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Antigonea

(401 words)

Author(s): Sontheimer, Walther (Stuttgart) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
(Ἀντιγόνεια; Antigóneia). [German version] [1] City in Syria This item can be found on the following maps: Diadochi and Epigoni In Syria (Str. 16,750; Diod. Sic. 20,47) at the Orontes. Founded by Antigonus in the year 307 BC. Sontheimer, Walther (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] City on the west coast of the Chalcidice On the west coast of the Chalcidice (at Hagios Pavlos?), probably founded by Antigonus [2] as a counterpoise to Cassandria (Potidaea). In a historical context only mentioned about 200 BC in a Delphic list of theorodokoi [1. 18, col. III, 76] and mentioned in the thir…

Tinde

(80 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Τίνδ; Tíndē). A city, probably inland but not precisely located, which, on the evidence of the Athenian tribute lists (ATL 1, 424 f.), was one of the cities of the Crusis that were forced to join the Delian League in 434/3 BC and seceded in 432. T. was a member of the Chalcidian League from before the middle of the 4th cent. BC (Steph. Byz. s. v. Τίνδιον). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. Zahrnt, Olynth und die Chalkidier, 1971, 247.

Singus

(122 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Σίγγος/ Síngos). City on the gulf named after it, on the isthmus of Sithonia at modern Agios Nikolaos. After its mention during the campaign of Xerxes I (Hdt. 7,122), it appears in the Athenian tribute lists, usually with two talents (ATL 1, 402 f.). In 432/1 BC the city seceded from Athens and lost the greater part of its inhabitants to Olynthus. After fighting took place in its territory (IG I3 1184), it was regained by the Athenians and in the Peace of Nicias in 421 (Peloponnesian War D.) was dec…

Lecythus

(40 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Λήκυθος; Lḗkythos). In 423 BC the Spartan commander Brasidas conquered the fort of L. - mentioned only in Thuc. 4,113-116 - in the area of the town of Torone on the Chalcidic peninsula. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)

Menelaus

(2,514 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Μενέλαος/Menélaos, Attic Μενέλεως/Menéleos; Latin Menelaus). [German version] [1] Ruler of Sparta, married to Helena A significant character in the cycle of myths about the Trojan War ( Troy: Cycle of myths). A younger brother of Agamemnon, who ruled the most significant power centre in Greek myth, Mycene, by marriage to Zeus's daughter Helen ( Helene [1]; their only child was a daughter, Hermione) M. became king of a region in the Eurotas valley with its capital Sparta and Amyclae [1], which was significant…

Aeropus

(150 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
(Ἀέροπος; Aéropos). [German version] [1] Brother of the founder of the Macedonian royal dynasty According to Hdt. 8,137,1 brother of the founder of the Macedonian royal dynasty. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) [German version] [2] I. fourth king of the Macedonians (c. middle of the 6th cent.) A. I, according to Hdt. 8,139 fourth king of the Macedonians ( c. middle of the 6th cent.), probably to be regarded as historical. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography HM, vol. 2, 4. [German version] [3] II. king of the Macedonians (beginning 4th cent. BC) A. II, between 400/399 and c. 394 guardian of Orestes…

Torone

(368 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (Τορώνη/ Torṓnē). A city, located at the modern village of Toroni (Hdt. 7,122; Scyl. 66), dominating the whole southern part of Sithonia, the middle finger-like promontory of the Chalcidian peninsula. Its significance in Antiquity was primarily due to an excellent harbour, still in use today, in a bay on the southwestern …

Nymphaeum

(1,502 words)

Author(s): Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Et al.
I. Sanctuary [German version] A. Etymology and definition The word νυμφαῖον/ nymphaîon is first attested in the 4th cent. BC, on Delos (IG XI,2,144, A l. 91). It originally designated a sanctuary of the nymphs. A nymphaeum is first attested in Itanus on Crete in the 3rd cent. BC together with a water reservoir (ILS 9458). The Latinised form nymphaeum is first found in Pomponius Mela (first half of the 1st cent. AD, Mela 2,3), for a nymph sanctuary in Chersonessus. Conversely, Plinius (HN 35,151) used the word nymphaeum to describe a well with a statue in it (Corinth). The modern t…

Thrasydaeus

(171 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
(Θρασυδαῖος/ Thrasydaîos). [German version] [1] From Elis, c. 400 BC T. from Elis. Leader of anti-Spartan democrats in the war between Elis and Sparta (402-400 BC), after initial successes in 400 he had to conclude a peace in which the Eleans abandoned dependent towns with the exception of Olympia (Xen. Hell. 3,2,21-31; Diod. 14,17,4-12; 34,1; Paus. 3,8,3-5). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Perhaps from Pharsalus, second half of the 4th cent. BC In the 340s BC T., who may have been from Pharsalus (cf. Syll.3 240 H), was a Thessalian tetrarch under Philippus […

Crusis

(151 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Κρουσίς; Krousís). This region named in Hdt. 7,123,2, Thuc. 2,79,4, Str. 7, fr. 21 and Steph. Byz. s.v., lay to the north of  Bottice on the north-west coast of the Chalcidic peninsula between cape Megalo Karaburnu and Nea Kallikrateia. Its coastal towns Aenea, Smila, Scapsa, Gigonus and Haisa are mentioned already in Hecataeus and in Herodotus' account of Xerxes' campaign, and attested, in some cases from 452/1 BC, in others only from 434/3 (together with the inland localities of…

Rhaecelus

(106 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Ῥαίκηλος; Rhaíkēlos). According to Aristot. Ath. pol. 15,2, Peisistratus [4] and the Eretrieis (Eretria [1]) colonised a χωρίον/ chōríon ('spot') on the Thermaean Gulf (Thermaios Kolpos) called R., which, on the basis of Lycoph. 1236 f., scholars have from time to time identified with Aenea. In fact, however, it is probably the name of a region in the western Anthemus, in which at the time the Eretrian colony of Dicaea came into being. There is no further mention of the place in a historical context. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography D. Viviers, Pisistratus' Settlem…

Dicaea

(131 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Athenian League (Second) (Δίκαια; Díkaia). This colony of  Eretria was probably founded in the middle of the 6th cent. BC with the help of Peisistratus; it lay east of Aineia in the interior, probably near Trilofo. As late as the early years of the Peloponnesian War it was a member of the  Delian League. It was able to keep its autonomy into the first half of the 4th cent., becoming Macedonian no later than 349/8. Its later history is unknown. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography F. Papazoglou, Les villes de Macédoine à l'époqu…

Zopyrion

(198 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Ζωπυρίων; Zōpyríōn). [German version] [1] From Macedonia, governor of Thrace, second half of the 4th cent. BC Macedonian of unknown origin, who as governor of Thrace allegedly undertook a campaign with 30,000 men across the Danube c. 325 BC, advanced as far as the Borysthenes (modern Dnieper), besieged Olbia [1], but as his army was severely worn down by bad weather, was defeated by the Scythae and killed (Curt. 10,1,43-45; Iust. Epit. 2,3,4; 12,1,4; 12,2,16f. with incorrect dating; 37,3,2; Macr. Sat. 1,11,33). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography Berve, vol. 2, Nr. 340  A. B. Boswort…

Pausanias

(3,302 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Et al.
(Παυσανίας; Pausanías). [German version] [1] Spartiate from the house of the Agiads Spartiate from the house of the Agiads, son of Cleombrotus [1], after whose death (480/479 BC) he became guardian for his cousin Pleistarchus [1] and 'regent' (Hdt. 9,10; Thuc. 1,132,1; Paus. 3,4,9), father of the later king Pleistoanax (Thuc. 1,107,2). In 479, P. led the contingent of the Hellenic confederacy of 481 to victory over the Persians at Plataeae (Persian Wars), where at first the Greeks almost suffered a catastro…

Anthemous

(112 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Ἀνθεμοῦς; Anthemoûs). Region with both a river (modern Vasilikiotikos) and town (near the modern Galatista) of the same name in the north of the  Chalcidice peninsula. It was Macedonian in the 5th cent. BC (Thuc. 2,99,6), and, in the 4th cent. BC, left for a time to the Chalcidian Confederacy (Xen. Hell. 5,2,13); it supplied a cavalry unit to Alexander's army (Arr. An. 2,9,3). According to inscriptions, the town continued to exist into the imperial age. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. B. Hatzopoulos, L. D. Loukopoulou, Recherches sur les marches orient…

Polemocrates

(89 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
(Πολεμοκράτης/ Polemokrátēs). [German version] [1] Granted lands in Chalcidice by Philip II Under Philip [4] II P. received estates in the newly conquered region in the west of the Chalcidian peninsula; this estate as well as the one which his son Coenus [1], the future general of Alexander [4] the Great, had received from Philip, was later ratified by king Cassander and declared free from tax (Syll.3 332). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. B. Hatzopoulos, Une donation du roi Lysimaque, 1988. [German version] [2] see Alexanor; Machaon see Alexanor; Machaon

Ampelus

(250 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Ἄμπελος; Ámpelos). [German version] [1] Cape on the south-eastern coast of  Crete Cape on the south-eastern coast of  Crete (Ptol. 3,17,4), according to Plin. HN 4,59 also one of the oppida insignia. The town is to be localized close to the modern town of Xerokampos. Graves and ceramics (i.a. of Rhodian origin) from the Hellenistic-Roman period. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography C. Bursian, Geogr. von Griechenland 2, 1972, 577 f. I. F. Sanders, Roman Crete, 1982, 137. [German version] [2] Cape on the south-western tip of the island of  Samos Cape on the south-western …

Macrobii

(277 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
(Μακρόβιοι; Makróbioi, Lat. Macrobii). [German version] [1] According to Herodotus 'the long-lived Ethiopians' According to Herodotus, Cambyses had also the intention of campaigning against the ‘long-living Ethiopians’ (μακροβίους Αἰθίοπας, Hdt. 3,17,1), who lived on the ‘southern sea’ (νοτίῃ θαλάσσῃ, Hdt. l.c.; cf. also Hdt. 3,21-23). Since this notíēi thalássēi (νοτίῃ θαλάσσῃ) of Herodotus' is lost in mythical darkness, it is useless to speculate on the locales of the ‘long-living Ethiopians’, who are occasionally incorrectly separated from…

Mende

(224 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Delian League (Μένδη; Méndē). Town on the western coast of Pallene [4] near the modern Kalandra on the Chalcidian Peninsula, a colony of Eretria [1] which owed its blossoming from the 6th century BC to a famous wine and the profits from its export. Images on the town's coins, which were minted from as early as the 6th century, also make reference to the wine. In the Athenian tribute quota lists, M. is r…

Gigonus

(113 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Γίγωνος; Gígōnos). The town situated close to Cape Gigonis, that is probably to be found north-west of modern Nea Kallikrateia on the west coast of the Chalcidian Peninsula, is mentioned in Hdt. 7,123,2 with regard to the campaign of Xerxes; G. is also mentioned in the Athenian tribute quota lists between 434/3 and 421 BC and for 432 as the line of communication of an Athenian army marching from Macedonia to Poteidaia (Thuc. 1,61,5; 62,2), then however, like the cape, it is only mentioned again in the geographical literature. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography F. Papazo…
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