tarquinius is said to have tasked him with predicting from the flight of birds whether his plan was feasible. When NA confirmed that it was, Tarquinius ordered him to cut through a stone with a knife, and NA succeeded in doing so (Liv. 1,36,4; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom 3,71,2ff.; cf. also Cic. Div. 1,32). Käppel, Lutz (Kie…

Polytechnos

(103 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πολύτεχνος; Polýtechnos). In Antoninus Liberalis 11 (after Boeus, Ornithogonia) the husband of Aedon and father of Itys. In revenge for the violation of her sister Chelidonis by P., Aedon kills their son Itys and serves him for P. to eat. In the end all participants are turned into birds, P. into a woodpecker [1. 87-89]. This is probably the purest form of ancient bird tale, which ultimately found its canonical form with  Tereus, Procne and Philomele (Ov. Met. 6,412-674) [2. 115-119]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 M. Papathemopoulos (ed.), Antoninus Liberal…

Mulius

(63 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μούλιος; Moúlios). [German version] [1] Son-in-law of Augeias of Elis, son-in-law of Augeias, to whose daughter Agamede he is married; he is killed by Nestor (Hom. Il. 11,738ff.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Herald of Penelope's suitor Amphinomus Herald of Penelope's suitor Amphinomus of Dulichium; he serves the suitors in the house of Odysseus (Hom. Od. 18,423). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Tynnichus

(63 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Τύννιχος; Týnnichos) from Chalcis (Euboea). Choral lyricist of the 7th cent. BC (?), composer of a paean often sung in Delphi (Plat. Ion 534d), which, according to an anecdote, even Aeschylus placed above everything he could have written himself (Porph. De abstinentia animalium 2,18 p. 148 Nauck). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography L. Käppel, Paian, 1992, 359  I. Rutherford, Pindar's Paeans, 2001, 28.

Polyxo

(198 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πολυξώ/ Polyxṓ). [German version] [1] One of the Hyades One of the Hyades. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Mother of Antiope Wife of Nycteus, mother of Antiope [1]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Wife of Tlepolemus Wife of Tlepolemus. After he fell in the Trojan War, she holds funeral games for him in Rhodes where she had fled with him from Argos. When her friend Helena [1] flees to her, she has her - as the guilty party in the war in which her husband died - hanged on a tree by female servants dressed as Erinyes…

Nannacus

(67 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Νάννακος/ Nánnakos, according to Steph. Byz. Ἀννακός/ Annakós). Mythological king of Phrygia who supposedly lived to be over 300 years old. He predicted the flood of Deucalion and prayed with his people to be spared. Numerous proverbs relating to his great age and his tearful pleading are associated with him (Zenob. 6,10; Macarius Chrysocephalus 2,23; 8,4; Apostolius 15,100; cf. already Herondas 3,10). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Trophonius

(575 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Τροφώνιος/ Trophṓnios, or Τρεφώνιος/ Trephṓnios). Hero of the Boeotian Lebadia, stepson or brother of Agamedes (Paus. 9,37,5; schol. Aristoph. Nub. 508). The following are mentioned as parents: Apollo and Epicaste (Paus. loc. cit.; schol. Aristoph. loc .cit.), Zeus and Iocaste (schol. Aristoph. loc. cit.), Valens/Ischys and Coronis [1] (Cic. Nat. D. 3,56), Erigonus (Hom. h. 3,296 f.; Paus. 9,37,4 f., etc.). Children: Alcander [1] and Hercyra. In the myth, T. and Agamedes are the famous builders of Delphi's first temple of Apollo  (Hom. h. 3,2…

Phemonoe

(59 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φημονόη/ Phēmonóē). Daughter of Apollo; she was his first seer (Pythia) in Delphi and invented the hexameter verse; the maxim 'know yourself'(γνῶθι σεαυτόν/ gnôthi seautón) is supposed to have come from her (Paus. 10,5,4; 10,6,3; 10,12,5; Str. 9,3,5). Her name is also widely used to mean a prophetess (Luc. 5,126. 185; Stat. Silv. 2,2,39). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Mantius

(46 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μάντιος; Mántios). Son of the seer Melampus, brother of Antiphates, father of Cleitus [1] and of the seer Polypheides (Hom. Od. 15,242ff.), according to Paus. 6,17,6 also of Oïcles (who in Hom. ibid. is his nephew), grandfather of Theoclymenus. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Oenone

(198 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Οἰνώνη; Oinṓnē). [German version] [1] Poetic term for the island of Aegina Poetic term for the island of Aegina (Pind. N. 4,46; 5,16; 8,7; Pind. I. 5,34; cf. Ov. Met. 7,474). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Nymph from the Troad Nymph from the Troad, daughter of the river god Cebren, sister of Asterope (Apollod. 3,154f.; according to Tzetz. on Lycophr. 57 daughter of Oeneus), mother of Corythus (Parthenius 34; Ov. Met. 7,361). Paris, exposed in the Idaean mountains, becomes her lover and spends his first love with her, but the…

Mnemon

(81 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μνήμων; Mnḗmōn). [German version] [1] Slave of Achilles Slave of Achilles [1] whose sole responsibility it was to warn his master not to kill any of Apollo's offspring as he was predestined to die soon thereafter. He forgets to issue the warning when Achilles is fighting Cycnus [2] and Tennes and is consequently put to death (Lycoph. 240-242 with schol. ad loc.; Plut. Quaest. Graec. 28). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] see Artaxerxes [2] II see Artaxerxes [2] II
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