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Thierry of Chartres

(149 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (Theodoricus Brito; died c. 1156). Thierry taught the artes liberales and theology in Paris c. 1130/1140 and for some time in Chartres. His students included Petrus Helias, Ivo of Chartres, John of Salisbury, and Clarembald of Arras. He wrote primarily commentaries on Cicero’s De inventione, the Rhetorica ad Herennium (c. 1130), and Boethius’s De trinitate (after 1148). His glosses and lectures on the latter have also survived. His doctrine of the Trinity was influenced by the Neoplatonic question of the relationship between one and many. His Tractatus de sex dieru…

John of Salisbury

(248 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (1115/1120, Old Sarum – Oct 25, 1180, Salisbury). John studied in Paris (1136–1147) with Abelard, William of Conches, Gilbert of Poitiers, Robert of Melun, Thierry of Chartres, and ¶ Robert Pullus. In 1154, he entered the service of Archbishop Theobald of Canterbury, and in 1162 that of Theobald's successor, Thomas Becket. Because of Becket's conflict with Henry II, John was banished to Reims (1163–1170). In 1176, he became bishop of Chartres. His writings are marked by his classical education. The Entheticus (1155) is a didactic poem on philosophy. The Metalogicon (1…

Ivo of Chartres

(190 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (1040, Chartres? – Dec 23, 1115/1116, Chartres). Following studies in Le Bec (near Lanfranc) and in Paris, Ivo became canon in Nesle, then provost of the canons regular of St. Quentin in Beauvais, and finally bishop of Chartres in 1090. He contributed to the resolution of the Investiture Controversy by distinguishing between ecclesial and royal, unalterable and alterable, spiritual and wordly law. He supported the canons regular (Regulated clergy), whom he placed above the monks. …

Isidore of Seville (Saint)

(399 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (c. 560 – Apr 4, 636, Seville). From a Hispano-Roman family who migrated from Cartagena to Seville, Isidore succeeded his brother Leander as archbishop of Seville" in 599/601. He was an adviser to King Sisebut, founded episcopal schools with libraries in Seville, Toledo, and Saragossa and chaired the synods of Seville (619) and Toledo (633). In many of his works, he endeavored to communicate, especially to the clergy, comprehensive religious and secular learning nourished by antiquity. The Differentiae contain an alphabetical list of words meant to elucida…

Honorius of Autun

(141 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] ( Honorius Augustodunensis; 1080/1090 – c. 1150, Weih St. Peter). A Benedictine friar, Honorius of Autun was probably a disciple of Anselm of Canterbury. Around the year 1100, he wrote the Elucidarium in Canterbury, a didactic theological dialogue that became widely circulated. His historico-theological exegesis of the Song of Songs was written in Regensburg, as was his world history Summa totius and the Clavis physicae, the latter being dependent on John Scotus Eriugena. Honorius was above all a ¶ compiler, but with popularizing and systematizing aims. Reinhold Ri…

Lyon, Councils of

(650 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] I. The first Council of Lyon was the renewed attempt of Pope Gregory IX to oppose Emperor Frederick Hohenstaufen after the emperor had forestalled a council convoked in Rome by Gregory in 1241. His successor ¶ Innocent IV succeeded in evading the power of the emperor and on Jan 3, 1245, convoked a council in Lyon to clarify the relationship between pope and emperor, take measures against the Tartars, and find help for the Byzantine Empire and the Holy Land. The council held three sessions from …

Duns Scotus, John

(1,682 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (“Doctor subtilis”; 1265/66 Duns?, Scotland – Nov 8, 1308, Cologne). There is great uncertainty on the biography of Duns Scotus. He came from Scotland, entered the Franciscan Order (Franciscans), and studied at Oxford and possibly Paris. He was ordained a priest in 1291. Whether he first taught at Cambridge is under dispute. Around 1300, he lectured ¶ at Oxford on the Sentences of Peter Lombard; likewise in Paris beginning in 1302. He was expelled from the country in 1303 for …

Amalrich von Bena

(117 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (Amaury; born Bène, near Chartres, died 1206, Paris) studied and taught the artes liberales in Paris. He also was engaged in theology and developed a pantheistic Gnostic interpretation of history, inspired by Neoplatonism, based on John Scotus Eriugena and the natural philosophy of Aristotle. Our knowledge of his system depends entirely on works written by his opponents. His teachings were condemned in 1210 by a synod in Paris, along with the teachings of David, and in 1215 by the 4th Lateran Council. His followers were persecuted as heretics. R…

Bernardus Silvestris

(166 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] The poet and natural philosopher Bernardus was a native of Tours, worked there as a teacher (e.g. of Matthaeus de Vendôme), and died probably after 1159. He presumably wrote a commentary on Aeneis I–VI and on Martianus Capella. His thinking reveals the early influence of the Arab transmission of Aristotelianism (Aristotle, Reception History), but remains determined by the Platonism of Chartres (Thierry). His main opus, the Cosmographia

Eriugena, John Scotus

(391 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (c. 810, Ireland – c. 880, West Franconia), philosopher. This teacher of the artes liberales taught at the court or cathedral school of Charles the Bald in Laon. He wrote a commentary on Martianus Capella's De nuptiis Mercurii et Philologiae, which he used as a textbook on the artes liberales. For him, logic was the formal foundation of all the six other liberal arts. Eriguena prepared the first useful translation of the Corpus Dionysiacum (Dionysius Areopagita), to which he added a commentary. In his testimonial requested to de…

Fulbert of Chartres, Saint

(173 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (c. 960/970 – Apr 10, 1028, Chartres), was a student of Gerbert of Aurillac in Reims; he became chancellor in 1004 and bishop of Chartres in 1006, where he built the Romanic Cathedral. Influenced by Neoplatonism and Ps.-Dionysius Areopagita (Pseudo-Dionysius), he valued dialectics as a scientific method, but warned against overvaluing it in theology. Regarding the doctrine of the Eucharist (Communion: II, 2; III), he argued in support of transsubstantiation and real presence (in c…

Albertus Magnus

(707 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (Albertus Alemanus, Colonien- sis, Teutonicus, de Lauing; c. 1200, Lauingen – Nov 15, 1280, Cologne) was from a knightly family (not from Bollstadt). After studies in Padua, where Jordan of Saxony induced him to enter the Dominican Order in 1223, he spent his novitiate in theological studies in Cologne, took his …

Bradwardine, Thomas

(318 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (c. 1290, Hartsfield (?), Sussex – Aug 26, 1349, Lambeth) studied and taught at Balliol and Merton Colleges in Oxford from 1321 to 1326. He was ordained priest in 1332 and became chancellor of the university of Oxford. He took his licentiate in theology in 1336 and his Master's degree in 1340. He became chancellor of St Paul's in London in 1337, and …

Lanfranc

(301 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (c. 1010, Pavia – May 28, 1089, Canterbury). After studying the artes liberales in Italy until 1030, Lanfranc taught in Burgundy and Normandy. In 1042 he entered Le Bec, a Benedictine abbey in Normandy, where he served as prior from 1045 to 1063. Anselm of Canterbury began studying at Lanfranc's monastic school in 1059. In 1049/1050, 1067, and 1071, Lanfranc resided at the papal court. In debate with Berengar of Tours over the nature of the Eucharist, he contributed to the …

Reihing, Jakob

(218 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (Jan 6, 1579, Augsburg – May 5, 1628, Tübingen), born to a patrician family, attended the Jesuit college in Augsburg; in Ingolstadt he began studying philosophy in 1594 and theology in 1602. In 1597 he joined the Jesuit order in Landsberg am Lech and was ordained priest in 1604. In 1606 he began lecturing in controversial theology at the Jesuit college in Munich; in 1608 he became professor of philosophy in Ingolstadt. After receiving his doctorate in theol…

Siger of Brabant

(242 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (c. 1240 – c. 1284, Orvieto), secular canon in Liège, M.A. at the University of Paris. His Aristotelian philosophy was suspected of heresy and was attacked by Bonaventura, Thomas Aquinas, and others. On Dec 10, 1270, the bishop of Paris, Stephan Tempier, condemned his teaching. Summoned before a court of the Inquis…

Artes liberales

(276 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] In contrast to the artes mechanicae, in the ancient world the artes liberales constituted the subjects in which a free man should be educated. The early attempts of Sophists to define them were elaborated by Plato; they were systematized by Varro in the 1st century bce. In Late Antiquity, the list of seven and its division into the trivium (linguistic disciplines: grammar, rhetoric, dialectic) and quadrivium (mathematical disciplines: arithmetic, geometry, music, astronomy) became canonical. While Augustine of Hippo organized the artes liberales

Gottschalk of Orbais

(266 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (806/808 – 866/870, Haut-villers, France), entered the monastery in Fulda as the oblate of his noble family, became friends with Walahfrid Strabo in the Reichenau, and was, against his will, inducted as a monk by Rabanus Maurus, from which a synod in Mainz released him in 829. Nevertheless, he permitted himself as a monk from Orbais to be ordained to the priesthood. On his journey to Italy, his ¶ doctrine of double predestination caused a scandal so that Hrabanus had him condemned and expelled in 848 at a synod in Mainz. Following a renewed condemn…

Peter of Vienna (Petrus Wiensis)

(142 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (c. 1120/1130 – 1183, Zwettl [?]). In 1153 Peter, a disciple of Gilbert of Poitiers, engaged in an epistolary dispute with Gerhoch of Reichersberg. From 1158 to 1161 he was active as a magister in Vienna. Probably while still in France, he wrote the Zwettler Summa, the most important work on systematic theology of the Porretan school, in which he defended Gilbert’s distinction between the nature and the person of God. The work comprises four sections on the Trinity, the incarnation of God, and the sacraments. Peter had cont…
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