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Peium

(84 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Πήιον/ Pḗion, Latin Peium; Πεῶν χωρίον/ Peôn chōríon), Deiotarus' treasure fortress (Str. 12,5,2; Cic. Deiot. 17). Hellenistic and Byzantine castle, built in a meander of the river Siberis (Kirmir Çayi) on a steep-sided rock plateau, modern Tabanoğlu Kalesi. Strong entrenchment fortification, cisterns, traces of a palace and a tunnel stairway in the northern part of the site. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Belke, 212f.  S. Mitchell, Blucium and Peium, in: AS 24, 1974, 61-74  K. Strobel, Galatica II, in: Orbis Terrarum 6, 2000

Podanala

(68 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Πωδανάλα/ Pōdanála). Fortified settlement of the northeastern tetrarchy of the Trocmi on the upper city of the Hittite cult city of Zippalanda (Kuşaklı Hüyük) near Sorgun; it was here that Pompeius [I 3] and Licinius [I 26] Lucullus met in 66 BC (Str. 12,5,2). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography K. Strobel, Galatica I, in: Orbis Terrarum 3, 1997, 131-153.

Celts

(6,582 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] I. Name The name C. is first used by the Greek authors of the 5th cent. BC (Hdt. 4,49: Κελτοί; Keltoí; Scyl. 18). Their settlement area was called Keltikḗ (Κελτική). In around 270 BC, the term ‘Galatians’ (Γαλάται; Galátai) is found in Timaeus, the name exclusively applied to the C. in the east. The Greeks clearly distinguished between C. and Galatians. Confusion arose from the translation of Galli as Galatai by the Romans (Caes. B Gall. 1,1,1). Galatai as an alternative term for C. is surely connected with a second wave of Celtic immigration into Gaul in…

Melas

(695 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Et al.
(Μέλας/ Mélas). [German version] [1] Brother of Oeneus Son of Porthaon (Portheus) and Euryte in Calydon [3], brother of Oeneus, Agrius [1], Alcathous [2], Leucopeus and Sterope (cf. Hom. Il. 14,115ff.; Apollod. 1,63). M.'s eight sons were killed by Tydeus for pursuing their uncle Oeneus (Apollod. 1,76 = Alcmaeonis fr. 4 EpGF). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Son of Phrixus and Chalciope Son of Phrixus and Chalciope [2], the daughter of Aeetes, brother of Argus [I 2], Phrontis and Cytis(s)orus (Apollod. 1,83). In the older myth M., like Argus, prob…

Aspona

(80 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Ἄσπονα, Ἄσπωνα; Áspona, Áspōna). Border town of  Galatia north of the Tuz Gölü, modern Sarıhüyük. Statio on the pilgrim route, in the 4th cent. AD civitas; documented as a suffragan diocese from AD 342/343. Fortified hill with evidence of settlement as early as prehistoric times. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography K. Belke, Galatien und Lykaonien, TIB 4, 1984, 135 S. Mitchell, Regional Epigraphic Catalogues of Asia Minor 2, 1982, 403-405.

Rhebas

(153 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Ῥήβας/ Rhḗbas). [German version] [1] River in Bithynia, present-day Riva Deresi River in Bithynia (Apoll. Rhod. 2,343; 650; Tab. Peut. 9,2 written incorrectly as ad herbas), present-day Riva Deresi; it discharges on the north coast of the Bithynian peninsula east of where the Bosporus flows into the Pontos Euxeinos. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography IK 10,3, 1987, 141 f. [German version] [2] Left-hand tributary of the Lower Sangarius, present-day Gökcesu Left-hand tributary of the Lower Sangarius, which rises on Olympus [13], present-day Gökçesu. Its valle…

Nicopolis

(1,739 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νικόπολις; Nikópolis). [German version] [1] Town on the upper Nestus river This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia Town on the upper Nestus river on the road from Philippopolis to the Aegean coast (Ptol. 3,11,13: Ν. ἡ περὶ Νέσσον; 8,11,7; Hierocles, Synekdemos 636,5), near modern Goce Delčev (Bulgaria), founded in AD 106 by Traianus. From the 2nd to 4th cents. AD, N. reached a high economic and cultural level (minting from Commodus to Caracalla: HN 287; thermal baths, peristyle buildings, sculpt…

Malus

(294 words)

Author(s): von Stuckrad, Kocku (Erfurt) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Son of Amphictyon (Μᾶλος; Mâlos). Son of Amphictyon, eponym of the Malieis and of their city Malieus (Androtion in Steph. Byz. s.v. Μαλιεύς; Malieús). In the poems of Isyllus of Epidaurus (CollAlex 132-135 = [1. 380-383 no. 40]) M. is an Epidaurian king who introduces the cult of Apollo Maleatas. Therefore, M. is probably an Epidaurian etymology to explain the name Maleatas. In Isyllus, M. - through the mediation of Zeus - marries the Muse Erato and becomes the father of Cleophema, hence the grandfather of Aegle [5] and the great-grandfather of Asclepius. von Stuckrad,…

Cuballum

(151 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts Fortress in  Galatia ( C. Gallograeciae castellum: Liv. 38,18,5), can be identified with the spacious plateau situated near modern Ortakişla (north of Sülüklü) in a bend in the valley, with edges that fall away steeply and have to some extent obviously been consolidated for fortification purposes, and the drop of a massive cut embankment to provide a barrier against the rear elevations; otherwise no identifiable building remains [1. 31]. C. cont…

Cales

(225 words)

Author(s): Garozzo, Bruno (Pisa) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] [2] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Theatre | Tribus | Coloniae | Coloniae Main centre of the Ausones in Campania (Καλησία; Kalēsía: Steph. Byz. s.v.; Calenum: Plin. HN 3,63; Cale), on an elevated plain, enclosed on three sides by the Rio de' Lauzi and the Rio di Pezzasecca, modern Calvi Risorta. For its foundation myth cf. Verg. Aen. 7,728 (Aurunca), Sil. Pun. 8,512; 12,525 (Calais), Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6,32,37 (Volsci). Conquered by the Romans in 334 BC (Liv. 8,16; Vell. Pat. 1,14,3), municipium, seat of the quaestor for Campania (Tac. An…

Galatia

(1,808 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
I. Region [German version] A. Definition Region in central Anatolia; it received its ethnically derived name following the conquest, settlement, and formation of states by the Celtic  Tolistobogii,  Tectosages, and  Trocmi, thus replacing the older names for its constituent regions (Phrygia, Cappadocia). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) [German version] B. Geography Before 188 BC, the tribal states of G. included, in the north, peripheral areas of  Paphlagonia and the territory of the  Mariandyni (basins of Bolu and Gerede), the zone ─ rich in woodl…

Claudioupolis

(334 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
(Κλαυδιούπολις; Klaudioúpolis). [German version] [1] Settlement in the Salo region This item can be found on the following maps: Celts | Asia Minor Old settlement in the Salo region (Abant Gölü, Bolu basin and surrounding alpine pastures), today known as Bolu (Str. 12,4,7). It was a suburb of the free  Mariandyni, conquered by  Zipoetes in 281/0 BC, and Galatian from c. 275/4 to 179 (the residential fortress of the north-western Tolistobogian tetrarchy is located south of Bolu at the spa of Karacasu, already ancient at that time). Newly founded as the po…

Dia

(455 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Δῖα, Δία; Dîa, Día). [German version] [1] Female equivalent of Zeus The female equivalent of  Zeus, as Diwiya on the Linear B inscriptions from Pylos and Knossos, with her own sanctuary, just as  Poseidon also has his female counterpart in the Mycenaean pantheon [1]. In the post-Mycenaean period the three heroines who can be linked with the Mycenaean goddess by name, are all linked with Zeus, but the individual derivation is problematical. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Heroine in the local cults of Phlius and Sicyon The heroine is most likely D. in the local cult…

Astacus

(425 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ἀστακός; Astakós, ‘lobster town’). [German version] [1] Town on the eastern end of the Gulf of A. or of  Nicomedia This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Delian League Town on the eastern end of the Gulf of A. or of  Nicomedia, in an unhealthy region; its exact location is unknown. Its foundation in 712/11 BC was initiated by  Megara (Memnon, FGrH 434 F 12; Str. 12,4,2), and it was presumably a member of the  Delian League from 478/7 BC[1]; in 435/4 BC, it was colonized by Athens. In about 405 BC, under D…

Tyana

(216 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Syria | Byzantium | Christianity | Xenophon | Zenobia | | Coloniae | Ḫattusa | Asia Minor | Asia Minor | Aegean Koine (Τύανα/ Týana; Luwian Tuwana). Ancient Anatolian city, capital of southern Cappadocia, on the road to the Cilician Gates [1], modern Kemerhisar (settlement mound, aqueduct, tapping of springs). Seat of a Late-Hittite kingdom, which in the later 8th cent. BC probably came under the predominance of the Phrygian kingdom (Phryges). In the Hellenistic…

Olympus

(2,377 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ὄλυμπος/Ólympos). Geography: [1-13]. People: [14-15]. [German version] [1] Home of the ›Olympian‹ gods, highest mountain in Greece (Latin Olympus) (Latin Olympus). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) [German version] I. Geography The highest mountain in Greece, regarded as the home of the 'Olympian' gods (twelve (Olympian) gods). Its altitude, overlooking all of its surroundings, creates a powerful impression, as do its massive size and density and its dramatic ascent, especially at the east and west, which …

Arca

(47 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Ἄρκα; Árka). Town in  Armenia minor, present-day Akçadaǧ. Statio on the road Caesarea-Melitene (Arcas: Itin. Anton. 211,3), colonia Arca. Evidence of a bishopric from AD 431. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography F. Hild, M. Restle, Kappadokien (TIB 2), 1981, 152 f. G.Hirschfeld, s.v.A. 4, RE 2, 1118.

Cybistra

(73 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Ḫattusa (Κύβιστρα; Kýbistra). Town in  ‘Cataonia at the end of the road from the Cilician Gates across the Taurus, later also called Heraclea; modern Tont Kalesı, 13 km south-east of Ereğli; belonged later to  Cappadocia II. It was a diocese from AD 325 and an archdiocese from c. 1060. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. Kybistra, RE Suppl. 4, 1123 Hild/Restle, 188-190.

Olbia

(1,082 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meloni, Piero (Cagliari) | Et al.
(Ὀλβία/ Olbίa). [German version] [1] Milesian colony This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Thraci, Thracia | Wine | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Apollo | Patricius | Patricius | Rome | Rome Milesian colony (Colonisation) south of modern Parutino (Ukraine) at the confluence of the Hypanis and Borysthenes (Ps.-Scymn. 808f.), and for that reason also known as Borysthenes (Βορυσθένης; Hdt. 4,24; 78); founded at the beginning of the 6th cent. BC (Hdt. 4,18,5: Ὀλβιοπολῖται; Ps.-Skymn. 813f…

Calpe

(257 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] [1] Rock of Gibraltar The rock of Gibraltar ( Pylae Gadeirides). The derivation of the name from the Greek κάλπη ( kálpē) = κάλπις/ kálpis ‘jug’ (already found in Avien. 348) is founded on popular etymology, based on the cavity in the eastern face of the rock (Mela 2,95), which nowadays is largely taken up by fill and the town of Gibraltar itself [1]. Maybe the Greeks transferred this name -- of unknown origin -- from the Bithynian C. (modern Kirpe) to the Spanish peninsula [2]. C. was one of the two ‘P…
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