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Niebuhr, Barthold Georg

(253 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Aug 27, 1776, Copenhagen – Jan 2, 1831, Bonn), historian. He was appointed director of the state bank of Denmark in 1804 and of the “Preußische Seehandlung” (Prussian Maritime Trading Company) in 1806. In 1810 he lectured on Roman history in Berlin. From 1816 to 1823, he served as Prussian ambassador to the Holy See (the reorganization of Catholic dioceses in Prussia in 1821). His significance rests on his Römische Geschichte (ET: Roman History, 1827), which gives an account up to 241 bce, and stands out for its rigorously critical use of sources (esp. its cri…

Retz, Jean-François-Paul de Gondi de

(203 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (baptized Sep 20, 1613, Montmirail, Département Marne – Aug 24, 1679, Paris). After studying theology, he was appointed coadjutor of Paris 1644; in 1652 he was made a cardinal, in 1654 archbishop of Paris, and in 1662 abbot of St. Denis. A political opponent of J. …

Mazarin (Mazzarini), Jules

(478 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Giulio Raimondi; Jul 14, 1602, Pescina, Abruzzi – Mar 9, 1661, Vincennes, near Paris), cardinal and French prime minister. He studied at the Jesuit College in Rome (Jesuits), received the Dr.iur.utr., and was captain of a papal regiment. In 1631, in the Mantuan War of Succession, he negotiated the treaties of Cherasco, which brought France Pignerolo as a gateway into northern Italy and brought Mazarin the protection of Richelieu. From 1634 to 1636, Mazarin was nunci…

Confessionalization

(931 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] I. Research Paradigm – II. Recent Developments – III. 19th Century I. Research Paradigm Confessionalization is the forming of state, society, and culture as a result of th…

Werkmeister, Leonhard (von)

(453 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (ennobled in 1808; monastic name Benedikt Maria; Oct 22, 1745, Füssen – Jul 16, 1823, Stuttgart). In 1764/1765 Werkmeister entered the Benedictine abbey of Neresheim; he studied in Benediktbeuern and was ordained to the priesthood in 1769. In 1770 he became novice master. From 1772 to 1774 and 1778 to 1780, he taught philosophy in Freising; in 1780 he became head of studies in Neresheim. In 1784 he was appointed court chaplain by the Catholic duke Karl Eugen of Württemberg. In 179…

Weyer

(429 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm | Schneider, Hans
[German Version] 1. Johannes (1515, Grave, Brabant – Feb 24, 1588, Tecklenburg), physician, occultist, and demonologist. Weyer was a disciple of H.C. Agrippa of Nettesheim. ¶ After studying in Paris, he served as personal physician to Duke William the Rich of Jülich-Kleve-Burg from 1550 to 1578. He attacked the Hexenhammer (first publ. 1487) of the Dominicans Jakob Sprenger and Heinri…

Josephinism

(1,134 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] The “shimmering and ambiguous term Josephinism” (Klueting, Josephinismus, 1) originated in the early 19th century and refers to Joseph II; the phenomenon existed long before 1780. In scholarship, Josephinism initially referred only to the state's policy toward the church (Winter, Maaß). Following Valjavec, Josephinism is now often understood as a shorthand term for all the reforms in the Austrian monarchy which were instituted in the 1740s, reached their apex after 1780, and which can be descri…

Napoleon

(706 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Napolione Buonaparte; Aug 15, 1769, Ajaccio, Corsica – May 5, 1821, St. Helena), emperor of the French. Lieutenant of the French artillery since 1785, Napoleon joined the “Montangards” around M. Robespierre in 1793; after the recapture of Toulon in December o…

Schwendi, Lazarus von

(130 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (1522, Mittelbiberach – May 28, 1584, Kirchhofen im Breisgau), imperial diplomat and military commander. After studying at Basel and Straßburg (Strasbourg), he led forces in the Schmalkaldic War, wars with France, and (as commander-in-chief after 1564) in Hungary. In memoranda (esp. 1570 and 1574), he urged improvements in the Empire’s district organization and warfare, with the goal…

Church and State

(8,630 words)

Author(s): Thümmel, Hans Georg | Kandler, Karl-Hermann | Klueting, Harm | Oelke, Harry | Valeri, Mark | Et al.
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Law – III. Practical Theology – IV. Systematic Theology I. Church History 1. Early Church The Roman state (Roman Empire) tolerated philosophical atheism and a multitude of cults that flooded in from its conquered territories, but it refused to tolerate rejection of the cult of the official gods ( di publici populi Romani), on which the security of the state was believed to depend. Since Christians refused to participate in this cult, they inevitably came into conflict with the Roman state. Bot…

Frederick the Great

(1,173 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Jan 24, 1712, Berlin – Aug 17, 1786, Sanssouci near Potsdam), king in (from 1772: of) Prussia. Following a strict religious upbringing, the son of Frederick William I soon turned to a religion of reason, which led to clashes with his father in 1726. The conflict escalated when the crown prince tried to escape in 1730, whereupon he was held under arrest in Küstrin. The price of the reconciliation with his father was Frederick's marriage to Elisabeth Christine v. Braunschweig-Bevern in 1733. From…

Riegger, Paul Joseph von

(221 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Jun 29, 1705, Freiburg im Breisgau – Dec 2, 1775, Vienna), canonist. After studying in Leiden and elsewhere, and gaining his Dr.iur.utr. in Freiburg, Riegger served from 1733 to 1749 as professor of natural and imperial law in Innsbruck, was in 1749 at the Savoy Ritterakademie in Vienna, and from 1753 to 1773 professor of canon la…

Lipsius, Justus

(214 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Joest Lips; Oct 18, 1547, Overijse, near Brussels – Mar 23, 1606, Louvain), late Humanist and Latin philologist. Lipsius was professor at Jena from 1572 to 1574, moved to Louvain in 1576, to Leiden in 1578, and back to Louvain in 1592. He changed his religious allegiance frequently. His rediscovery of the Stoics and the spread of neo-Stoicism, e.g. in Brandenburg-Prussia, were of immense importance. Harm Klueting Bibliography Works include: De Constantia, 1584 (Lat.-Ger., 1998) On Lipsius: G. Oestreich, Geist und Gestalt des frühmodernen Staates, 1969 G. Abel, Stoiz…

Rijswijk Clause

(360 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] name given to the stipulation in art. 4 of the Treaty of Rijswijk (Rijswick, near The Hague, the Netherlands), by which Louis XIV’s war with the Great Alliance ended on Sep 29/Oct 30, 1697, having begun in 1688. The Treaty forced Louis XIV to restore all the “reunion” territorie…

Simultaneum

(627 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] In the broader sense (1), a simultaneum is the coexistence of two or more denominations in one territory, in parity or under constraint for one party. In a narrower sense (2), it involves the shared use of church facilities, especially church buildings, by members of two or more denominations. An example of (1) is the coexistence of Reformed, Lutherans, and Catholics in the Electoral Palatinate and the restored occupied territories under the Rijswijk Clause (1697). Prior to 1679/1…

Isenbiehl, Johann Lorenz

(187 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Dec 20, 1744, Heiligenstadt, Eichsfeld – Dec 26, 1818, Oestrich, Rheingau), was a Catholic theologian, from 1773 professor of exegesis in Mainz. He sparked off the Isenbiehl Controversy in 1774 with theses in which he disputed the messianic character of Isa 7:14 in relation to Matt 1:22 (culminating in

Marnix, Philipp

(465 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Filips), Heer van Sint-Aldegonde (1540, Brussels – Dec 15, 1598, Leiden), Flemish politician and academic, of a Savoyard family, who came to the Netherlands with the regent Margaret of Austria; he combined political Calvinism, theological polemic, and patriotic poetry. Marnix studied at Leuven, Paris, Dôle, Padua, and finally Geneva, whence he returned to the Netherlands in 1561 as a Calvinist. After the iconoclastic riots of 1566, in exile in eastern Friesland he wrote an apologia for the uprising (1567) and several polemical works, including De Bijenkorf der H…

L'Hospital, Michel de

(384 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (L'Hôpital; 1507, Aigueperse, Puy-de-Dôme – Mar 13, 1573, Bellébat near Paris) was a French statesman who had studied in Toulouse and Padua, and a jurist educated in theology and the humanities. From 1537, he was a member of the “Parlement” in Paris, and in 1547 he participated in the Council of Trent. After holding high state offices, in 1560 he became chancellor to the queen mother Catharine de Medici (1519–1589), who was regent during the minority of Charles IX (reigned from 15…

Oldenbarnevelt, Johan van

(326 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Sep 25, 1547, Amersfoort – May 13, 1619, The Hague), Netherlands politician. In 1585 he supported the appointment of Maurits of Orange as governor of Holland and Zeeland. From 1586 he was a council official of the province of Holland. From 1587, he worked with Maurits for the consolidation of the republic of the United Netherlands, and in 1609 negotiated the 12-year truce with Spain. Oldenbarnevelt took the side of the Arminians and the Remonstration of 1610, and in foreign polic…
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