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Archelaus

(1,291 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Pietsch, Christian (Mainz) | Et al.
(Ἀρχέλαος; Archélaos). [German version] [1] Macedonian king (ca. 413-399 BC) Son of  Perdiccas, king of Macedonia about 413-399 BC, who according to Plato's spiteful representation (Gorg. 471) was the son of a slave woman and had ascended to the throne by murder. However, he appeared about 415 in a contract with Athens in third place after Perdiccas and his brother Alcetas, i.e. as legitimate (IG I3 89,60). Murdering other pretenders to the throne was not uncommon among the  Argeads, who had no firm rule of succession. He was on a good footing with the Atheni…

Semtheus

(51 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Egyptian village scribe ( Komogrammateus ) and owner of a dōreá, an estate awarded by the king (PPetrie II 38 a; III 31; PLille I 47,2 f.; 9 f.; 48,2 f.; 8 f.), of about 27.5 sq km (10,000 árourai; Aroura) in 251/0 BC. PP I 837 f.; 841; IV 8387. Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Paos

(145 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Πάως; Páōs). Egyptian who made a career in Ptolemy VIII's service. P.'s career epitomizes the attempt to mobilize the Egyptian people in the dispute with Cleopatra [II 5] II. In 137/6 BC P. was the tôn prṓtōn phílōn, in 133/2 the (civil) stratēgós of several administrative districts in the Thebais; presumably in 132/1, in the course of the wars, he became syngenḕs kaì stratēgòs tês Thēbaḯdos, and finally in the summer of 129, as the successor of Boethus [1], he was syngenḕs kaì epistratēgòs kaì stratēgòs tês Thebaḯdos but he was replaced by Lochus [2] in 127/6 at …

Nicocreon

(395 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Νικοκρέων/ Nikokréōn). [German version] [1] Conspirator against Evagoras, c. 375 BC N. plotted unsuccessfully against Evagoras [1], the king of Salamis on Cyprus (Theopompos FGrH 115 F 103,12), and had to flee (around 375 BC). N.'s daughter became the mistress of Evagoras and of the heir to the throne, Pnytagoras. According to [1. 99-101] the result of this union was the future king Pnytagoras II, whose son was Nicocreon [2]. Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 Beloch, GG 4,2 2 LGPN 1, 335, nr. 1. [German version] [2] King of the town of Salamis on Cyprus, 332/1 BC Son of Pnytagor…

Eumenes

(1,504 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Εὐμένης; Euménēs). [German version] [1] Chancellor of Philippos II and Alexander the Gr. * 362/1, Son of Hieronymus of Cardia, from 342 onwards chancellor for the Macedonian king Philip II and then for Alexander III, for whom he kept the ephemerides (Nep. Eumenes 1,4-6; Plut. Eumenes 1,4; Arr. Anab. 7,4,6; Ath. 10,434b). In 326, E. was strategos on a military mission in north-western India and then he was the trierarch of the Indus fleet (Arr. Anab. 5,24,6, Ind. 18,7; Curt. 9,1,19). At the mass wedding in Susa in 324, E. was probably the only Greek…

Praktor

(313 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(πράκτωρ/ práktōr, πρακτήρ/ praktḗr: Poll. 8,114, 'executor', 'manager', from práttein, 'do'). [German version] I. Classical Period Greek official of a state executory authority, who, on instruction, recovered state claims, particularly fines. In Athens ten práktores chosen by lot annually were in service. Informed by the authorized court magistrate of penalties imposed, they entered them in the list kept on the Acropolis when state debtors did not pay immediately (IG II2 45; And. 1,77-79; Dem. Or. 25,4; 25,28; 43,71) [1. 270 f.]. An authority of the same name wi…

Perigenes

(132 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Περιγένης/ Perigénēs). [German version] [1] Politician of the Hellenistic period Son of Leontiscus, from Alexandria, próxenos ( proxenía ) of Siphnus (IG XII Suppl. p. 111) c. 278/270 BC, presumably father of P. [2]. A P. from Samos is honoured in 264 as próxenos of Olus, but this identification is rather improbable [1. 196 note 2]. PP VI 14941. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography 1 Robert, OMS 1. R.S. Bagnall, The Administration of the Ptolemaic Possessions outside Egypt, 1976, 146. [German version] [2] Ptolemaic fleet commander Son of P. [1], possibly father of Iamnea (PP …

Caphisodorus

(69 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Καφισόδωρος; Kaphisódōros). Son of Caphisodorus; father of Metrophanes (PP 6, 14679) and Ptolemaeus (PP 6, 14688); between 163 and 145 BC archisōmatophýlax ( Court titles B.2.); stratēgós of the Egyptian district Xoite and priest of the políteuma of the Boeotians; in 156/55 eponymous priest of Alexander. PP 1/8, 269; 3/9, 5167. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Clarysse, G. v. d. Veken, The Eponymous Priests of Ptolemaic Egypt, 1983, 28.

Pachom

(69 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (also called Hierax). Son of Pachom (PP VIII 300b), father of Pamenches, attested as syngenḗs and stratēgós in various Egyptian nomes c. 50/30 BC. Besides his state offices, P. held a number of indigenous priestly offices, which subsequently also appear in the titles of his son. PP I/VIII 265; 301. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography L. Mooren, The Aulic Titulature in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1975, 119f. Nr. 0127.

Komarches

(282 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (κωμάρχης; kōmárchēs). Expressive designation for an official of the Ptolemaic and Roman period in Egypt, who was responsible for all the concerns of village administration ( kṓmē ), was subordinate to the toparches and nomarches (the komarches was also active in metropoleis, being responsible for city districts). In the Ptolemaic period, the office of the dioikētḗs appointed him, and it was a (much) aspired post. The komarches came from the village for which he was responsible. The differentiation from the komogrammateús is difficult; he w…

Patroclus

(1,124 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
(Πάτροκλος/ Pátroklos, also Πατροκλῆς/ Patroklês; Lat. Patroclus). [German version] [1] Companion to Achilleus Son of Menoetius [1] from Opus (Hom. Il. 11,814; his mother's name is not given in Homer, alternative suggestions in Apollod. 3,176), best friend of Achilleus [1]. In his childhood, P. kills a fellow-player out of anger during a game of dice and then flees to Phthia to Peleus, who gives him to Achilleus as a companion (Hom. Il. 23,85-90; Hellanikos FGrH 4 F 145; Apollod. 3,176). According to Pind. O…

Ptolemais

(1,304 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Et al.
(Πτολεμαίς; Ptolemaís). [German version] [1] Daughter of Ptolemaeus [1] I and Eurydice [4] Daughter of Ptolemaeus [1] I and Eurydice [4]; presumably married to a descendant of the pharaoh Nectanebus [2]; from 298 BC betrothed, and from 287 married to Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes. PP VI 14565. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Huß, Das Haus des Nektanebis und das Haus des Ptolemaios, in: AncSoc 25, 1994, 111-117  J. Seibert, Historische Beiträge zu den dynastischen Verbindungen in hellenistischer Zeit, 1967, 30 ff. 74 f. [German version] [2] P. from Cyrene Ancient scholar of m…

Lagus

(171 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Λάγος, Λαγός/ Lágos, Lagós; personal name not from lagṓs, ‘hare’, but probably from laoí, ‘people’). [German version] [1] Macedonian from Eordaia or Orestis, father of Ptolemy I Macedonian from Eordaea or Orestis. His status is unknown; no definite conclusion about high nobility can be drawn from his marriage to Arsinoe [II 1]. Father of Ptolemaios I and Menelaus. Ptolemy fostered the memory of L.: a hippodrome in Alexandria and a town in Arsinoe were called Lágeion. The legend of Philippus II fathering Ptolemy I is, therefore, probably of later origin. The Ptolemies …

Caphisophon

(40 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Καφισοφῶν; Kaphisophôn). Son of Philippus (PP 6, 16640), from Cos, doctor (?); theorós ( Theoria, Theoroi) of Ptolemy II or III sent to the sanctuary of Asclepius of Cos. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography S. Sherwin-White, Ancient Cos, 1978, 103.

Harsiesis

(108 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Son of Paious (?), established himself during the Civil War (132-124 BC) as counter-pharaoh and was the last Egyptian who carried the title ‘Pharaoh’. He was presumably supported by the Theban priests; between 26 June and November 131 BC, dating was based on him in Thebes, but already on 10 November, he was no longer recognized there. He fled to the north, where his rebellion came to an end before 15 September 130. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography K. Vandorpe, City of Many a Gate, in: S. P. Vleeming (ed.), Hundred-Gated Thebes, 1995, 203-239, esp. 233ff. B. C. McGing, R…

Argaeus

(103 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] [1] Son of Ptolemy I (Ἀργαῖος; Argaîos). Son of Ptolemy I (and of Eurydice?); murdered by Ptolemy II (because of a conspiracy?) after 282 BC. PP 6, 14489. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography C. Habicht, Argaeus, Ptolemy II. and Alexander's corpse, AHB 2,4, 1988, 88-89. [German version] [2] Volcanic massif in Cappadocia (Ἀργαῖος, also Ἀργαῖον ὄρος; Argaîon oros). Erciyes Daǧı, highest volcanic massif in  Cappadocia (3917 m) south of Kayseri. Volcanic peak of the same name (modern Hasan Daǧı) in south-west Cappadocia (3268 m). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography…

Theophilus

(1,625 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
(Θεόφιλος; Theóphilos). [German version] [1] Comic poet, 4th cent. BC Comic poet of the 4th cent. BC; victor at the Dionysia of 329 [1. test.2], fourth there in 311 with his Pankratiastḗs [2.190, 200]. T. was of the declining Middle and the incipient New Comedy [I G]. Of the nine known titles, two - Νεοπτόλεμος ( Neoptólemos, 'Neoptolemus'), Προιτίδες ( Proitídes, 'The daughters of Proitus') - are mythological plays, the others deal with everyday material. In the Ἐπίδημοι ( Epídēmoi, 'The Pilgrims'), a slave considers whether to run away from his kind master (fr. 1); in the Φίλαυλος ( Phílaul…

Trapezites

(136 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (τραπεζίτης/ trapezítēs). Leader in Egypt of the state bank (Ptolemaic: basilikḕ trápeza, 'royal bank'; Roman period: dēmosía trápeza, 'public bank') in the mētropóleis (Metropolis) of the nomes ( Nomos [2]) but also in smaller towns. The trapezites changed money, collected taxes and other monies intended for the state exchequer and passed them on to the Basilikón (Royal Exchequer). His role is comparable with those of the sitólogos ('grain commissioner') and the kollybistḗs ('money changer'). Under the Ptolemies trapezitai usually leased their posts; from…

Katalogeion

(85 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (καταλογεῖον; katalogeîon). Administrative office under the control of the archidikastḗs in Alexandria where, from the Augustan period onwards, civil documents were registered, processed and copied; the original was taken (from AD 127, POxy. 34) to the Hadrianḕ bibliothḗkē and the copy to the toû Nanaíou bibliothḗkē (comparable procedure under the Ptolemies?). In Roman times the katalogeion also handled the lists of ephebes. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography F. Burkhalter, Archives locales et archives centrales en Egypte, in: Chiron 20, 1990, 1…

Aristoteles

(5,596 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Frede, Dorothea (Hamburg) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Et al.
(Ἀριστοτέλης; Aristotélēs). [German version] [1] Athenian oligarch Athenian oligarch who, in 404 BC, was banned from Athens and sent to Sparta by  Lysander (Xen. Hell. 2,2,118). Later, he was one of the 30 Tyrants in Athens (Xen. Hell. 2,3,2;  Triakonta), who sent him to Sparta with the request for a Spartan occupational force (Xen. Hell. 2,3,13). Traill, PAA, 174765. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Rhodian envoy, 166/5 BC Rhodian envoy to Rome who, in 166/5 BC, failed in his request for a renewal of the amicitia by the Senate (Pol. 30,23,2-4) [1. 167,2; 2. 208]. Günther, …
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