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Villanova Culture

(470 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] The VC is among the most significant Iron Age cultural phenomena of early Italy (9th cent. until the last quarter of the 8th cent. BC). The subdivisions are not uniform across the whole area of the VC, but there is general progress from an early phase ( c. 900-820 BC), through a transitional phase ( c. 820-770) to an end phase ( c. 770-730). The core area of the VC proper covers ancient Etruria (Etrusci, Etruria), northern Latium and Tuscany, by the early phase there were already advances a…


(220 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Villanova Culture | Italy, languages The modern town of N. is about 7 km south of Pesaro on the Adriatic. It is likely that the site corresponds to that of the ancient (Picene) settlement, although unambiguous traces of settlement have yet to be found. Better known are the finds from the necropoleis. Of barely 300 investigated graves there are the older ones, beginning in the 8th cent. BC, mostly from the Molaroni necropolis, whereas the more recent burials from the Servici necropolis extend into the 5th cent. BC. Ancient N. is reckoned one of the most important sites of finds in Picenum, with the, in part, very rich finds revealing links with the centres of the Etrusci, Etruria (with map); =>Picentes, Picenum">Villanova culture, with orientalising Etruria and also across the Adriatic. Among the finds from N. the…


(484 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Italic, Celtic and Germanic Bucket-shaped vessel, as a rule metal, for the carrying and short-term holding of liquids. The shape is generally conical, with flat shoulders and a wide opening, on which a carrying handle was often also fixed with eyelets. The bottom, body and rim were mostly fashioned separately, then riveted together. In Etruria situlae are recorded from the 9th cent. BC onwards and were widely distributed there from the Orientalising Period on. Situlae had far greate…


(2,957 words)

Author(s): Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Giesen, Katharina (Tübingen) | Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
I. Ancient Near East [German version] A. Metal extraction …

Sala Consilina

(218 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] Modern town in the Vallo di Diano (province of Salerno, Lucania) whose ancient name was not transmitted. Its fame is due to the necropolis with more than 1,500 tombs from the Early Historical Period (10th to the 6th cents. BC) located to the north west and south east of the town; the location of the corresponding settlement has yet to be determined. …


(2,508 words)

Author(s): Hausleiter, Arnulf (Berlin) | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Blech, Michael (Madrid) | Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen) | Et al.
[German version] I. Ancient Near East and Egypt Weapons were among the earliest artefacts fashioned by humans and their ancestors. Stone arrowheads and blades were the first recognizable weapons in the ancient Near East into the Neolithic Period ( c. 10000 BC). From the 4th millennium BC, weapons were depicted on roll seals and stelae in scenes of warfare or hunting. Of maces suitable for close combat, generally only the heads (of stone or metal) survive. One exception is the deposit at the Chalcolithic find site of Naḥal Mišmār in P…

Ausonian Culture

(296 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] The term Ausonian Culture is used to describe the culture of the Liparian Islands and the north-east of Sicily during the Late Bronze Age and at the end of the Bronze Age. The name is a reference to Auson, the father of the mythical founder Liparus (Diod. Sic. 5,7,5-6; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,22,3). The Italian mainland origins o…


(235 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Villanova Culture The ancient settlement of P. lies in the hinterland of Syracusae (Sicily). The plateau of approximately 8 ha in area is naturally protected by deeply incised valleys, and is connected with the surrounding area only by a narrow saddle. I…

Hoard finds

(754 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum) | Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] I. Celto-Germanic area In central Europe from the Byzantine period onwards, hoard finds (HF; storage, treasure, safekeeping, mass, hidden finds, etc.) primarily of metal objects (copper, bronze, iron, precious metals) are an important archaeological group of finds. The diversity of terms reflects the breadth of the discussion of the importance of the HF. The various contexts of the finds, e.g. solid ground, moors, rivers, special places (rocks, crevices, caves, transport routes, etc.…


(213 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] The T. mountain zone lies between the modern towns of Civitavecchia and Bracciano, about 70 km to the north of Rome. On the evidence of the rich hoard finds of Coste del Marano and Monte Rovello and the settlements of Luni sul Mignone, Monte Rovello and several necropoleis it first flourished at the end of the …


(248 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria City in southern Etruria on the southwestern shore of Lacus Volsiniensis (Lago di Bolsena), modern Monte Bisenzio. The course of the city wall, an aqueduct, shore fortifications and wall re…

Golasecca culture

(265 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] Chronologically, the Golasecca culture (GC) encompasses the 12th to the 4th cents. BC, with the proto-GC (12th-11th cents. BC) regarded as the first stage that was still Bronze Age; spatially the GC stretches from the source region of the Ticino via Lago Maggiore and Lago di Como to the Po. This culture which can mainly be understood through tomb inventories is divided up into three groups that initially all favoured cremation. The western group with the important necropoleis Sest…

Este Culture

(241 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] The term Este culture is applied broadly to the Iron Age population group of the Veneti in the period between 1000 und 300 BC (chronological table in  Golasecca culture), whose material legacy from the area between the Po, Lake Garda, the north-eastern arc of the Alps and the Adriatic indicates a relatively homogeneous group at a similar stage of development. The name is taken from the necropoleis of the most important settlement of the early period, today's Este. Other centres were situated in …

Terramare culture

(182 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] Bronze Age culture in the Po valley, characterised by earth mounds with dark nutrient-rich soil containing the remains of TC settlements and used in modern times as fertiliser. The range of the TC is delineated by modern Emilia and Veneto. In time, it encompassed the middle (16th-14th cents. BC) and late (13th-12th cents. BC) Bronze Age. Few settlements have been examined to date; better known find locations are Poviglio, Tabina and Castione dei Marchesi. The finds show rectangular buildings with pile foundations to protect the inhabitants from floods. To some extent the villages are surrounded by ditches and earth walls. The predominant burial rite is cremation, in the north inhumation also occurs. The bronze objects (e.g. axes, sickles and needles) and the ceramics, wh…


(173 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph
[English version] Die Zone der T.-Berge liegt zw. den mod. O…


(217 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Umbri, Umbria Stadt in Süd-Etruria am SW-Ufer des Lacus Volsiniensis (Lago di Bolsena), h. Monte Bisenzio. Lediglich der Verlauf der Stadtmauer, ein Aquaedukt, Uferbefestigungen und als Getreidespeicher gedeutete Mauerreste erinnern an das röm. V. ( municipium; tribus Sabatina). Wichtiger ist der Ort für die Kenntnis der etr. und v. a. für die frühe ital. Eisenzeit. Ausgedehnte Nekropolen (u. a. Olmo Bello, Polledrara, San Bernardino) mit reichen Br.- und Edelmetallbeigaben z…


(204 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Villanova-Kultur Die ant. Siedlung von P. liegt im Hinterland von Syrakusai (Sizilien). Das Plateau von ca. 8 ha Größe wird durch tief eingeschnittene Täler auf natürliche Weise geschützt und ist nur durch einen schmalen Sattel mit dem Umland verbunden. Vielleicht handelt es sich um das vorgriech. Hybla [2]. Von der ant. Siedlung sind nur die Reste des sog. anáktoron erhalten, das als Sitz des Herrschers von P. angesehen wird. In diesem Gebäude befand sich neben Wohnräumen auch eine Werkstatt zur Br.-Verarbeitung. Die Bed. des FO liegt in den zahlreichen Grabbeigaben, die aus den mehr als 5000 Kammergräbern in den Bergflanken geborgen wurden. Sie weisen P. als Hauptort der indigenen Bevölkerung SO-Siziliens aus und belegen eine Siedlungskontinuität vom 13. Jh. bis in die 2. H. des 8. Jh.v.Chr. Kontakte zur Mykenischen (u.a. Keramik) und Ausonischen…


(195 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[English version] Der Begriff E. umschreibt weitgehend die eisenzeitliche Bevölkerungsgruppe der Veneter in der Zeit zwischen 1000 und 300 v.Chr. (Chronologietabelle bei Golasecca-Kultur), deren materielle Hinterlassenschaft aus der Zone zwischen Po, Gardasee, dem nordöstl. Alpenbogen und der Adria eine relativ homogene Gruppe mit ähnlicher Entwicklung dokumentiert. Die Benennung erfolgte nach den Nekropolen der wichtigsten Siedlung der Frühzeit, dem heutigen Este. Weitere Zentren befanden sich in…


(218 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[English version] Die G. umfaßt zeitlich das 12. bis 4. Jh. v.Chr., wobei die Proto-G. (12.-11. Jh. v.Chr.) als erste, noch brz. Stufe betrachtet wird, und reicht räumlich vom Quellgebiet des Ticino über Lago Maggiore und Lago di Como bis zum Po. Diese hauptsächlich über Grabinventare faßbare Kultur wird aufgeteilt in drei Gruppen, die zunächst alle die Brandbestattung bevorzugten. Die westl. Gruppe mit den wichtigen Nekropolen Sesto Calende und Castelletto Ticino beim namengebenden Fundort Golase…


(423 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph
[English version] Die V. gehört zu den bedeutendsten eisenzeitlichen Kulturerscheinungen im frühen It. (9. Jh. bis letztes Viertel des 8. Jh. v. Chr.). Die Unterteilungen sind nicht im gesamten Gebiet der V. einheitlich, doch wird generell von einer Frühphase (ca. 900-820 v. Chr.), einer Übergangsphase (ca. 820-770) und einer Endphase (ca. 770-730) ausgegangen. Das eigentliche Kerngebiet der V. deckt sich mit dem ant. Etrurien (Etrusci, Etruria), dem h. nördlichen Latium und der Toscana, doch erfo…
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