Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( Karttunen, AND Klaus AND (Helsinki) ) OR dc_contributor:( Karttunen, AND Klaus AND (Helsinki) )' returned 256 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Musicanus

(111 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Μουσικανός/ Mousikanós). Indian king of the people of the same name ( Musicani) on the lower reaches of the Indus (Onesicritus in Str. 15,1,21f.; Arr. Anab. 6,15,5-17,2, also briefly Curt. 9,8,8-10). People have often tried to link the name wit the ancient Indian tribal name Mūṣika; however, they originated not in the north west, but in the south of India. M. had initially submitted to Alexander [4] the Great and had been received cordially, but after a failed revolt he was condemned to death. Onesicritus depicts his kingdom as a utopia steeped in Cynical philosophy. …

Peukelaotis

(156 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Alexandros | Graeco-Baktrien | Graeco-Baktrien | Hellenistische Staatenwelt | Indienhandel (Πευκελαῶτις: Arr. an. 4,22,7-8,28,6; auch Πευκελαῖτις: Arr. Ind. 1,8; 4,11; Πευκελαῖτις: Strab. 15,1,27; ferner z.B. Προκλαίς: Ptol. 7,1,44; Ποκλαίς: peripl. m. Eux. 47f.). Stadt in Gandhāra (im h. Pakistan westl. vom Indus; Gandaritis), altindisch Puṣkalavatī, mittelindisch Pukkhalāvatī, griech. Form wohl unter Einfluß von Namen mit Peuko- ( Peukolaos, Peukéstas). P. hatte eine wichtige Lage am alten Han…

Patala

(98 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Alexandros | Graeco-Baktrien | Graeco-Baktrien | Hellenistische Staatenwelt | Indienhandel | Mauryas (τὰ Πάταλα). Stadt und Stützpunkt Alexandros' [4] d.Gr. an der Indus-Mündung, wohl altindisch Pātāla (Arr. an. 5,4,1; Arr. Ind. 2,6; Strab. 15,1,33 u.a.). Der Name wurde auch für das gesamte Gebiet gebraucht, später auch für die Insel Patalene (Ptol. 7,1,55), aber die Stadt wird nie mehr erwähnt. Statt dessen war Barabara Zentrum und Hafen des Gebiets, was vielleicht auf der unsteten Natur der Mündung beruht. Kart…

Larike

(56 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[English version] Indische Region in Gujarāt, im Westen an Indoskythien angrenzend, mit Hauptstadt Ozene (Ptol. 7,1,62f., s. auch Peripl. m. r. 41 (Ariake) und Ptol. 7,1,4f.). Der Name ist offensichtlich verwandt mit dem altindischen Lāṭa, Süd-Gujarāt. In diesem Land lag die berühmte Hafenstadt Barygaza. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography O. Wecker, s.v. L., RE 12, 837f.

Erannoboas

(51 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[English version] (Ἐραννοβόας). Nebenfluß des Ganges nach Arr. Ind. 4,3 und Plin. nat. 6,65, mittelind. Hiraññāha, ein anderer Name für Śoṇa, h. Son, der doch als Sonus (Σῶνος) getrennt von beiden Verf. gen. wird. Der alte Palibothra/Pāṭaliputra war am Zusammenfluß des Son und des Ganges gelegen. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)

Caspeira

(99 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Κάσπειρα; Káspeira). City of the Caspiraei in India (Ptol. 7,1,47; 49). The name C. was often associated with modern Cashmere, but whereas Ptolemaeus locates C. in the eastern Punjab, the Caspiraei's territory extends from the Punjab as far as the Vindhya mountains in the south; the Caspiraei appear therefore to have lived approximately in modern Rajasthan and Gujarāt. Ptol. (7,1,42), however, connects the land of Caspeiria with the upper reaches of the Jhelum, the Chenāb and the Rāvi, and this again rather suggests Cashmere. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliograph…

Nelcynda

(103 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with (Νέλκυνδα; Nèlkynda). Trading town in Limyrice, in the south of India (Peripl. m. r. 53f.). It was situated on a river 500 stadia to the south of Muziris  in the kingdom of Pandion, i.e. Pāṇdya, in the southernmost part of India. The port of Barace lay at the mouth of a river. The town is also known as Melcyda (Μελκύδα/ Melkỳda, Ptol. 7,1,9); cf. also gens Nelcyndon in Plin. HN. 6,24,105. The exact location of N. is unknown. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography O. Stein, s.v. Nelkynda, RE 16, 2281-2285.

Cophen

(38 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Κωφήν; Kōphḗn: Arr.; Κώφης/ Kṓphēs: Diod., Dionys Per., Str.; Cophes: Plin. HN). Western tributary of the river  Indus [1], old Indian Kubhā, today's Kabul. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography K. Karttunen, India and the Hellenistic World, 1997, 112.

Nagadiba

(68 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Ναγαδίβα; Nagadíba). [German version] [1] Coastal city on Taprobane Coastal city on Taprobane (modern Sri Lanka); Ptol. 7,4,7. It seems obvious to identify it with the Middle Indian Nāgadīpa ‘Island of serpents’, but no city with this name is known. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography D.P.M. Weerakkody, Taprobanê, 1997, 85ff. [German version] [2] Island near Taprobane One of the numerous islands near Taprobane, Ptol. 7,4,13. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)

Sinae

(112 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Σῖναι; Sînai). People in eastern Asia (Ptol. 1,17,5 and several times in Ptol. 7,3) with capital Thínai, Latin Thinae (Ptol. 7,3,6, Peripl. m. r. 64); also a term for southern China, which people visited by sea, whereas northern and eastern China were approached by way of the central-Asian caravan routes and was known as Serica, the land of the Seres , or the 'Silk Land'. S. and Serica were never associated with one another. The name S. is from the name of the Chinese Qín dynasty (3rd cent. BC), probably by way of the Old Indian Cīna. China Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliogra…

Calliena

(87 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with According to Peripl. M. Rubr. 52f., an empórion on the west coast of India close to what is now Bombay, Sanskrit Kalyāṇa. C. was established by the elder Saraganes as an important commercial harbour; under Sandanes in the 1st cent. AD it was abandoned in favour of  Barygaza. Also attested in Cosmas [2] Indikopleustes as Calliana (11,16; 11,22). Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography H. P. Ray, Monastery and Guild. Commerce under the Sātavāhanas, 1986.

Gandaridae

(56 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] also Gangaridae. Mentioned in accounts of Alexander's campaign ( Alexander [4], with map) and in Megasthenes as a powerful people in India. They lived east of the  Prasii on the lower Ganges. Also mentioned in Ptol. 7,1,81. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography D. C. Sircar, Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, 213ff.

Bazira

(67 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Alexander (Βάζιρα; Bázira). Town in north-western Pakistan, on the river Swat between the Indus and the Hindu Kush, captured and fortified by  Alexander [4] the Great (Arr. Anab.). Probably near Bīr-kōt̥-Ġundai, where Hellenistic walls, pottery and graffiti have been found. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography P. Callieri, in: A. Gail, G. Mevissen (ed.), South Asian Archaeology 1991, 1993, 339-348.

Assaceni

(61 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Indian people in today's Swat, west of the Indus, with capital Massaga, subjugated by Alexander (Arr. Anab. 4, 23ff.; Ind. 1,1). Called Aspagani by Plin. HN and in Pāli called Assaka, from Old Indian aśva-/Iranian aspa ‘horse’. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography O. v. Hinüber, Arrian. Der Alexanderzug -- Indische Gesch., ed. and translation by G. Wirth, O. v. Hinüber, 1985, 1081f.

Archebius

(24 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Graeco-Indian king of the 1st cent. BC, only documented from coins, Middle Indian Arkhebiya. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography Bopearachchi, 110-112, 319-324.

Taxiles

(285 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Ταξίλης/ Taxílēs). King of Taxila, who ruled over a broad and fertile plain between the Indus and the Hydaspes; his neighbours were Abisares in the north and Porus [3] in the east. His father already had allied with Alexander [4] by letter (Diod. Sic. 17,86,4; Curt. 8,12,4 f.; see also Arr. Anab. 4,22,6), and the young king approved the alliance when Alexander stayed with him as a guest for some time in the spring of 326 BC (Arr. Anab. 5,3,5 f.; 5,8,2 f.; Diod. Sic. 17,86,4-7; Plu…

Antialcidas

(55 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Indo-Greek king sometime around 100 BC. No literary evidence, but mentioned in an Indian Brāhmī insription (Besnagar inscription; by his envoy, Heliodorus of Taxila), and named on Greek-Bactrian and Indo-Greek coins with the legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΥ ΑΝΤΙΑΛΚΙΔΟΥ / maharajasa jayadharasa aṃtialkidasa. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography O. Bopearachchi, Monnaies Greco-Bactriennes et Indo-Grecques, 1991, 95-97, 271-288.

Maniolai nesoi

(116 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Μανιόλαι νῆσοι; Manióloi nêsoi). An archipelago off the coast of India, beyond the Ganges (Ptol. 7,2,31). Otherwise attested in Greek literature only in Pseudo- Palladius ( Perí tōn tēs Indíēs ethnṓn 1,5), but located by him in the vicinity of Ceylon (perhaps the Maldives or in the dangerous waters around the southern tip of India). Later often mentioned by Arabs, Persians and others. From the time of Ptolemy it was believed that these islands were so magnetic that they pulled the iron nails out of ships. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography A. Herrmann, s.v. Μανιό…

Sagala

(120 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Σάγαλα/ Ságala, Ptol. 7,1,46; Old Indian Śākala, Middle Indian Sāgala). City in the Punjab east of Hydaspes, the capital city of the Indo-Greek king Menander [6] in Pāli Milindapañha. S. with its rectangular, probably Hellenistic city plan, was also called Euthydemia or Euthymedia, according to Ptol. l.c.. The city is also known in ancient Indo-Iranian literature (Mahābhārata etc.) and was visited in the 7th cent. AD by the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang. Its exact location is not known (perhap…

Paropamisus

(201 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Παροπάμισος/ Paropámisos, Str. 15,1,11; 2,9). Mountain range including the Paropamisadae region (Παροπαμισάδαι/Paropamisádai, Str. 15,2,8ff.). Both names occur in many variants that render identification more difficult [1]. Old Iranian (Avesta) * Parupairisaena (cf. upairisaena in Yasna 10); in the Akkadian version of the Bisutun inscription, Paruparaesanna is used instead of Gandara (Gandaritis) in the Old Persian version [2. DB 1,18]. The mountain range with Taurus, Caucasus, Elburs and Himalaya was regarded as part of the great Asian …
▲   Back to top   ▲