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Parmenides

(1,560 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest)
(Παρμενίδης). [English version] A. Leben P. aus Elea, Philosoph des späten 6. und frühen 5. Jh. v.Chr., akmḗ um 500 v.Chr. (28 A 1 DK), Schlüsselfigur der Eleatischen Schule. Platons Dialog ‘P. (127a = 28 A 11 DK) fingiert eine Zusammenkunft des ca. 65 Jahre alten P., des ca. 40jährigen Zenon von Elea und des sehr jungen Sokrates in Athen um 455 v.Chr. Das Geburtsjahr des P. wäre demnach auf 520 oder noch später herabzusetzen. Speusippos (28 A 1 DK), Strabon und Plutarch (28 A 12 DK) berichten auch über gesetzgeberische Tätigkeit des P. Bodnár, István (Budapest) [English version] B. Das Leh…

Leukippos

(542 words)

Author(s): Leitao, David (San Francisco) | Bodnár, István (Budapest)
(Λεύκιππος) ist der Name von mindestens 12 verschiedenen Personen des Mythos, die insbes. mit Geschichten über Kolonisationen und Erwachsenwerden verbunden sind. Die wichtigsten unter ihnen sind: [English version] [1] Sohn des Lampros Sohn des Lampros. Obwohl als Mädchen geboren, wird L. durch Leto in der Pubertät in einen Mann verwandelt. Zur Erinnerung daran unterzogen sich junge Männer in Phaistos während der Ekdýsia einem Kleidertauschritual, bei dem sie wahrscheinlich Frauenkleidung statt Männerrüstzeug anlegten. Bräute (und Bräutigamme?) legten sich…

Alkmaion

(786 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Köln) | Bodnár, István (Budapest)
(Ἀλκμαίων). [English version] [1] Sohn des Amphiaraos Sohn des Amphiaraos und der Eriphyle (Apollod. 3,81; Hes. fr. 198 M-W, vgl. 197; Üb…

Eleatische Schule

(701 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest)
Übliche Bezeichnung der unmittelbaren Nachfolge des Parmenides (Zenon von Elea, Melissos). [English version] A. Zur Geschichte des Eleatismus Platons Andeutung (soph. 242d), daß die eleatische Philos. mit Xenopha…

Melissos

(561 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Bodnár, István (Budapest)
(Μέλισσος). [English version] [1] Pferderennensieger M. aus Theben, Sohn des Telesiades, Adressat von Pind. I. 3 und 4 (Pindaros). Zwei Siege werden erwähnt, der eine im Pferde- oder Wagenrennen in Nemea (ebd. 3,9-13), der andere im Pankration (ebd. 4,44). Die beiden metrisch identischen Gedichte sind nicht in allen Hss. voneinander getrennt. Wahrscheinlich war der Sieg im Rennen später und I. 3 wurde dem längeren Gedicht I. 4 im Hinblick auf eine einzige Feier hinzugefügt [1. 202-203]. Der Vater geh…

Demokriteer

(194 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest)
[English version] Eine demokriteische Schule als eine Institution der Bildung oder Forschung wie Platons Akademie oder das Lykeion des Aristoteles gab es nicht. Diog. Laert. 9,58 (vita Anaxarchi), Eus. Pr. Ev. 14,17,10 und Clem. strom. 1,64 bieten im wesentlichen dieselbe Sukzessionsreihe: Demokritos - Nessas bzw. Nessos von Chios (69 DK) und auch Protagoras (80 DK, der jedoch eher ein älterer Zeitgenosse des Demokrit war) - Metrodoros von Chios (70 DK) - Diogenes [13] von Smyrna (71 DK) - Anaxarc…

Metrodoros

(1,240 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Hidber, Thomas (Bern) | Et al.
(Μητρόδωρος). [English version] [1] M. von Chios Demokriteer, 5./4. Jh. v. Chr. Demokriteer (Demokritos [1]) des 5./4. Jh.v.Chr., der das Volle und die Leere, das Seiende und das Nicht-Seiende als Prinzipien kennt. Diese Orthodoxie geht aber nicht zwangsläufig über die grundsätzlichen Lehrmeinungen des Atomismus hinaus: M. soll in anderen Dingen seine eigenen Ansichten gehabt haben (70 A 3 DK) M. propagiert in eleatischer Manier (eleatische Schule) die Ungeschaffenheit des Universums (τὸ πᾶν), weil ein ges…

Anaximander

(563 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest)
[German version] (Ἀναξίμανδρος; Anaxímandros). Natural philosopher of the early 6th cent. BC, belonging to the  Milesian school. A. wrote the first philosophical book, which was later commonly called Περὶ φύσεως ( Perì phýseōs). Furthermore, A. may have drawn a map and constructed a σφαῖρα ( sphaîra), a visual depiction of the heavens. He is considered to be the inventor of the γνώμων ( gnṓmōn; the pointer of the sun dial, probably adopted from the Babylonians, Hdt. 2,109 in 12 A 4 DK) and the discoverer of the most important astronomical points of referenc…

Nausiphanes

(316 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest)
[German version] (Ναυσιφάνης/ Nausiphánēs) of Teos. 4th cent. BC Democritean philosopher (Democritus [1]), teacher of Epicurus, later a target of Epicurean scorn and abuse. N. is claimed to have been a pupil of Pyrrho's. Our sources do not reveal whether he professed his atomistic docrtines during his Pyrrhonist apprenticeship, or whether he needed to reject the i…

Eleatic School

(706 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest)
Conventional term for the immediate successors of Parmenides (Zenon of Elea, Melissus). [German version] A. The history of Eleaticism Plato's suggestion (Soph. 242d) that Eleatic philosophy began with  Xenophanes and even earlier is inserted into a scheme of the development of philosophical thought that cannot be taken at face value. However,  Parmenides' thought had such an immense effect on later Greek thought that one can justifiably speak of an Eleati…

Parmenides

(1,624 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest)
(Παρμενίδης; Parmeníd ēs). [German version] A. Life P. from Elea, philosopher of the late 6th and early 5th cent. BC, akmḗ c. 500 BC (28 A 1 DK), key figure of the Eleatic School. Plato's dialogue Parmenides (127a = 28 A 11 DK) represents a fictitious meeting between P., aged c. 65,  Zeno [1] of Elea, c. 40 years of age and a very young Socrates, in Athens in c. 455 BC. That would mean that P. was born …

Zeno

(6,572 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Ameling | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ζήνων/ Zḗnōn.) [German version] [1] Z. of Elea Eleatic philosopher, 5th cent. BC (Son of Teleutagoras). Eleatic philosopher of the 5th cent. BC; a pupil and intimate friend of Parmenides who became famous for his paradoxes. According to the Suda (29 A 2 DK), Z. wrote many books; but his Λόγοι ( Lógoi, 'Arguments', 40 according to Proclus, 29 A 15 DK) probably belonged to a single book, the one he read aloud to his closest circles in Athens (cf. Pl. Prm. 127c-d). In the lost dialogue Sophistes, Aristotle (Aristoteles [6]) declares Z. to have been the 'inventor' ( protos heuretes

Milesian School

(519 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest)
[German version] Although we do not know in what manner the first three natural philosopher - Thales, Anaximandros and Anaximenes [1] (end of the 7/6 cent. BC.) - interacted and collaborated with each other, it is remarkable that they o…

Democriteans

(192 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest)
[German version] A Democritean school as an institution of education and research similar to Plato's Academy or Aristotle's Lyceum did not exist. Diog. Laert. 9,58 (Vita Anaxarchi), Euseb. Praep. evang. 14,17,10 and Clem. Strom. 1,64 essentially provide the same series of succession:  Democritus ─ Nessas or Nessus of Chios (69 DK) and also  Protagoras (80 DK, who was probably rather an older contemporary of Democritus)  Metrodorus of Chios (70 DK) ─  Diogenes [13] of Smyrna (71 DK) ─  Anaxarchus o…

Melissus (Μέλισσος; Mélissos)

(825 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Bodnár, István (Budapest) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] [1] Chariot race victor M. of Thebes, son of Telesiades, addressee of Pind. I., 3 and 4 ( Pindarus). Two victories are mentioned, one in the horse or chariot race at Nemea (ibid. 3,9-13), the other in the pankration (ibid. 4,44). The two metrically identical poems are not treated separately in all MSS. The race victory was probably later, I. 3 being appended to the longer poem I. 4 in regard to a single celebration [1. 202-203]. M.'s father belonged to the family of the Cleonymidae, h…

Metrodorus

(1,340 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Μητρόδωρος/ Metródōros). [German version] [1] M. of Chios Democritan philosopher, 5th/4th cent. BC Democritan philosopher ( Democritus [1]) of the 5th-4th cent. BC who recognised Fullness and Emptiness, Being and Non-Being as the first principles. This orthodoxy, however, does not go beyond the fundamental theoretical views of Atomism: M. i…

Leucippus

(603 words)

Author(s): Leitao, David (San Francisco) | Bodnár, István (Budapest)
(Λεύκιππος; Leúkippos) is the name of at least 12 different persons of myth, linked in particular to stories about colonization and coming-of-age. The most important among them are the following: [German version] [1] Son of Lamprus Son of Lamprus. Although he was born as a girl, the pubescent L. is transformed into a man by Leto. In memory thereof, young men in Phaestus underwent a ritua…

Anaximenes

(648 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Ἀναχιμένης; Anaximénēs). [German version] [1] Nature philosopher, 6th cent. BC Nature philosopher of 6th cent. BC, last representative of the  Milesian School. Although the arche (ἀρχή; archḗ) is unlimited with A. as with  Anaximander, it is specified as air. Air envelops the world, and a part of this is a component of the world. A. developed the first, still rudimentary theory of metamorphosis: in densifying (πύκνωσις; pýknōsis) and ephemeralizing processes (μάνωσις [ mánōsis] or ἀραίωσις [ araíōsis]) air and the various substances change into each other, in this sequ…

Atomism

(619 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest)
[German version] After the Eleatic School had rejected the possibility of a coherent representation of daily experience,  Leucippus and  Democritus (2nd half of the 5th cent. BC) presented as a response a doctrine, according to which the world consists of two immutable principles: the not further divisible (ἄτομα, átoma) bodies and the void (κενόν, kenón). Later, this representation was taken up by  Epicurus (342/1-270/1) and his school, modified and defended. Even if atomism received its designation from just the first of the two principles, both are constitutive…
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