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Paeonius

(269 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Παιώνιος; Paiṓnios). [German version] [1] Greek sculptor from Mende, 5th cent. BC Sculptor from Mende. The only known surviving original work by P. is a statue of Nike on a triangular pillar in front of the Temple of Zeus in Olympia, which according to its inscription and a statement by Pausanias (5,26,1) was dedicated by the Messenians. Pausanias suggests that the occasion of the dedication was a victory in 455 BC, whereas the inscription points to the victory of Sphacteria (425 BC); on stylistic grounds …

Lyson

(152 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
Greek family name. [German version] [1] In 72 BC host of Verres, friend of Cicero L. of Lilybaeum. In 72 BC friend of Cicero, host of Verres who created a statue for him (Cic. Verr. 2,4,37). Cic. Fam. 13,34 is a letter of recommendation for L.'s son. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [2] Host of Cicero, Pompeian L. of Patrae. Host of Cicero, in 50 BC looked after his sick secretary Tiro (Cic. Fam. 16,4,1f.). L. was a Pompeian in the Civil War and in 46 or 45, after Caesar's victory, he asked for his pardon (13,19; 24). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [3] Greek bronze sculptor Greek bronze…

Apollonius

(7,446 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence) | Hunter, Richard (Cambridge) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλώνιος; Apollṓnnios). [German version] [1] Dioiketes of Ptolemy II (259-245 BC) Of Caria, possibly Ptolemaic o ikonomos there in 267 BC. Was dioiketes of Ptolemy II from April /May 259 until the end of 245; in 252 escorted Berenice to her wedding to Antiochus II. At a critical transition period A. found himself responsible for the economy of the kingdom of the Ptolemies, adapting the fiscal system to the monetary economy of the Lagids, for which purpose he was entrusted with the management of finances and the co…

Archelaus

(1,291 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Pietsch, Christian (Mainz) | Et al.
(Ἀρχέλαος; Archélaos). [German version] [1] Macedonian king (ca. 413-399 BC) Son of  Perdiccas, king of Macedonia about 413-399 BC, who according to Plato's spiteful representation (Gorg. 471) was the son of a slave woman and had ascended to the throne by murder. However, he appeared about 415 in a contract with Athens in third place after Perdiccas and his brother Alcetas, i.e. as legitimate (IG I3 89,60). Murdering other pretenders to the throne was not uncommon among the  Argeads, who had no firm rule of succession. He was on a good footing with the Atheni…

Menaechmus

(496 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μέναιχμος/ Ménaichmos). [German version] [1] M. of Sicyon Greek historian and antiquary, 4th cent. BC Greek historian and antiquary of the 4th cent. BC. Author of a Pythian history ( Pythikós), which was superseded by a list of victors of the Pythian Games at Delphi composed by Aristotle (T 3) and therefore must have existed in the early 330s (cf. Syll.3 275). A history of Alexander, ( Historía hē katá ton Makedóna Aléxandron) is entirely lost (T 1), while only fragments remain of a local history of Sicyon ( Sikyōniká). Fragments of a treatise ‘On Artists ( Perí technítōn, F 3-6; 9) deal pr…

Tabula Iliaca

(155 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Archeological technical term for marble plates with illustrations of the Homeric epics (Homerus [1]). The small plates with a height of up to 25 cm are covered on both sides with low reliefs in miniature with accompanying texts. Most of the 22 extant plates refer to the Iliad, one to the Odyssey. The most complete plate, the so-called Tabula Capitolina (Rome, KM), contains parts of the Aethiopís as well. The plates are dated to the early Imperial Period and were all found in Rome. Some are attested to have been produced by T…

Phyromachus

(686 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Φυρόμαχος/ Phyrómachos). Sculptor of Athens, teacher of the painters Heraclides [30] (active 168 BC) and Milon. The written and archaeological traditions, which are controversial, reveal at least the existence of a famed artist who was active under the Attalid kings (Attalus) of Pergamum. The Laterculi Alexandrini (late 2nd cent. BC) place him in a list of artists, and Pliny (HN 34,84) has the same in mind when documenting the sculptors who worked for Attalus and Eumenes. As Pliny only makes a generalized reference to the monumenta Attalidum, it cannot be demonstr…

Apellas

(117 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀπελᾶς; Apellâs). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor, 4th cent. BC (Apelleas). Bronze sculptor, son of the sculptor Callicles from Megara. He created the victory monument described by Pausanias for Cynisca, sister of Agesilaus of Sparta, who participated in the Olympic chariot races in 396 and 392 BC. Parts of the base with the epigram handed down in general tradition was discovered; apart from this, the base of a reduced replica of the commemorative statue was also found. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography W. Dittenberger, Die Inschr. von Olympia, 1896, no. 160, 634 F. Eckste…

Eetion

(371 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἠετίων; Ēetíon, linguistically probably not of Greek origin [1]). Name, especially of foreign heroes. [German version] [1] King of the Cilicians in Mysian Thebe King of the Cilicians in Mysian Thebe (Hom. Il. 1,366). His daughter  Andromache told her husband Hector how Achilles killed her father E. and her seven brothers during the conquest of Thebe: Achilles set up a monument for the father. The wife of E. was ransomed but later killed by Artemis (Hom. Il. 6,394-428). Among the booty from the conquest of Thebe was th…

Heliodorus

(2,533 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
(Ἡλιόδωρος; Heliódōros). [German version] [1] Chancellor under Seleucus IV, 2nd cent. BC Son of Aeschylus of Antioch on the Orontes, was educated with Seleucus IV and was a courtier (τῶν περὶ τὴν αὐλήν) and well-respected chancellor (ὁ ἐπὶ τῶν πραγμάτων τεταγμένος) under him in 187-175 BC (IG XI 4,1112-1114, or OGIS 247; App. Syr. 45). When financial difficulties after the defeat of Seleucus' father Antiochus III against the Romans (190/188), in conjunction with internal Jewish intrigues, had led to special…

Sculpting, technique of

(1,584 words)

Author(s): Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Near East The oldest examples of a developed sculptural technique in stone from the Ancient Near East are from the later 4th millennium BC (Uruk). The most important genres of monuments are free-standing sculpture and relief (stele, rock reliefs, orthostats, obelisks). The material was worked with metal tools and probably hard stone tools. Traces of tools are rarely preserved due to smoothing and polishing of the surface with abrasives. Surfaces could be shaped through the incisio…

Wood

(2,502 words)

Author(s): Herz, Peter (Regensburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] A. General points In Antiquity, as in pre-industrial societies in general, wood was a universally worked material, used even as a substitute for metal and for expendable parts, and beside animal and human muscle power was also the most important source of energy. The tree species and their economic and technical uses are summarized by Theophrastos (H. plant. 5), Vitruvius (2,8,20; 2,9f.) and Pliny (HN. 16). Herz, Peter (Regensburg) [German version] B. Agriculture, crafts, house building Agriculture and industry were to a great extent oriented towards wood…

Bryaxis

(339 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Bρύαξις; Brýaxis) Sculptor of Carian descent. The traditional list of his works implies such a long period of creative activity, that even in antiquity, his works were divided between two homonymous artists. A signed relief base in Athens (NM) is dated to c. 350 BC. Also assigned to the same period is the collaboration of B. on the Mausoleum of  Halicarnassus (351 BC: death of Mausolus); however, there are also valid arguments for dating this after 333 BC. The allocation of sculpture fragments -- none of which were found in situ (today London, BM) -- to the north side…

Menecrates

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Μενεκράτης; Menekrátes). [German version] [1] Attic comic poet, 5th cent. BC Attic comic poet of the 5th cent. BC. Two titles of his plays have survived, Ἑρμιονεύς/ Hermioneús (or Ἑρμιόνη/ Hermiónē?) and Μανέκτωρ/ Manéktōr (probably ‘Manes as Hector) [1. test. 1], as well as an anapaestic tetrameter (fr. 1) from the latter. It is uncertain whether Menecrates was once victorious at the Dionysia [1. test. *2]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 1-2. [German version] [2] Tragic poet, 5th cent. BC Greek tragic poet, victor at the Great Dionysia in…

Butades

(51 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Legendary sculptor of kouroi from Sicyon who in ancient sources is credited with the invention of figurative antefixes (7th cent. BC) and of portraiture. Until 146 BC, one of his works, probably a mask, was displayed in Corinth. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 196. 211 Overbeck, no. 259. 260 (sources).

Laocoon group

(858 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] A group of marble statues, found in 1506 in the area of the Baths of Trajan in Rome, highly regarded, widely received and academically controversial since its discovery (Rom, VM). It shows Laocoon and his two sons, entangled in sea snakes and nearing death. Its identity with a marble group praised by Pliny (HN 36,37: omnibus et picturae et statuariae artis praeferendum) of the artists Agesander, Athanodorus and Polydorus from Rhodes in the house of Titus, was recognized immediately. The first phase of reception stands under the influence o…

Thrasymedes

(296 words)

Author(s): Antoni, Silke (Kiel) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Θρασυμήδης/ Thrasymḗdēs). [German version] [1] Son of Nestor and Anaxibia Son of Nestor [1] and Anaxibia (daughter of Cratieus), brother e.g. of Echephron [1] and Peisistratus [1] (Hom. Od. 3,412-415; Apollod. 1,94; Dictys 1,13), father of Sillus and hence grandfather of Alcmaeon [2] (Paus. 2,18,8). T. and his brother Antilochus, who is later killed by Memnon [1] (cf. Q. Smyrn. 2,267-344), set off with 15 ships (Hyg. Fab. 97,5) for Troy (Hom. Il. 9,81; 10,255-259; 14,9-11 et passim; Philostr. Heroicus 26…

Branchidae

(81 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Term used, since their discovery in 1765, for statues from the oracle sanctuary of Apollo Branchos in  Didyma. The 15 extant statues of seated males date from 590-540 BC, record the names of their sculptors and were placed on the sacred road linking  Miletus to the sanctuary. They are significant examples of Ionian sculpture style and of the oriental influence on Greek iconography. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 374-375 K. Tuchelt, Die archa. Skulpturen von Didyma, IstForsch 27, 1970.

Ctesicles

(245 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Κτησικλῆς; Ktēsiklês). [German version] [1] Author of Chroniká in at least 3 vols. in the Hellenistic period Author of Chroniká in at least 3 vols. in the Hellenistic period, quoted only by Athenaeus (6, 272c: census in Athens under Demetrius [4] of Phalerum 317/6 BC; 10, 445c-d: death of Eumenes [2] I. in 241). wilamowitz [1] and jacoby (comm. on FGrH 245) argue for his identification with Stesicleides of Athens, author of an Anagraphḕ tōn archóntōn kai Olympioníkōn (‘Listing of officials and Olympic winners’) quoted in Diogenes Laertius (2,56). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography…

Glaucus

(2,298 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Γλαῦκος; Glaûkos). The name means ‘glossy blue’, also ‘luminous’ [1];  Glauce: Hom. Il 16,34). [German version] [1] Sea demon A sea demon, into which a Boeotian fisherman from Anthedon was transformed after consuming a magical herb. The place of his jump into the sea after the transformation, Γλαύκου πήδημα ( Glaúkou pḗdēma, ‘Glaucus' jump’), was indicated (Paus. 9,22,6-7). Representations are known by Evanthes, Hedyle and Nicander (Ath. 7,295b-297c), by Callimachus (Suda s.v.), Q. Cornificius (Macrob. Sat. 6,5,13) and Cicero (Plut. Cic. 2,3,86…

Zopyrus

(988 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ζώπυρος; Zṓpyros). [German version] [1] Persian, took part in the capture of Babylon Prominent Persian, son of Megabyzus [1], who according to Hdt. 3,153ff. had the gates of rebelling Babylon opened to Darius [1] I by using a ruse (self-mutilation and pretending to be a victim of the Great King). For this deceptive manoeuvre (Polyaenus, Strat. 7,13; referring to King Cyrus: Frontin. Str. 3,3,4) Z. allegedly received from Darius the satrapy of Babylonia for life and tribute-free, but he was killed when the B…

Agesander

(34 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ἀγήσανδρος; Agésandros) (Hagesandrus), son of Paeonius, sculptor from Rhodes. Together with  Athanadorus and Polydorus, he produced famous groups of Hellenistic sculptures in Rome. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography B. Andreae, Praetorium Speluncae, 1994.

Glaucias

(360 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Γλαυκίας; Glaukías). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Aegina Bronze sculptor from Aegina. According to Pausanias, he created statues of the boxers Glaucus, Philo and Theagenes in Olympia, whose victories or honours occurred in the 1st quarter of the 5th cent. BC. According to the description, they were depicted in motion, some of them at shadow-boxing; small bronze statues give at least an idea of this. He created a monument for Gelon of Syracuse after his chariot victory in 488 BC; parts of the base with inscriptions are preserved. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overb…

Medon

(479 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Μέδων/ Médōn). [German version] [1] Son of Oileus and Rhene Illegitimate son of Oileus and Rhene, who led Philoctetes' men to Troy after the latter had to be left on Lemnos (Hom. Il. 2,726ff.). He had killed a member of his stepmother Eriopis' family and thus had to leave his home and flee to Phylace (Thessaly; ibid. 13,695ff.). He is killed by Aeneas (ibid. 15,332). Stenger, Jan (Kiel) Bibliography W. Kullmann, Die Quellen der Ilias (Hermes ES 14), 1960, 113; 122f.; 162f. F. Prinz, Gründungsmythen und Sagenchronologie (Zetemata 72), 1979, 59f. [German version] [2] Herold in the palace…

Antenor

(470 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀντήνωρ; Antḗnōr). [German version] [1] Son of Hicetaon or Aisyetes Son of Hicetaon or Aesyetes, Trojan noble. His sons, together with  Aeneas, are leaders of the Trojans (Hom. Il. 2,822). A. is married to the Athena priestess Theano (Hom. Il. 6,299). Because of his justice and wisdom in council he is compared with Nestor; he advises that Helena should be returned (Hom. Il. 7,347 ff.) and observes the law of hospitality with respect to the Greek envoys, Odysseus and Menelaus (Hom. Il. 3,207). From Lycoph…

Phidias

(1,377 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Φειδίας/ Pheidías, Latin Phidias). [German version] I. General remarks Son of Charmides, Athenian sculptor. In Antiquity,  Hegias [1] was named as P.' teacher, others suggested Ageladas. P.' artistic efforts were seen as closely associated with the Athenian statesman Pericles [1] and lasted from about 460 to 430 BC; main period of productivity: 448-445 BC. Ancient reports of P.' life and work are rife with scandal (sources in [1]). Between 438/7 and 433/2 BC, P.' connections with Pericles resulted in ch…

Timarchus

(555 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Τίμαρχος/ Tímarchos). [German version] [1] Athenian from Sphettus, politician, 4th cent. BC Son of Arizelus from the demos of Sphettus, Athenian politician in the 4th cent. BC who held several offices from 361/0 on (member of the council and of the financial office, legate). The speech of Aeschines [2] (who was about the same age as T.) of 345 in which he defended against a parapresbeías graphḗ filed by T. was directed against T., who was a follower of Demosthenes [2] and an adherent of pronounced anti-Macedonian politics. The accusatio…

Damocritus

(82 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Δαμόκριτος/ Damókritos; also: Democritus [Δημόκριτος/ Dēmókritos]). Sculptor from Sicyon, active during the first half of the 4th cent. BC. Pausanias saw a victor's statue of his in Olympia. Pliny chose the Attic form of the name, for a Democritus, who made statues of philosophers. In Rome his name was found on the statue of Lysis from Miletus in a lost collection of copies of 4th cent. works. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, no. 463, 466-468 (sources) Loewy, no. 484 Lippold, 247-248.

Menophantus

(80 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Greek sculptor. A statue of Aphrodite (Rome, MN) bears his signature, with the additional note that the model is in the Troad. The work, which is a variation on the type of the Capitoline Venus, dates from the 1st cent. BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography G. Cressedi, s.v. Menephanto, EAA 4, 1961, 1026 Loewy, Nr. 377 B. S. Ridgway, Hellenistic Sculpture, 1, 1990, 356 O. Vasori, Museo nazionale romano. Le sculture, 1, 1, 1979, 109-111, Nr. 81.

Pyrrhus

(1,260 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Πύρρος/ Pýrr(h)os). [German version] [1] Son of Achilles and Deidamia See Neoptolemus [1] Neudecker, Richard (Rome) [German version] [2] Bronze sculptor from Athens, c. 430 BC Bronze sculptor from Athens. A base bearing P.' signature of a larger than life-size statue on the Athenian Acropolis is dated to c. 430-420 BC and connected with a record of an Athena Hygieia constructed by order of Pericles [1]. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, no. 904-906; 869  A. Raubitschek, Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis, 1949, no. 166  L. Guerrini, s.v. Pyrrhos (3), EAA 6, …

Zenas

(74 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ζηνᾶς/ Zēnâs). Sculptor's name on two Roman portrait busts from the early 2nd cent. AD. The addition to the signature of the father's name Alexander (IG XIV 1241) in the one case and of β in the other (IG XIV 1242) suggests two different sculptors. The name points to a connection with sculptors from Aphrodisias (Aphrodisias [1], sculptors' school). Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Loewy, Nr. 383 a-b P. Moreno, s. v. Z., EAA 7, 1247 f.

Boedas

(79 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (also Boidas). Sculptor, son and pupil of  Lysippus. He worked in Byzantium around 300 BC. Pliny was aware of his fame but mentioned only the statue in Rome of a worshipper. For a long time the statue of the so-called ‘Praying boy’ from Rhodes in Berlin (PM) was erroneously identified with it. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography R. Kabus-Preisshofen, Der ‘Betende Knabe’ in Berlin, in: AA 1988, 679-699 Overbeck, no.1516. 1521 (sources) B. S. Ridgway, Hellenistic Sculpture, 1, 1990, 227-228.

Pythagoras

(2,937 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Et al.
(Πυθαγόρας/ Pythagóras). [German version] [1] Fictitious Spartan and adviser to Numa Pompilius Fictitious person, supposedly from Sparta, victor at the Olympic Games in 716 BC, emigrated to Italy where he became an adviser to king Numa Pompilius. It seems this person was constructed to establish a connection between P. [2] and Roman religion (Plut. Numa 1,2-3). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography F. Ollier, Pythagore de Sparta, REG 59/60, 1946/7, 139-149. [German version] [2] Philosopher, c. 600 BC Natural philosopher and charismatic teacher from the 6th and early 5th cent…

Statue

(1,377 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Term and general Derived from the Latin statuere ('to set up'), in sculpture, 'statue' denotes a completely three-dimensionally designed figure. This form of stand-alone depiction of people, animals and the more than human is at the centre of Greek artistry. In archaeological usage, statues which are integrated into architecture are also included in the term (pediment, akroterion ), but reliefs are not. Individual statues can be combined in a group in content and execution. The format of the statue ranges from sm…

Hephaestion

(1,281 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
(Ἡφαιστίων; Hēphaistíōn). [German version] [1] Commander under Alexander the Great, 4th cent. BC H. of Pella, friend and probably lover of  Alexander [4]. Their relationship was soon likened to that of  Patroclus and  Achilles [1] and correspondingly embellished. It is doubtful whether he was a childhood friend of Alexander (Curt. 3,12,16), as he was not banished by  Philippus II in 337 BC. The wreath offered to Patroclus at Troy and the scene described in the vulgate version ( Alexander historians) of the c…

Dameas

(135 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] [1] (also: Demeas) Sculptor from Croton (also: Demeas). Sculptor from Croton. In 532 BC he created the victor's statue of Milon in Olympia that is described by Pausanias; there is a base with fragmentary inscriptions that is seen as going together with it. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 428 Loewy, no. 414 Overbeck, no. 484 (sources). [German version] [2] Bronze sculptor from Cleitor, c. 405 BC Bronze sculptor from Cleitor, student of Polycletus. In Delphi he created, for the victory statue of the Spartans who went to Aigosp…

Doedalses

(269 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] [1] Sculptor whose existence is contested Sculptor whose existence is contested. Pliny (HN 36,35) mentions a work in marble in Rome Venerem lavantem †sesededalsa† stantem, from which the Bithynian name D. is gleaned, an emendation which is largely accepted. This D. is then identified with Daedalus, who according to a Byzantine source created a Zeus Stratios for the Bithynian King Nicomedes. The statue type of that Zeus has not been established with any certainty. The statue of the standing Venus that Pli…

Herms

(610 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Hermai (ἕρμαι/ hérmai, ‘Hermes heads’), also hermádion (‘small Hermes’), schêma tetrágōnon, tetráglōchis, describes in Graeco-Roman art a special form of anthropoid freestanding sculpture. The herm consists of a pillar with a head, mostly with wooden lateral beam stumps instead of arms ( cheîres, cunei) and a male sexual organ attached at the front that is always ithyphallic in early herms. Double herms bear two heads turned away from each other. Three- and four-fold herms on one pillar are also to be found. In Arcadian he…

Calon

(250 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(also Callon; Kά(λ)λων, Kál(l)ōn). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Aegina Sculptor from Aegina. C. was considered a contemporary of  Hegesias and a pupil of Tectaeus and  Angelion; his style was seen as archaic compared to that of  Canachus. An extant base from the Acropolis is dated to c. 500 BC. Pausanias describes a bronze tripod made by C. at Amycae -- a Spartan dedication after a victory against Messene -- featuring Kore as its support. It appears that other tripods, by  Gitiades, were also part of the offering, so that this tripod c…

Aphrodisias

(1,126 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Ἀφροδισίας; Aphrodisías). [German version] [1] City in  Caria This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Byzantium | Asia Minor | Marble | Rome | Education / Culture City in  Caria, 38 km south of the Maeander, in the left side valley of the Morsylos (present-day Dandalaz çayı); the modern Geyre. Traces of neolithic and early Bronze Age settlement on the acropolis; old name of Νινόη (Steph. Byz. s. v. Ninoe) preserved in the local cult ( Zeus Nineudios). A. was for a long time overshadowed by the neighbouring co…

Hegias

(473 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Brisson, Luc (Paris)
(Ἡγίας; Hēgías). [German version] [1] Sculptor, c. 490-480 BC Sculptor who signed the base of a lost bronze statue on the Acropolis in Athens that must be dated around 490-480 BC. He is mentioned by Pausanias (8,42,10), Pliny (HN 34,49) and Dio Chrysostom (55,1) as a late archaic artist, a contemporary of  Critius and Nesiotes,  Onatas,  Ageladas and  Calon, and as a teacher of  Phidias. Quintilian (Inst. 12,10,7) and Lucian (Rhetorum praeceptor 9) describe his style as still archaic and call him by his …

Theke

(104 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (θήκη; thḗkē) is a term for any kind of container. In particular, from the 5th/4th cent. BC onwards it is used in texts and inscriptions for niche-shaped burial places, whether for burials in funerary buildings (Melos, 4th cent. BC) and vaults (Hdt. 1,67,3; 2,148,5), or for storing cinerary urns (Alexandria), but not sarkophagoi (Sarcophagus). Latin theca , in contrast, refers exclusively to holders for objects, primarily writing implements. Loculi Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography E. Saglio, s. v. loculus, DS 3.2, 1904, 1292-1295  A. Hug, s. v. T., RE …

Aphrodisius

(93 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ἀφροδίσιος; Aphrodísios) Son of Lybius, sculptor from Athens; in Augustan times, he worked in the copyist workshop of Baiae. A copy, bearing his initials, of the type ‘Hera Borghese’ used for portrait statues has been found. A sculptor of the same name, however, whose statues filled the emperor's palace on the Palatine, came from Tralles. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography C. Landwehr, Die ant. Gipsabgüsse aus Baiae, 1985, 88-94 Overbeck, no. 2300 (sources) P. Zancani Montuoro, Repliche romane di una statua fidiaca, in: Bullettino della Commissio…

Copies

(1,211 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] A. Original and copy In archaeological literature, any reproduction of classical and Hellenistic sculptures that is faithful in form to the original is regarded as a copy, even if the copy does not completely correspond in size, material, or degree of completion. Copies in the broadest sense are a main characteristic of ancient art production which was based on slow change of style, on the familiarity with the iconography of passed epochs and a deep respect towards them: innovations w…

Coponius

(273 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name (Schulze, 168, 276, A.7; ThlL, Onom. 2, 587), related to copo ‘innkeeper’ in popular etymology (Mart. 3,59), attested since the 1st cent. BC. [German version] [1] C., C. Praetor under Pompey 49 BC Cicero praised him and his brother T.C. as adulescentes in 56 BC (Balb. 53; Cael. 24). In 53 BC, he was praefectus in Syria, in 49 BC, praetor and mint master under Pompey (RRC 444), and in 48, as propraetor, he lost his fleet in a storm at sea. He is probably identical to the C. who was proscribed in 43 and who owed his life to his wife's …

Hermogenes

(2,256 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἑρμογένης; Hermogénēs). [German version] [1] Companion of Socrates Athenian, son of Hipponicus, brother of Callias, appears on many occasions in the Socratic writings of Plato and Xenophon as the companion of  Socrates. Together with the eponymous character, H. is the dialogue partner of Socrates in Plato's Cratylus. Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 SSR VI B 71-77 2 Davies, 269-270. [German version] [2] From Aspendus, assistant commander of Antiocus I H. from Aspendus. In the struggle of Antiochus [2] I (died in 261 BC) to regain territories in Asia Minor…

Zenodotus

(1,870 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Ζηνόδοτος/ Zēnódotos). [German version] [1] Of Ephesus, Alexandrian philologist Alexandrian philologist from Ephesus ( c. 325-260 BC; Suda s. v. Ζ. Ἐφέσιος). Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) [German version] I. Life Alexandrian philologist from Ephesus Z. was employed as tutor to the royal princes at the Ptolemaic court before his appointment in 285/4 BC as the first director [1. 147-148] of the library (II B 2.a) in Alexandria [1]. In addition to a classification of Greek poetry (most notably epic and lyric works), Z. developed in …

Niceratus

(427 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Νικήρατος; Nikḗratos). [German version] [1] Athenian trierarch, 410/409 BC Son of Nicias [1]; learned reciter of Homer (Xen. Symp. 3,5; 4,6; Aristot. Rhet. 1413a). Athenian trierarch (Trierarchy) in 410/409 BC (IG I3 375,36). Of the wealth his grandfather had acquired from silver mines and mine slaves, at the time of his murder by the Thirty ( Triákonta ) in 404/3 BC only 14 talents were left (Lys. 19,47; Xen. Hell. 2,3,39; Diod. 14,5,5). After his murder his uncle Diognetus [1] interceded against the Thirty with the Spartan king Pausanias by placing N.'s son on his knee (Lys. 18,6-10). Kin…

Lysistratus

(146 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Λυσίστρατος; Lysístratos). [German version] [1] Tragedian from Chalcis, 1st cent. BC from Chalcis. Tragedian, after 85 BC he was victorious at the Amphiaraia ( Amphiaraus) and Romaia in Oropus. His works are not extant. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Bronze sculptor from Sicyon Bronze sculptor from Sicyon, brother and collaborator of Lysippus [2]. By making plaster casts of living people, L. is said to have improved the similarity of portraits to their subjects, to have based his work on clay models and to have made…

Aristias

(150 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] Sculptor from Aphrodisias, early 2nd cent. AD (Aristeas). Sculptor from  Aphrodisias [1], who worked in the early 2nd cent. AD. Together with Papias, he signed the dark marble statues of an old and of a young centaur, copies of Hellenistic bronze sculptures, from Hadrian's villa near Tivoli. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography H. von Steuben, in: Helbig II, no. 1398 J. Raeder, Die statuarische Ausstattung der Villa Hadriana bei Tivoli, 1983, 236-238 M. Squarciapino, La Scuola di Afrodisia, 1943, 32-34. [German version] [2] of Phlius Tragedian Tragic poet…

Daitondas

(51 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor from Sicyon. He created victors' and portrait statues in Olympia and Thebes in the later 4th cent. BC, as well as one of Aphrodite in Delphi. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Lippold, 299 J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures de sculpteurs grecs, 1, 1953, no.25 Overbeck, no. 1582 (sources).

Gold-ivory technique

(548 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (also called Chryselephantine technique). The naked parts of a statue were primarily worked from  ivory; and the garments and hair from sheet-gold, and materials like glass, precious stones and coloured metals were also used. Chryselephantine works were rare because of the value of their materials and are only extant in fragmentary form. The manufacturing technique is therefore not known in detail and appears to be mainly dependent on the size of the work. If the work was life-siz…

Antignotus

(67 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor in Athens. Preserved are his initials of the memorial statues for the Thracian kings Raskouporis (around 13 BC) and Kotys. Making statues of philosophers and athletes, an A. mentioned in Pliny is more likely to be a sculptor of the 4th cent. BC when taking a dated base into account. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Loewy, no.314-316 s. v. A., EAA Suppl. 61.

Sthennis

(136 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Σθέννις/ Sthénnis). Bronze sculptor from Olynthus, active in Athens from 348 BC. According to surviving inscribed bases, he and Leochares created a family group on the Acropolis in Athens in the late 4th cent. BC, and a statue for Lysimachus [2] in Oropus in the early 3rd cent. There is literary evidence for several statues by S. of gods and one of a philosopher, which were later moved to Rome, one of flentes matronae et adorantes sacrificantesque (‘weeping, adoring and sacrificing women’, Plin. HN 34,19,90) and victor statues in Olympia. Although none…

Lycius

(152 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor from Eleutherae, son and pupil of Myron. According to written tradition, he created a votive offering in Olympia with single combats from the Trojan War (Achilles and Memnon, among others) and an Argonaut group. Notes about a boy with a votive water vessel, a puer sufflans and a statue of the pancratiast Autolycus ( Pankration) have been too damaged to allow for identification. From the Athenian Acropolis an autographed plinth for equestrian statues is extant, which is dated historically to around 430-420 BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Over…

Caecosthenes

(101 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Καικοσθένης; Kaikosthénēs). Son of Apollonides, bronze sculptor from Athens. Eight bases from the early 2nd cent. BC are inscribed with his and his brother Dies' signature. Some originate from portrait statues, which is why C. is usually identified as Chalcosthenes, who, according to Pliny, is supposed to have mostly sculpted statues of actors and athletes. In the Athenian Kerameikos, one could find ‘rough’ statues of gods and goddesses made of terracotta, perhaps the clay models for bronze statues. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck no. 1380-1381 Lo…

Dipoenus

(123 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Crete. Like his brother Scyllis, assumed to be a pupil or son of the legendary  Daedalus and one of the original exponents of the art of marble sculpture. Tales of his flight from Cyrus and his first commissions in Sicyon reflect the fact that the ‘Daedalic’ marble-sculpture of the Greek islands preceded that of the mainland and date its arrival on the mainland to the earlier half of the 6th cent. BC. Even in ancient literature, some archaic works were attributed to …

Patrocles

(438 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Πατροκλῆς; Patroklês). [German version] [1] Athenian office holder, end of the 5th cent. BC Athenian, árchōn basileús in (404/)403 BC; a relative of Isocrates, who defended him (Isoc. Or. 18,5). Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Develin, 94 Nr. 1  Traill, PAA 768600. [German version] [2] Accuser of Demosthenes An Athenian from Phlya; his accusation of paranomia (Paranomon graphe) against Demosthenes [2] (Dem. Or. 18,5) was unanimously rejected and cost him a fine of 500 drachmas. Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Traill, PAA 768710. [German version] [3] Gree…

Menestratus

(320 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μενέστρατος; Menéstratos). [German version] [1] A son of Niobe One of the sons of Niobe (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 21 with commentary by Jacoby). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Sacrifices himself for his lover Cleostratus M. of Thespiae, who sacrifices himself for his lover Cleostratus, by volunteering to take his place and be thrown to the dragon that on Zeus's instructions is fed a young man each year. Barbs on his armour kill the monster (Paus. 2,26,7f.) Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Athenian, denounced in 415 BC Athenian, one of 18 denounced by Teucer in connexio…

Bathycles

(131 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Legendary sculptor and architect from  Magnesia on the Maeander, famous for his so called ‘throne’ of Apollo in Amyclae near Sparta, which is described in great detail by Pausanias (3,18,6-3,19,6): as a structure, it combined the grave of Hyacinthus, an  altar, and a colossal  cult image, decorated with 45 mythological scenes, statues, and a depiction of his co-workers dancing in a circle. Since we have no surviving remnants at all, we must regard its numerous reconstructions and its dating to the late 6th cent. as speculative. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography A.…

Scopas

(1,000 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Σκόπας/ Skópas). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Paros, mid 4th cent. BC Sculptor from Paros, active in the mid 4th cent. BC, working mostly in marble and very occasionally in bronze. In the opinion of the ancient world, S. was one of the most important masters of Greek sculpture. Written records ascribe to him approximately 25-30 individual works and major projects, which should probably be allotted to several sculptors with the same name of different generations. The extant pediment sculptures from th…

Sphyrelaton

(247 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Archaeological term for a metal-working technique ('embossed with a hammer'), not documented in Antiquity. As described in Paus. 3,17,6, sheets hammered out of bronze or precious metals are joined together with nails over a wooden core. The technique is an attempt in the 7th cent. BC - before the invention of hollow casting at the beginning of the 6th cent. BC - to make large-scale free-standing bronzes. Accounts of sphyrelata emphasize the great age of such cult images, e.g. the …

Silver hoards

(206 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Compound hoards composed predominantly of ancient silver objects. As treasure these were hidden to protect them from theft or plundering (known as hoarding). As grave goods or thesauroi in sanctuaries or church treasures the treasure was collected and deposited in fact or ideally as an investment. In the private domain at all times and generally it acted simultaneously as both house contents and an investment. SH were predominantly composed of valuable eating and drinking utensils. Their importance to schol…

Antigonus

(1,768 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀντίγονος; Antígonos). [German version] [1] Monophthalmus Diadoch (‘The One-eyed’), 382-301 BC.  Hetairos of  Philippus and  Alexander [4], married to  Stratonice, was the father of  Demetrius. During Alexander's invasion of Asia, commander of the Greek hoplites, satrap of Greater Phrygia from 333 until Alexander's death [323]. He defeated rebels and remnants of Persian troops, he gained Lycaonia and in 331 he received in addition the administration of Lycia-Pamphylia. In Priene he was honoured for an achievement, the nature of which is unknown. (IPriene 2). After Alexander's…

Evander

(586 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Εὔανδρος; Eúandros). [German version] [1] Mythical founder of the first settlement on the Palatine Arcadian-Roman hero, according to Paus. 8,43,1ff. the son of Hermes and an Arcadian nymph (Themis, Nicostrate: Plut. Quaest. Rom. 278B-C), or alternatively the prophesying  Carmentis from Pallantium. In Hes. fr. 168MW, he is a son of Echemus of Tegea and Tyndareos' daughter Timandra, Hellenism makes him the son of the Italian Sibyl. Banished because of his involvement in a popular uprising or the murder of one …

Menander

(3,637 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Μένανδρος; Ménandros). [German version] [1] Joint strategos with Nicias, 414 BC The Athenians M. and Euthydemus [1], who were already in Sicily, were chosen as joint strategoi of Nicias towards the end of 414 BC, during the Sicilian Expedition, to support him until the relief expedition of Demosthenes [1] arrived (413) (Thucyd. 7,16,1; Plut. Nicias 20,2); re-elected 413/12 (Plut. Nicias 20,6-8; Thucyd. 7,69,4; Diod. 13, 13,2). Possibly identical with the M. who fought in Abydus in 409 (Xen. Hell. 1,2,16). He was stratēgós with Tydeus (405/4) in the defeat at Aigos potamoi (X…

Aristander

(169 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] [1] Visionary from  Telmessus (4th cent. BC) Visionary from  Telmessus, in the service first of  Philippus, then of  Alexander [4] the Great; hero of many anecdotes which only report on successful predictions; no further references after the death of  Cleitus. Prophecies of the future success of some of the  Diadochi have turned out to be fabrications. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 117. [German version] [2] Bronze sculptor from Paros, c. 405 BC Bronze sculptor from Paros. To the tripod which the Spartans dedicated in Amyclae fol…

Euphranor

(302 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
(Εὐφράνωρ; Euphránōr). [German version] [1] Sculptor, painter and art critic in Athens, c. 364-361 BC Important sculptor, painter and art critic ( Art, theory of) in Athens with his acme in 364-361 BC. As paintings the ‘Battle of Mantinea’ (362 BC), the ‘Apotheosis of Theseus’ and ‘Twelve Gods in the Stoa Eleutherios’ are described and ‘Democracy and Demos’ and ‘Odysseus’ are mentioned. E. described his ‘Theseus’ as ‘meat-nourished’ in contrast to the ‘rose-nourished’ one by  Parrhasius. Ancient art critics emphasized the versatility and dignitas of his representation of the …

Ageladas

(155 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ἀγελάδας; Ageládas). (Hageladas), bronze sculptor from Argus, was considered to be the teacher of  Phidias,  Myron,  Polycleitus. Victors' statues by A. are recorded since 520 BC. His votive offering by the Tarantines in Delphi has been dated to before 474 BC. His Heracles Alexikakos was erected in Athens after a pestilence (not necessarily 430 BC). From this, Pliny deducted the date for his zenith to be 432 BC. However, since this makes the postulated active period too long, ther…

Antiphanes

(765 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀντιφάνης; Antiphánēs). [German version] [1] Attic comic poet, 4th cent. BC Attic writer of comedies; concerning his family and lineage the information is quite contradictory [1. test. 1, 2]. His father as well as his son were called Stephanus, (his son as a writer of comedies, staged works of his father [1. test 1]). A. was born in the 93rd Olympiad (between 408 and 404 BC) [1. test. 1] and is said to have already begun his stage activity at 20 years, (‘after the 98th Olympiad’ [1. test. 2]). He is said …

Evenor

(217 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] [1] Athenian sculptor, c. 490-470 BC (Eύήνωρ; Euḗnōr). Athenian sculptor. Three bases on the Acropolis bear his signature, dating from around 490-470 BC. One of these is linked, not without controversy, to the so-called Angelitus' Athena (Athens, AM Inv. no. 140). Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography A. E. Raubitschek, Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis, 1949, no. 14, 22, 23. B. S. Ridgway, The Severe Style in Greek Sculpture, 1970, 29-30, fig. 39. [German version] [2] Greek physician Greek physician from Argos in Acarnania; he lived in Athens, a…

Cephisodorus

(622 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Κηφισόδωρος; Kēphisódōros). [German version] [1] Writer of Old Comedy Poet of the Attic Old Comedy, for whom Lysias records a not further specified victory in 402 BC (Lys. or. 21,4) and whose name also appears on the list of winners at the Dionysia (after Nicophon and Theopompus) [1. test. 2; 3]. The titles of four pieces are transmitted (Ἀμαζόνες/‘The Amazons, Ἀντιλαΐς/‘Antilaïs, Τροφώνιος/‘Trophonius, Ὕς/‘Hys) as well as a total of 13 verses; the longest fragment of these contains five verses of a dia…

Praxiteles

(1,173 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Πραξιτέλης/ Praxitélēs). [German version] I. Biography Sculptor from Athens, active c. 370-320 BC. Since Timarchus and Cephisodotus [5] were P.’ sons, Cephisodotus [4] is assumed to be his father. By using later namesakes, a family of sculptors can be pieced together extending into the 1st cent. BC. However, this is just as controversial as the suppositions about the wealth and political influence of the family in the 4th cent. P.’ anecdotal biography and fame sound a note of caution with regard to c. 55 named works. Even so, the abundance of sources has led to many, often i…

Arcesilaus

(1,194 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀρκεσίλαος; Arkesílaos). [German version] [1] Arcesilaus I. King of Cyrene (beginning of 6th cent. BC) Son and successor of  Battus I as king of  Cyrene. Ruled early in the 6th cent. BC for 16 years (Hdt. 4,159). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [German version] [2] A. II. King of Cyrene middle of 6th cent. BC) the ‘Cruel’, son and successor of Battus II, grandson of Arcesilaus I, successfully fought against an opposition led by his brothers at his accession 565/60 BC. They left the town, founded Barca in the western Cyrenaica and made an alliance wit…

Toreutics

(1,585 words)

Author(s): Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(τορευτικὴ τέχνη/ toreutikḕ téchnē; Lat. caelatura; literally 'chiseling', from τορεύς/ toreús, Lat. caelum, 'chisel') denotes the chasing and repoussé work of thin plates of metal, or else works in which chasing is combined with repoussé work to design relief work; repoussé work may be replaced by casts. [German version] I. The Ancient Orient and Egypt Toreutics designates primarily the productive technique by which metals (gold/electrum, silver, copper/bronze, lead, iron) were shaped in a cold state. The objects (plaques), usually thin, were forme…

Heraclides

(4,218 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἡρακλείδης; Hērakleídēs). Famous persons: the politician and writer H. [19] Lembus, the philosopher H. [16] Ponticus the Younger, the doctor H. [27] of Tarentum. I. Political figures [German version] [1] Spokesman on behalf of Athens at the Persian court, end of 5th cent. BC H. of Clazomenae (cf. Pl. Ion 541d) was in the service of the Persians and probably called basileús for that reason. Thus, he was able to perform valuable services for Athens at the Persian court in 423 BC for which he received Attic citizenship soon after moving there (after 400, Syll.3 118). To move the Athenians …

Grylloi

(214 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] According to Pliny (HN 35,114), the name for caricature depictions in painting since Antiphilus [4] of Alexandria represented a certain Gryllus in that way. Originally these were dancers with grotesque physical proportions and contortions. As gryllographeîn and grylloeídēs later generally referred to ridiculously proportioned bodies, small-format free-standing sculpture representations can also be described as grylloi. Today the genre is no longer attributed to Alexandrian art only. To cover all animal caricatures and monstrous figur…

Perilaus

(201 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Περίλαος/ Perílaos, Περίλεως/ Períleōs). [German version] [1] Son of Icarius and Periboea Son of Icarius [2] and Periboea [1], brother of Penelope (Apollod. 3,126). According to Peloponnesian legend, P. appeared before the Areopagus as the prosecutor of Orestes [1], rather than Tyndareos, who was already dead (Paus. 8,34,2). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Argive Argive; a statue depicting him in combat with the Spartan Othryades was displayed in the theatre at Argos (Hdt. 1,82; Paus. 2,20,7). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Greek worker in bronze, 6th cent. BC (al…

Menas

(248 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Μηνᾶς; Menâs). [German version] [1] Spartiate, 421 BC One of the Spartiates who in 421 BC swore the Peace of Nicias and the symmachy with Athens (Thucyd. 5,19,2; 5,24,1). In the interval between these treaties he was one of the emissaries who, by the terms of the peace, were to guarantee the transfer of Amphipolis to Athens, but owing to the resistance of Clearidas, the commandant there, failed (Thucyd. 5,21). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] see Menodorus [1] see Menodorus [1] Neudecker, Richard (Rome) [German version] [3] Sculptor from Pergamum, 2nd cent. BC Son of A…

Zosimus

(1,744 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ζώσιμος; Zṓsimos). [German version] [1] Of Thasos, epigrammatist, probably between 150 BC and AD 50 Z. of Thasos. Greek epigrammatist, whose works are probably to be dated between 150 BC and AD 50: three (Anth. Pal 6,183-185; 6,15 is also ascribed to him, alternatively to Antipater [8] of Sidon) are variations on the theme of 'dedication to Pan' from the view of a hunter, a bird catcher and a fisherman (cf. Satyrius). Another deals with the unusual theme of a shield saving its owner who uses it as a raft (Anth. Pal. 9,40, cf. Diocles [10]). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography FGE 104-…

Criton

(316 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κρίτων; Krítōn). [German version] [1] Wealthy friend of Socrates, of the same age Wealthy friend of  Socrates and of the same age, also from the Alopece demos (Pl. Ap. 33d; Pl. Crit. 44b; Xen. Mem. 2,9,2; 2,9,4); discussion partner of Socrates in Plato's ‘Criton’ and ‘Euthydemus’ and in Xen. Mem. 2,9,1-3. In Plato's ‘Criton’ he unsuccessfully advises Socrates to flee his prison. The Epicurean  Idomeneus claimed that not Criton but Aeschines [1] of Sphettus had done this (Diog. Laert. 2,60; 3,36). Diogenes Laërtios (2,121) lists the titles of 17 dialogues composed by C.  Socratics. Dörin…

Melas

(695 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Et al.
(Μέλας/ Mélas). [German version] [1] Brother of Oeneus Son of Porthaon (Portheus) and Euryte in Calydon [3], brother of Oeneus, Agrius [1], Alcathous [2], Leucopeus and Sterope (cf. Hom. Il. 14,115ff.; Apollod. 1,63). M.'s eight sons were killed by Tydeus for pursuing their uncle Oeneus (Apollod. 1,76 = Alcmaeonis fr. 4 EpGF). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Son of Phrixus and Chalciope Son of Phrixus and Chalciope [2], the daughter of Aeetes, brother of Argus [I 2], Phrontis and Cytis(s)orus (Apollod. 1,83). In the older myth M., like Argus, prob…

Simon

(1,722 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Et al.
(Σίμων/ Símōn). [German version] [1] Sculptor in bronze from Aegina, c. 480-460 BC Sculptor in bronze from Aegina. S. participated with a horse and a charioteer in the votive offerings dedicated by Phormis at Olympia; accordingly, his period of artistic activity is around 480-460 BC. The base which belonged to it has been identified. A dog and an archer by S. (Plin. HN 34,90) probably formed a further group. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, nos. 402, 437  M. Zuppa, s.v. S. 2, EAA 7, 1966, 315  F. Eckstein, Anathemata, 1969, 43-49  E. Walter-Karydi, Die äginetische Bi…

Heraclidas

(115 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Atrax in Thessaly, active in the 4th cent. BC. Together with Hippocrates he signed a victory votive of the Pharsalians in Delphi, where it was set up in the mid 4th cent. BC. Because of the measures at the base, it may have been the bronze group of Achilles on horseback and Patroclus, which Pausanias (10,13,5) describes. However, because the base bears a rededication to Claudius there can be no certainty. Pausanias may not have seen the original work. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography G. Daux, Pausanias à Delphes, 1936, 141-143 J. Marcadé, Recueil de…

Chirisophus

(237 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Χειρίσοφος; Cheirísophos). [German version] [1] Spartan commander under Cyrus Spartiate; on the instructions of his polis, at Issus in 401 BC he joined the army of the younger  Cyrus with 700 hoplites (Xen. An. 1,4,3; Diod. Sic. 14,19,4f.); after Cyrus' death at Cunaxa C. was sent by  Clearchus to Ariaeus, to offer him the Persian throne (Xen. An. 2,1,4f.). After Clearchus had been imprisoned and put to death, C. received supreme command of the entire remaining army (Diod. Sic. 14,27,1), and led the ret…

Calamis

(634 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Greek sculptor; ancient sources praise his horses and female figures, refer to him as the sculptor who made the transition to the classical period. He endowed his works with both ‘hardness’ and ‘grace’. He is linked with  Onatas,  Praxiteles and  Scopas. Many researchers have tried to solve the chronological contradictions by assuming that there were numerous sculptors of the same name with various surviving works ascribed to them. Since no work can be sufficiently proven to originate from C., the extent of his work is not known. From the famous C. originated a stat…

Cleomenes

(1,455 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κλεομένης; Kleoménēs). [German version] [1] Athenian, rejected the Spartan terms of peace in 404 BC Athenian who rejected the Spartan terms of peace in the popular assembly in 404 BC (Plut. Lysandros 14). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Member of a Spartan court of arbitration concerning Salamis at the end of the 7th cent. BC Spartan, member of a Spartan court of arbitration that allegedly awarded the island of  Salamis to the Athenians at the end of the 7th cent. BC (Plut. Solon 10). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [3] C. I. Spartan king, probably …

Hermolaus

(158 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἑρμόλαος; Hermólaos). [German version] [1] Conspirator against Alexander the Great Son of Sopolis, page ( Basilikoi paides) of  Alexander [4], pre-empted the king in the slaying of a wild boar and was humiliatingly punished by him (327 BC). In revenge he hatched a conspiracy among the pages but it failed and was betrayed to the king. The accused, after being tortured, were sentenced to death and stoned with the consent of the army.  Callisthenes, hated by Alexander as an opponent of  proskynesis, was sus…

Daedalus

(1,013 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Δαίδαλος; Daídalos). [German version] [1] Mythical craftsman, sculptor and inventor Mythical craftsman, sculptor and inventor, his very name belonging to a semantic field indicating objects created by astuteness and skill. In stories he is associated with Athens, Crete and Sicily. Judging from the development of artistic techniques, it is not impossible that the origins of the tradition lie at least partly in Crete, although whether D.'s name can be attested in the Linear B texts is a matter of dispute […

Pasticcio

(587 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Italian for 'pie, hotchpotch'). The figurative meaning, which arose in the 17th cent., referred to works in which elements of style or motifs of different artists were imitated, as charming features or for purposes of deception. In figurative art, pasticcio first referred to the combination of ancient friezes with plaster-work on Roman palazzi of the 17th and 18th cents. Pasticcio thereafter described esp. modern combinations of various ancient fragments with new works. In archaeology, the term was used mostly pejoratively for eclectic wo…

Silanion

(280 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Σιλανίων; Silaníōn). Bronze sculptor from Athens. According to Plin. HN 34,51 he was the height of his career in 328-325 BC. S. created statues of the mythical figures Achilles, Theseus and Jocasta, and in Olympia the victor statues of the boxers Damaretus, Telestas and Satyrus. A 'sports instructor' ( epistaten exercentem athletas, Plin. HN 34,82) ascribed to him can perhaps be interpreted as Connidas, Theseus' teacher. Of S.'s portraits a statue of Plato in the Athenian Academy is recognised has been reliably identified in Roma…

Zeuxiades

(86 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ζευξιάδης/ Zeuxiádēs). Bronze sculptor, pupil of Silanion (Plin. HN 34,51). A base from Rome, recorded in the 19th cent. and since lost, was evidence that Z. had created a sculpture of the rhetor Hypereides, which can be dated on historical grounds to after 307 BC. The usual identification of this sculpture with a certain type of which only copies have survived must be rejected. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, 1350 Loewy, Nr. 483 Lippold, 303 P. Moreno, s. v. Z., EAA 7, 1267 f. Richter, Portraits 2, 210 f.
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