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Water supply

(4,233 words)

Author(s): A.M.B. | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
I. Ancient Orient [German version] A. General Points Despite its central importance to the origin and development of settlements, the supply of water for drinking and other uses in the cities of the ancient Orient has to date not been systematically studied. The analysis of the numerous archaeological discoveries is made difficult by the fact that in most cases they have not been adequately recorded, in others not at all. Individual exceptions are the water installations in the cities and fortresses of ancient Israel, which have been accurately recorded and studied in depth [5]. A.M.B. …

Hermocreon

(168 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] [1] Greek architect, 3rd cent. BC Greek architect of the 3rd cent. BC; according to Str. 10,5,7 and 13,1,13, he built a state altar, 1 stadium long ( Measures), from the material of an abandoned temple near Parium; it is presumably depicted on coins (London, BM) and could be compared with the Hieronian monumental altar of  Syracusae. Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) Bibliography Overbeck, 2086-2087 (sources) G. A. Mansuelli, s.v. H., EAA 4, 1961, 13 (with fig. 18). [German version] [2] Epigrammatist, 3rd cent. BC Epigrammatist whose existence cannot be proven with…

Atrium

(292 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] 1. Central room in the ancient Italian and Roman house with lateral cubicula (sleeping chambers) and rear tablinum (room serving as passage between the atrium and the peristylion) flanked by the   alae which had no door. Early forms of the atrium are reproduced in Etruscan chamber tombs (Cerveteri), the oldest evidence is represented by Etruscan domestic architecture at the end of the 6th cent. BC in Rome (the Palatine) and in the Etruscan Marzabotto. The early Roman atrium served as a reception room for the clientes whom the patron received while sitting on the solium. In …

Construction technique

(3,375 words)

Author(s): Sievertsen, Uwe (Tübingen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
I.Near East and Egypt [German version] A. Near East From the earliest times clay was the most important building material in Mesopotamia, along with reeds in the marshlands of the extreme south. With only a few exceptions, stone architecture, in a fairly strict sense of the term, is not found either in Babylon, which was lacking in raw materials other than limestone lodes, or in Assyria. When stone was used it was mainly for functional purposes, e.g. in laying foundations. Only in late Assyrian monumenta…

Architecture

(5,740 words)

Author(s): Sievertsen, Uwe (Tübingen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] A. I. Middle East Since Neolithic times, the most important building material in Mesopotamia has been the unkilned clay brick. A more extensive use of stone can be found in western regions of the Old Orient, in particular Asia Minor, and in Iran during Persian times. The typical New Assyrian house is divided into two sections: a forecourt with utility rooms and an inner courtyard with residential quarters. By contrast, rooms in a Babylonian house as of the 3rd millennium are usually …

Metagenes

(253 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Μεταγένης; Metagénēs). [German version] [1] Attic poet of the Old Comedy, 5th/4th cent. BC Attic poet of the last years of the Old Comedy (end of the 5th and early 4th cent. BC), listed among the winners at the Lenaea with two victories, immediately before Theopompus [1. test. 2]. The Suda mentions the titles of five plays: Αὖραι ἢ Μαμμάκυθος , Θουριοπέρσαι, Φιλοθύτης, Ὅμηρος ἢ Ἀσκηταί (or Ὅμηρος ἢ Σοφισταί [1. fr. 11]) [1. test. 1]. The plays have been lost, except for a few fragments. In the most extensive fragment (11 V. from the Θουριοπέρσαι) the narrator rhapsodizes about the Cockaigne-like rivers near Thurii (fr. 6). Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 4-13. [German version] [2] From Knossos, architect, 6th cent. BC 6th-century BC architect, son of Chersiphron of Knossos on Crete, named, along with his father, by Vitruvius (7 praef. 16) as the builder of the archaic dipteral temple of Artemis in Ephesus. The relationship between Chersiphron and M. remains uncertain, as does the differentiation of their activities. In comparison with his famous father, M. is only seldom men…

Dolphin

(513 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(δελφίς/ delphís and δελφίν/ delphín, Lat. delphinus and delphin). [German version] [1] Representative of the small viviparous whale A frequent representative in the Mediterranean of the small viviparous  whale, with a spout (αὐλός; aulós), articulation of sounds, and pulmonary respiration (Aristot. Hist. an. 1,5,489a 35-b 5; 4,9,535b 32-536a 4; 8,2,589a 31-b 11 with a discussion of its role as an aquatic animal, ἔνυδρος; énydros), was admired chiefly by the Greeks as ‘king of marine animals’ (or of fishes; Ael. NA 15,17; Opp. Hal. 1,643 and 5,421 or 441). Its scant fear of man (Ps.-Aristot. Hist. an. 9,48,631a 8f.), its speed and acrobatics were all esteemed (631a 20-30), as also its intellectual qualities, which it employed to escape from a fishing net (Ael. NA 11,12) and also to save singers like  Arion from Methymna (in Hdt. 1,23f.; Plin. HN 9,28; Cic. Tusc. 2,67; Ov. Fast. 2,83; Prop. 2,26,17; Gell. NA 16,19; Paus.…

Intarsia

(538 words)

Author(s): Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient In Middle Eastern archaeology intarsia is the term for the laying of decorative elements of different materials onto or into a substratum. To achieve better colour contrasts, combinations of different materi…

Ala

(332 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon)
[German version] [1] Part of the Roman atrium house Part of the Roman atrium house ( House;  Atrium). The term ala designates two opposing rooms, open in their full width and height, that form the cross axis in front of the tablinum or main room of the house. Alae were very common in Roman home construction; Vitruvius lists the correct proportions for design (6,3,4). The origin of the design type is unclear. The conjecture that, in Vitruvius' description of the Tuscan temple (4,7,1), the term for the two outer

Column

(3,015 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] I. Egypt and the Ancient Orient As a statically significant building element, whether in wood or modelled from stone or brick, the column played different roles in Egypt and the Ancient Orient. In Egypt columns were a component of almost every form of architecture, from roof-bearing wooden posts in family residences to extravagantly shape…

Building trade

(3,561 words)

Author(s): Sievertsen, Uwe (Tübingen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] I. Near East and Egypt Near East: the lack of preliminary studies makes a comprehensive account of the Old Oriental building world across several periods impossible; investigations exist for only a few selective periods. It is the Neo-Assyrian period (1st half of the 1st millennium BC), which to date provides the clearest insight because of the availability of extensive source material in respect of the architecture of palaces, temples and fortifications. Royal inscriptions prove the i…

Phigalia

(734 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Education / Culture (Φιγάλεια/ Phigáleia, Φιγαλία/

Stadion

(1,137 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) | Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(στάδιον; stádion). [German version] [1] Unit of length (Doric…

Polychromy

(1,344 words)

Author(s): Koch, Nadia Justine (Tübingen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Introduction …

Proportion

(2,206 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Willers, Dietrich (Berne) | Haas, Max (Basle)
[German version] I. Architecture 'Proportion' is a modern technical term in the archaeological research of monuments. In the description of a structure, a proportion represents the ratio of two lines or the ratio of the sides of a rectangular area, in the mathematical sense of a division (x:y). The proportions of a building are determined based on its detailed measurement. Increasingly precise and generally binding procedures for obtaining and evaluating the relevant data have been developed by W. Dörpfeld; K. Koldewey; O. Puchstein

Ephesus

(2,941 words)

Author(s): Scherrer, Peter (Vienna) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Theatre | Byzantium | Caesar | Christianity | Wine | | Commerce | Ḫattusa | Hellenistic states | Ionic | Asia Minor | Asia Minor | Asia Minor | Limes | Marble | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Rome | Rome | Athletes | Delian League | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources I. History [German version] A. Site …

Dodona, Dodone

(1,049 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Dark Ages | Oracles | Persian Wars | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Δωδώνη; Dōdṓnē). [German version] …

Town planning

(3,963 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] I. General Town planning is the designing of urban settlements (Town, city) on an organizational basis, with the central and particular functions of the town, e.g. as a port or a political centre, having an effect on its external and internal form. Most towns and cities in the Middle East and Egypt arose in the earliest times (in the Middle East from the 5th millennium onwards) at economically or strategically important points (trade routes, river crossings, anchorages). Towns and c…

Echinus

(668 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Ἐχῖνος; Echînos). [German version] [1] Town on the northern shore of the Gulf of Malia Town on the northern shore of the Gulf of Malia near today's village of Achino. Originally part of the Achaea Phthiotis, Echinus was granted by Philippus II to the Malieis in 342 with whom E. belonged to the Aetolian league from

Velia

(851 words)

Author(s): Salomone Gaggero, Eleonora (Genoa) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] [1] Ligurian city in the valley of the upper Chero (Βελεία, Βελία/ Bel(e)ía; Οὐελεία/ Oueleía). Ligurian city (but in Regio VIII) in the valley of the upper Chero (tributary of the Po), c. 30 km to the south of Placentia; modern Velleia. Possibly an Augustean colonia, tribus Galeria (Plin. HN 3,47; ILS 1079, l. 8: res publica Velleiat[ium]; ILS 5560: municipes); according to the archaeological finds evidently destroyed in the 4th/5th cent. AD and abandoned. Parts of the forum survive (drainage system; paving, cf. CIL XI 1184; basilica; po…
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