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Menodorus

(302 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μηνόδωρος; Mēnódōros). [German version] [1] Legate of C. Calvisius Sabinus, died 35 BC M. (according to Appian, elsewhere Mena(s), Μηνᾶς; Mēnâs), a freedman, previously perhaps a Cilician pirate, in about 40 BC S. Pompeius' admiral in the Tyrrhenian Sea. As an opponent of a settlement with the Triumviri (Plut. Antonius 32,6f.), M. defended Sardinia and Corsica. When Pompey threatened to strip him of his power at the instigation of his rival Menecrates [11], M. delivered the islands into the hands of Octavian in 38…

Sarcophagus

(4,388 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Lesky, Michael (Tübingen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Oepen, Alexis
(σαρκοφάγος/ sarkophágos, stone coffin, literally 'flesh-eater'; Lat. arca, capsula and sarcofagus, Juv. 10,171). I. Graeco-Roman [German version] A. Material, typology, research Since the 18th cent., scholars have been referring to containers for corpses decorated with reliefs as sarcophagi. These were made of marble, less frequently of limestone, tuff, sandstone, granite, basalt or porphyry. Pliny describes a lapis ... sarcophagus from Assus (Plin. HN 2,210; 36,131) as 'corpse-consuming'. Terracotta and lead were used in certain regions. Wooden sarco…

Zeno

(6,572 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Ameling | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ζήνων/ Zḗnōn.) [German version] [1] Z. of Elea Eleatic philosopher, 5th cent. BC (Son of Teleutagoras). Eleatic philosopher of the 5th cent. BC; a pupil and intimate friend of Parmenides who became famous for his paradoxes. According to the Suda (29 A 2 DK), Z. wrote many books; but his Λόγοι ( Lógoi, 'Arguments', 40 according to Proclus, 29 A 15 DK) probably belonged to a single book, the one he read aloud to his closest circles in Athens (cf. Pl. Prm. 127c-d). In the lost dialogue Sophistes, Aristotle (Aristoteles [6]) declares Z. to have been the 'inventor' ( protos heuretes

Chaerestratus

(105 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Son of Chaeredemus; Attic sculptor from  Rhamnus. On a prosopographical basis, his creative period has been deduced to have been in the early 3rd cent. BC, but by some to c. 320 BC. This is significant for the chronology of early Hellenistic developments in style, as the statue of Themis in the sanctuary of Nemesis at Rhamnus (Athens, AM) is signed by C. Further works are attributed to him by way of style. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures des sculpteurs grecs, 1, 1953, no. 11-12 P. Moreno, Scultura ellenistica, 1994, 168-172 fig. B.…

Cippus

(273 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] As a stone monument with or without inscription, the cippus was used in particular for territorial delineation. Made as a free-standing sculpture, it marked burial sites and was linked as reference to the dead to magical ideas and should not be confused with steles. The basic form was phallic, 30-50 cm high and it was represented in diverse ways especially in Etruria ( Etruscan Archaeology). Mostly onions, spheres or eggs top a pillar or cylinder. Special regional types in the 6th…

Corinthian alloy

(247 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Corinthium aes, according to Plin. HN 34,6-8 an alloy of  copper,  gold and  silver, with an artificial patination that made it gleam like gold. Attempts to identify Corinthian alloy (CA) with so-called ‘black gold’ and ‘niello’ are not convincing, as only a lesser sort of CA was dark in colour. The term CA was always associated with legendary invention, names of old masters, and dubious authenticity. Juridical sources (Dig. 32,100,3), however, distinguish CA from plain bronze, ref…

Calliades

(227 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Καλλιάδης; Kalliádēs). [German version] [1] Writer of New Comedy Writer of New Comedy, appearing on the inscription of Lenaea winners in 6th place after Menander, 5th after Philemon and 3rd after Diphilus [5], and thus to be dated to the end of the 4th cent. BC [1]. Ath. 9,401a quotes ‘Diphilus or C.’, as author of an Ágnoia, but at another point (15,700c) he talks only of Diphilus as author of this play. Even the barb against the orator Aristophon [2] that Ath. 13,577b attributes to C. is dubious [1. 53]. Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 PCG IV, 1983, 37. [German version] [2] Sculptor Scul…

Apollodorus

(3,070 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλόδωρος; Apollódōros). Political figures [German version] [1] Athenian politician (4th cent. BC) Son of  Pasion of Acharnae, Athenian rhetor and supporter of Demosthenes (394/93, died after 343 BC). A. was one of the richest Athenian citizens after 370. He undertook costly trierarchy liturgies (cf. IG II2 1609,83 and 89; IG II2 1612, b110; Dem. Or. 50,4-10; 40 and 58) and in 352/51 gained a victory as   choregos (IG II2 3039,2) but had only limited success in obtaining a political post commensurate with his wealth. From 370 to 350 BC he indulged in litigat…

Dorotheus

(861 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
(Δωρόθεος; Dōrótheos). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Argos, 5th cent. BC Sculptor of bronze from Argos. Known by two signatures from the middle of the 5th cent. BC on bases in Delphi and in Hermione (Crete), with traces of an inlet for a horse or rider statue. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures des sculptures grecques, 1, 1953, no. 30-31 P. Orlandini, I donari firmati da Kresilas e Dorotheos a Hermione, in: ArchCl 3, 1951, 94-98. [German version] [2] Painter, from the mid 1st cent. AD Painter from the middle of the 1st cent. AD. Co…

Alexander

(7,586 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ἀλέξαδρος; Aléxandros). Famous personalities:  Alexander the Great [4] (III.); the Philosopher Alexander [26] of Aphrodisias. I. Myth [German version] [1] see Paris see  Paris. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) II. Associated Hellenistic ruling families [German version] [2] A. I. Macedonian king, 1st half of the 5th cent. BC Son of  Amyntas [1] and his negotiator with  Darius. As Macedonian king he supported  Xerxes' invasion of Greece, but pretended to be a friend of the Greeks (later called ‘Philhellen’). Herodotus has subtly shown his ambigu…

Damophilus

(178 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Δαμόφιλος; Damóphilos). [German version] [1] Coroplast and painter, c. 493 BC Coroplast and painter, probably from Magna Graecia. Together with Gorgasos he decorated the Temple of Ceres in Rome (493 BC) with murals and terracotta pediment figures and added artist's epigrams. Later renovations preserved both of these. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 427, 440 Overbeck, no. 616, 1647 (sources) I. Scheibler, Griech. Malerei der Ant., 1994. [German version] [2] Rich property owner from Enna 136 BC Rich property owner from Enna, who treated the slaves i…

Appliqués (pottery)

(158 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Term for attached decorative items representing figures or plants. On bronze vessels of the 7th cent. BC, they are attached as protome (e.g. griffin cauldron). In Hellenistic and imperial times, crustae on tableware are highly valued masterpieces of  toreutics, and also on clothing, luxurious armour such as gladiators' helmets, on horse harness and carriage components. On kline rests ( fulcra), bronze animal protomes can be found, appliqués of ivory on furniture. Wooden sarcophagi in Taranto and south Russia of the 4th cent. BC had relief…

Callicrates

(1,202 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Et al.
(Καλλικράτης; Kallikrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue and politician Athenian demagogue and politician in the succession of  Cleophon, he abolished the   diobelía with the promise of increasing it by an obolós; later sentenced to death (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 28,3). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Rhodes, 356-357. [German version] [2] Sculptor in Laconia Sculptor in Laconia. Together with  Myrmecides, C. was considered the legendary, probably archaic creator of microscopic sculptures made of iron, bronze, ivory and marble. An…

Xenophon

(5,032 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Ξενοφῶν; Xenophôn). [German version] [1] Of Athens, strategos, 5th cent. BC Athenian. Initially commander of the cavalry ( hippárchēs; IG I3 511); then participated in the campaign against Samos in 441/40 BC as stratēgós (Androtion FGrH 324 F 38), was also stratēgós the following years and operated as such in Thrace in 430/429. He was treated with hostility due to his unauthorized acceptance of the capitulation of Potidaea (Thuc. 2,70), but remained in office and fell as stratēgós at Spartolus in the summer of 429 during a campaign against the Chalcidians and Bottians (…

Deinomenes

(391 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Δεινομένης; Deinoménēs). [German version] [1] Founder of a dynasty from Gela D. from Gela, founder of the Deinomenid dynasty; father of the tyrants Gelon, Hieron, Polyzalus and Thrasybulus (cf. Simonides, fr. 141 Bergk = PLG 3,1166; Pind. Pyth. 1,79; 2,18; Hdt. 7,145; Timaeus FGrH 566 F 97; Diod. Sic. 11,67,2; Paus. 6,12,1ff.; 8,42,8). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [2] Son of Hieron the tyrant, 5th cent. BC Son of Hieron by his first marriage with the daughter of the Syracusan Nicocles (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 97); as a boy he was installed under the gua…

Hermathena, Hermeracles

(98 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Cicero called the  Herms of Athena and Hercules, which Atticus had obtained in 67-65 BC for Cicero's Tusculanum (Cic. Att. 1,1; 4; 8; 9; 10), Hermathena and Hermeracles. The bronze heads were set on marble pillars and were considered an appropriate ornamentum for his peristyle, which was compared to the Academia and a gymnasium. These terms are Cicero's creation. Setting up Herms of this type in the gardens of Roman villas became a common practice. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography R. Neudecker, Die Skulpturenausstattung röm. Villen in Italien, 1988, 11-18 H. Wr…

Styppax

(83 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor from Cyprus in the 5th century BC. He was famous for his statue of a splanchnoptes (Plin. HN 34,19,81), a slave who blows on the fire to roast the entrails at a sacrifice. It was erected on the orders of Pericles [1] as a votive offering after his slave was injured during the building of a temple and miraculously healed. The work does not survive. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, Nr. 868-869  P. Moreno, s. v. S., EAA 7, 1966, 535-536.

Ivory carvings

(904 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Middle East and Phoenicia Ivory, i.e. tusks of the boar, the hippopotamus and particularly the (African as well as Asian)  elephant, was extremely popular from the Neolithic period onwards as a material in ‘craftwork’. In the Bronze Age and the early Iron Age, the important workshops of the Syrian-Phoenician coastal towns and also of Egypt developed styles that were recognizably their own. Ivory carvings (IC) were widespread through intensive trade and almost always formed part of t…

Polyclitus

(1,987 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Πολύκλειτος/ Polýkleitos). [German version] [1] Greek bronze sculptor from Sicyon, 5th or 4th cent. BC the Greek bronze sculptor Polyclitus. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) [German version] I. General Bronze sculptor from Sicyon, pupil of Ageladas in Argos. Biographical detail on P. is scanty. His sons were regarded as less successful. P. [2] may, judging by his name, have been a nephew, and Naucydes thus P.'s brother. Six pupils, with mostly unrevealing names, are recorded. However, various family and artistic lineages have b…

Agoracritus

(246 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ἀγοράκριτος; Agorákritos). Sculptor from Paros, master of the high-classical period in Athens. Uncertain attributions to A., his rival  Alcamenes and their teacher  Phidias are reflected in anecdotes of ancient literature, which makes attributing the œuvre difficult. When it came second in a contest with Alcamenes, A. is said to have sold a statue of Aphrodite to a buyer in Rhamnus as one of Nemesis, or that Phidias had one of his own statues signed by A. The signature was discove…
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