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Reuter, Hermann

(335 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Aug 31, 1817, Hildesheim – Sep 17, 1889, Kreiensen). In 1837 Reuter began studying Protestant theology in Göttingen; in 1838 he moved to Berlin, where he combined theology with history and philosophy. Close friendly exchange of ideas with Rudolf v. Ihering (later a renowned jurist) and attentiveness to the political historicism of the universal historians confirmed him in a “historical method” that admitted no difference between so-called secular historians and church historians.…

Inner Emigration

(317 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] The origin of the term is disputed. Some point to L. Uhland's Auswanderung in die Ver-¶ gangenheit [Emigration into the past] (1848), some to the author Frank Thiess (1890–1977), who claimed the term, which quickly became prominent after 1933, as his own. Inner emigration and its synonyms such as “emigration inward” or “spiritual exile” refer to the non-political habitus of artists and authors such as J. Klepper, R. Schneider, and W. Bergengruen under the conditions of the National Socialist dict…

Marheineke, Philipp Konrad

(440 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (May 1, 1780, Hildesheim – May 31, 1846, Berlin), theologian and church historian. After studying Protestant theology and philosophy in Göttingen with G.J. Planck, C.F. v. Ammon, K.F. Stäudlin, and J.G. Eichhorn, Marheineke received his Dr.Phil. in 1803 from Erlangen. In 1804 he was appointed lecturer on the Protestant faculty at Erlangen and in 1805 associate professor of church history and university preacher. From 1807 to 1811 he was professor of New Testament, practical theolo…

Krüger, Gustav

(181 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jun 29, 1862, Bremen – Mar 13, 1940, Gießen), Protestant church historian. He studied in history, philosophy, and theology in Heidelberg, Jena, Gießen, and Göttingen. He was awarded a Dr.theol. in Jena (1884) and a Lic.theol. in Gießen (1886), where he became associate professor for church history in 1889 and full professor in 1891. Deeply rooted in the education-oriented cultural Protestantism of the prewar period, the “social aristocrat” Krüger edited the Handbuch der Kirchengeschichte für Studierende (1909–1912, 21923–1932), and the Theologischer Jahresbe…

Nowak, Kurt

(341 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Oct 28, 1942, Leipzig – Dec 31, 2001, Leipzig). Nowak gained his Abitur in 1961; he refused military service, and after working in the Leipzig city theater, and then with the Leipzig theater company, began to study theology in 1964. With a church history dissertation on “Euthanasia and Sterilization in the Third Reich,” a German studies dissertation under Claus Träger on Schleiermacher (1984), and a further dissertation on “The Protestant Church and the WeimarRepublic,” he gained a high repu…

Cultural Protestantism

(913 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] Despite intensive historical research, the origins of the term cultural Protestantism have been identified only in broad outline. Originally it was not a self-designation but a polemical term used by others, reflecting the florescence of cultural semantics (Culture: II) in the late 19th and early 20th century. In all European societies, the widespread sense of a crisis of modernity, the cultural pessimism rife among the bourgeoisie, and the relat…


(573 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Friends of Light). Lichtfreunde was the name given to the “Protestantische Freunde,” an association of rationalistic early liberal Protestant clergy and laity in Saxony and Prussia organized in 1841. The term, borrowed from Freemasonry, was originally used for adherents of the Enlightenment in general; by the time journals bearing this name were established in Saxony (1831) and Frankfurt am Main (1836), it was serving as a programmatic label for consistent support of the Enlightenme…

Religious Economics

(274 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] While studying the ecumenical movements of the 20th century, the sociologist Peter L. Berger developed “A Market Model for the Analysis of Ecumenicity” (1963). His theory stated that a termination of confessional culture clashes and processes of ecumenical cooperation between traditionally rivaling confessional churches followed goal-oriented and pragmatic partisan calculations, among others. Inspired by the Neoliberal Chicago School of Economics, religious economists such as Roge…

Radicalism, Social

(605 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] The expression “social radicalism” is used in everyday language, in the technical terminology of various academic disciplines, and in political discourse. In German political terminology it is first attested in the ideological debates of the Vormärz (I) and the closely related religious party conflicts. At that time, 18th-century British and French discourse had a decisive influence. In Britain, from c. 1740 all political programs were described as radical that wished to make far-…

Vischer, Friedrich Theodor

(233 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (ennobled in 1870; Jun 30, 1807, Ludwigsburg – Sep 14, 1887, Gmunden), the son of a clergyman, a student of F.C. Baur, and ¶ a youthful friend and intermittent supporter of D.F. Strauß, studied Protestant theology, philosophy, and philology at Tübingen (Dr.theol. 1832; lecturer at the Tübingen Stift 1833). In 1836 he gained his habilitation there in aesthetics and German literature. As a professor of literary history (1844 Tübingen, suspended for two years on suspicion of “pantheism”; 1855 Zürich, 1866 S…

Political Religion

(927 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] The origins of the expression political religion, analogous to political theology, are obscure. Probably it was a neologism born in the “saddle period” of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. K.G. Bretschneider used the concept to analyze the system of mediations between religious or denominational fractioning and the formation of political parties. In his Wörterbuch der Sittenlehre (1834), Johann Christian Karl Herbig stated: “A political religion is a religion whose ultimate purpose is associated with the state; it is therefore always intimately connected with the state…

Märklin, Christian

(301 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jun 23, 1807, Maulbronn – Oct 18, 1849, Heilbronn). Beginning in 1821, Märklin, the scion of an old family of Württemberg theologians, went through the Württemberg institutions of theological education in the company of such figures as D.F. Strauß, F.T. Vischer, and Wilhelm Zimmermann (known in Ger. as the Geniepromotion, or “genius doctorates”). At the Protestant seminary in Blaubeuren and later at the Protestant house of studies in Tübingen, F.C. Baur inspired in Märklin an enthusiasm for the theology o…

Saddle Period

(388 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Ger. Sattelzeit) has become a central concept in the exploration of conceptual history by German historians. It was coined spontaneously by Reinhard Koselleck in the planning stage of a lexicon sponsored by the Arbeitskreis für moderne Sozialgeschichte, Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe. Historisches Lexikon zur politisch-sozialen Sprache in Deutschland(8 vols. in 9, 1972–1997). It is possible that echoes of the concept of so-called axial or pivotal ages, developed by H. Freyer and C. Schmitt (amon…

Rothe, Richard

(1,510 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jan 28, 1799, Posen [Poznań – Aug 20, 1867, Heidelberg), only son of a high-ranking Prussian official. Rothe began his theological studies in Heidelberg in 1817 and moved to Berlin in 1819; his teachers included C. Daub, G.W.F. Hegel, and J.W.A. Neander. In Neander’s home, he forged a friendship with F.A.G. Tholuck, who filled both with enthusiasm for the revival movement (Revival/Revival movements). In the fall of 1820, at the age of 21, he passed his first theological examination with distinc…

Kirchlich-sozial (Movements)

(626 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] The expression kirchlich-sozial (“church-social”) first appeared in 1848 in the writings of J. Wichern. At that time, Wichern did not yet distinguish between “Church-social,” “Christian-social,” and “Protestant-social.” With the establishment of the Evangelisch-Sozialer Kongreß (Protestant Social Congress) in 1890, however, these adjectives denoted increasingly different positions with regard to Protestant social reform. The term “Protestant-social” was now claimed by the bourgeois …

Denominations, Study of

(664 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] The term, propagated as Konfessionskunde by F. Kattenbusch in 1892, denotes a theological discipline that examines comparatively the differences between the various Christian denominations with a view to their confessions (of faith) or ¶ official doctrines, constructions of dogmatic identity, specific forms of ethos, liturgical practices, and religious lifestyles. Precursors of the new discipline – a discipline meant to integrate t…

Rust, Isaak

(217 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Oct 14, 1796, Mußbach in the Rhine­land Palatinate – Dec 14, 1862, Munich) began studying philosophy and theology at Heidelberg in 1815, receiving his Dr.Phil. in 1820. Thanks to friendly contacts with G.W.F. Hegel, the pastor of Ungstein wrote Philosophie und Christenthum, oder Wissen und Glauben (1825, 21833), using the tools of speculative rationalism to resolve the positional pluralism of rationalism, mediation theology (his term), and restorative confessional theology. While pastor of the French …


(1,911 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Sparn, Walter
1. BegriffA. (von griech. átheos, »ohne Gott«, »gottlos«) bezeichnet einerseits in komplexer Vielfalt Weltdeutungen und Lebensentwürfe, welche durch die bewusste Ablehnung der Existenz eines oder mehrerer Götter, transzendenter Wesen oder Mächte geprägt sind (positiver A.), andererseits die bewusste Verneinung der irdischen Wirksamkeit solcher Götter oder Mächte bei gleichzeitiger Anerkennung der theoretischen Möglichkeit ihrer Existenz (negativer A.). Weil jedoch Ausdrücke wie Gott, Schöpfer, Absolutes, höchstes Wesen, Ursprung alles Seienden, letztes Prinzip, allbeseelende Kraft u. a. keineswegs nur in abgegrenzt religiösen Kontexten und speziellen philosophischen oder theologischen Diskursen, sondern in allen Sprach- und Vorstellungswelten vorkommen, umfasst auch der negierende Begriff A. unübersichtlich viel. Es gibt daher keine einheitliche und klare Begriffsdefinition. Das semantische Feld von A. hat vielmehr…
Date: 2019-11-19


(2,377 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Sparn, Walter
1. Begriff und historischer KontextDer dt. Kollektivsingular P. kam erst im 18. Jh. auf, während das engl. und das franz. Wort ( protestan…
Date: 2020-11-18


(1,225 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Sparn, Walter
1. BegriffF. ist ein Begriff aus der Zeit der nordamerikan. Religionskämpfe des frühen 20. Jh.s. Für die Nz. hat er insoweit Bedeutung, als die Erschließung von spätmodernen Religionskonflikten dazu beitragen kann, die für die nzl. Gesellschaften Europas typischen religiösen Auseinandersetzungen, konfessionellen Antagonismen und dogmatischen Kontroversen über religiöse Identitäts-Konstruktionen neu zu verstehen.Der Begriff F. wurde im Kontext der religionspolitischen Kämpfe zwischen konkurrierenden Gruppen im Protestantismus der USA um 1920 gebildet. Zunehmend strittig wurden hier die Legitimität histor.-kritischer Bibel-Exegese, die Darwin'sche Evolutions-Lehre, die Emanzipation vieler Individuen aus traditionalen sozialen Bindungen und der moderne Pluralismus der Weltdeutungen und Lebensstile. Aus der …
Date: 2019-11-19


(2,127 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Sparn, Walter
1. Terminology The word atheism (from Greek átheos, “without  God”, “godless”) denotes both a complex variety of interpretations of the world and life-designs shaped by conscious rejection of the existence of one or more gods, transcendent beings, or powers (positive atheism) and a conscious denial of the earthly influence of such gods or powers, while simultaneously recognizing the theoretical possibility of their existence (negative atheism). Terms such as “God,” “creator,” “absolute,” “supreme being…
Date: 2019-10-14


(2,626 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Sparn, Walter
1. The term and its historical contextThe collective singular noun Protestantism and its French equivalent  protestantisme were already in use in the 16th century; the German  Protestantismus did not come into use until the 18th century. The term refers to the protest and reform movements of the 16th-century Reformation and denotes all the Christian churches, free churches, and groups that emerged from it, most of which appealed to the Reformers Martin Luther, Philipp Melanchthon, Martin Bucer, Huldrych Zwingli, and Jo…
Date: 2021-03-15


(1,342 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Sparn, Walter
1. The term The term  fundamentalism is a product of the religious conflicts in North American during the early 20th century. It is relevant to the early modern period because the exploration of late modern religious conflicts can contribute to a better understanding of the religious conflicts, confessional antagonists, and theological controversies over the construction of religious identity typical of Eurpean societies in the early modern period.The term was coined around 1920 in the context of the religio-political conflicts between competing groups with…
Date: 2019-10-14


(928 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Wolfes, Matthias
[English Version] I. Kirchengeschichtlich Formeln vom »neuen« oder »modernen Protestantismus« tauchten vereinzelt um 1800 auf, gewannen aber erst seit der Fixierung tiefer religions- und kulturpolit. Gegensätze zw. »liberalen Theologen« (liberale Theologie), Vermittlungstheologen (Vermittlungstheologie), theol. Hegelianern (Hegelianismus) und neuluth. Konfessionalisten (Neuluthertum) während der 30er Jahre des 19.Jh. einen festen Gehalt. Der Neologismus »die Neuprotestanten« wurde in den späten 30e…


(1,528 words)

Author(s): Zenkert, Georg | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] I. Philosophisch Der Begriff taucht erstmals auf in den Auseinandersetzungen um den ital. Faschismus, wird aber in der Theoriebildung auch auf den Bolschewismus (Kommunismus [und Bolschewismus]) bezogen (s.u. II.). Mit der Machtergreifung der Nationalsozialisten (Nationalsozialismus) rückt er in das Zentrum politiktheoretischer Aufmerksamkeit. Die Konjunktur des Begriffes verdankt sich der Erfahrung, daß die traditionellen Kategorien der Tyrannis und der Despotie die im 20.Jh. auf…


(420 words)

Author(s): Winkler, Eberhard | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] , 1.Franz Martin Leopold (1.8.1860 Gütergotz bei Potsdam – 17.3.1937 Leipzig-Schleußig). Nach dem Pfarramt in Westerland, Eisenach und Kloster Preetz leitete R. ab 1896 das dortige Predigerseminar. 1902 wurde er PD für Praktische Theol. in Kiel, 1906 Hon.-Prof., 1910 o. Prof. für Praktische Theol. und NT in Leipzig, 1912 zugleich Direktor des Predigerkollegs, 1924 Rektor der Universität. Er postulierte ein »Liturgisches Erbrecht« (1913, Nachdr. 1969) als Prinzip der Gesch. des ch…


(494 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Cymorek, Hans
[English Version] 1.Reinhold , (5.4.1859 Pörrafer, Livland – 23.10.1935 Ahrenshoop). Nach Magister-Promotion, Habil. und etatmäßiger Dozentur in Dorpat wurde der als große Hoffnung der theol. Konservativen geltende S.1889 als Ordinarius für theol. Enzyklopädie, ntl. Zeitgesch. und Patristik nach Erlangen berufen. Seit F.H. R. Franks Tod 1894 lehrte er auch Syst. Theol. Als späte Folge des Apostolikumstreits wurde der Autor eines großen »Lehrbuchs der Dogmengesch.« (2 Bde., 1895, 1898) 1898 als pos…

Weimarer Republik

(1,807 words)

Author(s): Hübinger, Gangolf | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] I. Politisch-kulturell Für die erste dt. Republik wurden am 9.11.1918 die Weichen zu einer parlamentarischen und demokratischen Herrschaftsordnung gestellt. Noch in der Radikalisierungsphase der Revolution wurde am 19.1.1919 die Verfassunggebende Nationalversammlung gewählt, in der die »Weimarer Koalition« aus Mehrheitssozialdemokratie (MSPD), Deutscher Demokratischer Partei (DDP) und Zentrum die Mehrheit erhielt. Schon am 11.8.1919 trat die vom linksliberalen Staatsrechtler Hugo …


(935 words)

Author(s): Langewiesche, Dieter | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] I. Geschichtlich Der Begriff V. wird meist für die Zeit zw. den Revolutionen von 1830 und 1848 verwendet. Im Unterschied zu den konkurrierenden Bezeichnungen Biedermeier und Restauration zielt er auf die polit. Aufbruchstimmung in der dt. Gesellschaft, die sich schließlich im März 1848 gegen staatl. Obrigkeiten revolutionär entlud, die zwar gesellschaftliche Reformen vorantrieben, polit. Partizipation jedoch eng begrenzten. Die Staatskrise der 40er Jahre des 19.Jh., der V. im enge…


(7,331 words)

Author(s): Nicolaisen, Carsten | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] I. Geschichtlich und kirchengeschichtlich 1.Historisch-politischer Rahmen Der N. als polit. Bewegung entstand 1919 durch Gründung der Nationalsozialistischen Deutschen Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) im völkisch-antisemitischen Milieu des Münchner Kleinbürgertums. Er fand unter Führung Adolf Hitlers bald Anklang in fast allen Bevölkerungsschichten Deutschlands und wurde 1930, als sich aufgrund der Weltwirtschaftskrise von 1929 das nach der Niederlage von 1918 in Deutschland allg. verbreitete …


(1,564 words)

Author(s): Figal, Günter | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Church History – III. Systematic Theology I. Philosophy The concept of historicism came into currency in the 19th century and soon assumed critical and even polemical significance. Indeed, also G.W.F. Hegel's concept of reason freely actualized in history could be called historicism (J. Braniss, Die wissenschaftliche Aufgabe der ¶ Gegenwart als leitende Idee im akademischen Studium [The scientific task of the present as a leading idea in academic studies], 1848); but the understanding of historicism as a mode of tho…


(627 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Cymorek, Hans
[German Version] 1. Reinhold (Apr 5, 1859, Pööravere, Livonia – Oct 23, 1935, Ahrenshoop). After receiving his master’s degree, habilitation, and paid lectureship at Dorpat (Tartu), Seeberg was considered the great hope of theological conservatives. In 1889 he was appointed to a full profes-¶ sorship of theology, New Testament history, and patristics at Erlangen. After the death of F.H.R. Frank in 1894, he also lectured in systematic theology. As a late aftereffect of the Apostolicum controversy, Seeberg, who had written a massive Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte (2 vols., 1895/18…

Weimar Republic

(2,212 words)

Author(s): Hübinger, Gangolf | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] I. Politics and Culture On Nov 9, 1918 the foundation of a parliamentary and democratic form of government was laid for the first German republic. On Jan 19, 1919, still in the radicalizing phase of the revolution, the National Assembly was elected to draw up a constitution. It included the “Weimar Coalition,” in which Majority Social Democracy, the German Democratic Party and the Center Party formed a majority. On Aug 11, 1919 the Weimar Constitution came into force. It had been larg…


(1,829 words)

Author(s): Zenkert, Georg | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] I. Philosophy The term first appears in controversies about Italian Fascism, but in theoretical discussions it is also applied to Bolshevism (Communism) (see II below). When the National Socialists (National Socialism) seized power it became a central theme of political theory. The term became popular because the traditional categories of tyranny and despotism were inadequate to define the rising political deformations of the 20th century. Whereas political science attempted to defi…

Vormärz (Pre-March 1848 Revolution Period)

(1,137 words)

Author(s): Langewiesche, Dieter | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] I. History The term Vormärz is usually employed in reference to the period of German history spanning the years 1830 to 1848. Unlike the competing designations Biedermeier and Restoration, it evokes the atmosphere of change in German society that finally erupted in revolutionary uprisings against the political authorities in March 1848 – events that hastened the pace of social reforms, although the possibilities of political participation remained extremely limited. The constitutional crisis of the 1840s, i.e. the Vormärz in the strict sense, manifested it…


(1,918 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Dan, Joseph
[German Version] I. General – II. Judaism I. General Exile (Lat. exilium or exul) refers to the state-organized and politically, religiously, or ethnically motivated expulsion of people from their homeland or their forced resettlement in a land that they often would not have freely chosen as a place of refuge. The politically powerful have forced people into exile in all periods of history. The t…


(543 words)

Author(s): Winkler, Eberhard | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] 1. Franz Martin Leopold (Aug 1, 1860, Gütergotz near Potsdam – Mar 17, 1937, Leipzig-Schleußig). After serving as a pastor in Westerland, Eisenach, and Preetz, Rendtorff directed the Preetz Predigerseminar from 1896 onward. He became a Privatdozent in practical theology in Kiel in 1902, honorary professor in 1906, and full professor for practical theology and New Testament in Leipzig in 1910, where he also became director of the Predigerkolleg in 1912 and rector of the university in 1924. He postulated a Liturgisches Erbrecht (1913, repr. 1969 [Liturgical law o…

National Socialism

(8,676 words)

Author(s): Nicolaisen, Carsten | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] I. History and Church History 1. Historical and political context. National Socialism as a political movement was born in Munich in 1919 with the founding of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi Party) appealing to a nationalistic and anti-Semitic lower middle class. Under the leadership of Adolf Hitler, it soon gained a following among almost all social strata in Germany. It became a political force to be reckoned with in 1930, when the worldwide economic crisis of 1929 furth…


(324 words)

Author(s): Maser, Peter | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] 1. Friedrich Adolf (Jul 13, 1767, Tecklenburg – Apr 4, 1845, Bremen), Reformed theologian. After working as a schoolteacher in Westphalia, Krummacher became professor of rhetoric in Duisburg in 1800, pastor in Kettwig an der Ruhr in 1807, general superintendent of Anhalt-Bernburg in 1812, and pastor in Bremen in 1824. Close to the revival movement (Revival/Revival movements), and a supporter of the union of churches (Unions, Church: I), Krummacher was active above all as a religious author ( Parabeln, 81848). Peter Maser Bibliography A.W. Möller, Friedrich Adolf K…

Liberal Theology

(6,071 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Mudge, Lewis S.
1. Term The term “liberal theology” is widely used in modern Protestantism and Judaism, but only marginally in 19th- and early 20th-century Roman Catholicism. It shares the imprecision of the concept of liberalism in politics and culture. Three aspects of its usage call for consideration: in modern Judaism and Christianity, as a doctrine of faith, and as a polemical concept. 1.1. In Modern Judaism and Christianity In modern Judaism and Christianity theologians are called liberal who view the Enlightenment and modern culture as legitimate expressions of the Jud…

Troeltsch, Ernst

(1,121 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Stackhouse, Max L.
Ernst Troeltsch (1865–1923) was a Protestant theologian, philosopher of culture, and politician. His theological/philosophical works, although many-faceted, were characterized by one theme: given the historicist insight that all historical reality is relative, with the resulting loss of normative validity (Relativism), he sought to identify new, binding values in historically given cultural contexts. Troeltsch, born on February 17, 1865, in (Augsburg-) Haunstetten, was the eldest son of the medical doctor Ernst Troeltsch. His family belonged to t…


(1,162 words)

Author(s): Bergunder, Michael | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Wermke, Michael
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich Der Begriff P. wurde wahrscheinlich populär, nachdem Nikita Chruschtschow im Februar 1956 in seiner berühmten »Geheimrede« auf dem XX. Parteitag der KPdSU einige Verfehlungen während der Stalinzeit (Sowjetunion) zugegeben und diese auf den »Personenkult« (russ. kul't licˇnosti) um J. Stalin zurückgeführt hatte. Seitdem markiert P. ein polit. Schlagwort, durch das eine Überbewertung der Rolle der Persönlichkeit in Politik, Gesellschaft oder Gesch. bez. …


(1,818 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Lepsius, M. Rainer
[English Version] Weber, 1. Max (21.4.1864 Erfurt – 14.6.1920 München) I. Leben und Werk Karl Emil Maximilian W. wurde von Kind auf geprägt durch Kulturideale des dt. prot. Bildungsbürgertums. Sein Vater Max Weber Sr. (1836–1897), ein Jurist, vertrat die Nationalliberale Partei als Landtags- und Reichstagsabgeordneter. Die aus einer Hugenottenfamilie stammende Mutter Helene, geb. Fallenstein, lebte tiefe Herzensfrömmigkeit und moralische Sensibilität in intensivem sozialkaritativem Engagement. Ihre Schwest…

Personality Cult

(1,350 words)

Author(s): Bergunder, Michael | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Wermke, Michael
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The term personality cult probably became popular in February of 1956, when Nikita Khrushchev’s famous “secret speech” at the 20th Party Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union admitted numerous excesses during the Stalin period and ascribed them to the “cult of personality” (Russ. kult lichnosti) surrounding J. Stalin . Since that time, personality cult has been a political watchword denoting exaggerated importance attached to the role of personality in politics, society, or history. Because of its polit…

Weber, Max

(2,461 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Lepsius, M. Rainer
[German Version] (Apr 21, 1864, Erfurt – Jun 14, 1920, Munich) I. Life and Work From his childhood, Karl Emil Maximilian Weber was deeply influenced by the cultural ideals of the educated German Protestant bourgeoisie. His father Max Weber Sr. (1836–1897), a lawyer, represented the National Liberal Party as a deputy in the Landtag and Reichstag. His mother Helene Weber née Fallenstein, who was descended from a family of Huguenots, was a deeply religious and morally sensitive woman with a strong commitment to charitable social work. His sister Henriette w…


(2,555 words)

Author(s): Lehmann-Brauns, Sicco | Hofer, Sibylle | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
Der Begriff der A. (vom v. a. in politischen Zusammenhängen verwendeten griech. Begriff autonomía, »Selbstgesetzlichkeit«, »Selbständigkeit«), dessen erstmalige dt. Verwendung auf die konfessionellen und verfassungspolitischen Auseinandersetzungen im Anschluss an den Augsburger Religionsfrieden (1555) zurückgeht [3], erlangte seine verschiedenen Bedeutungsebenen im Kontext der nzl. Philosophie-, Rechts- und Religionsgeschichte. Als Rechtsbegriff bedeutete er zunächst Freiheit vor staatsgewaltlichem Zugriff, bes. nach 1648. Von …
Date: 2019-11-19


(2,788 words)

Author(s): Lehmann-Brauns, Sicco | Hofer, Sibylle | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
The term autonomy (from Greek autonomía, “self-determination, independence”) appeared for the first time in German (as Autonomie) in the context of the confessional and constitutional disputes following the Peace of Augsburg (1555) [3]. Its earliest use in English (with reference to states) dates from the 1620s. It arrived at its various semantic levels in the history of philosophy, law, and religion during the early modern period. As a legal term, it initially meant freedom from interference by the authority of the state, esp…
Date: 2019-10-14


(4,668 words)

Author(s): Koschorke, Klaus | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Pierard, Richard V.
[English Version] I. Begriff N. ist zu beschreiben als Integrationsideologie, die für die Loyalität gegenüber der Großgruppe »Nation« absoluten Vorrang vor allen anderen Bindungen beansprucht. Solche konkurrierenden Loyalitäten können die gegenüber einem bestimmten Stand, sozialer Klasse, Dynastie, partikularen Staat, Landschaft, Stamm, Konfession oder Rel. sein. Während der Begriff Nation bereits in den polit. Debatten des eur. MA eine Rolle spielte, dort freilich nicht die Gesamtheit des Volkes, …


(4,115 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Puster, Rolf W. | Gräb, Wilhelm
[English Version] I. Kirchengeschichtlich 1. Der in der dt. Kirchengeschichtsschreibung erst seit 1870 nachweisbare Begriff »N.« umfaßt ein breites Spektrum heterogener Bedeutungen. Begriffe wie tempus novum, historia nova oder neue Zeit waren in Absetzung vom MA-Begriff (Mittelalter: I.) im 17.Jh. geprägt worden, um den teils faszinierenden, teils beängstigenden Erfahrungen beschleunigten Wandels in vielen Lebensbereichen und schneller wiss.-technischer Innovation Ausdruck zu verleihen. Als Epoche…


(3,115 words)

Author(s): Stroh, Ralf | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Amjad-Ali, Charles
[English Version] I. Begriff Der Begriff R. (lat. revolvere, »umdrehen, umwälzen«) bez. eine plötzliche qualitative Änderung bestehender Verhältnisse und Prozesse, die nicht nur einzelne Elemente betrifft – etwa die Auswechslung des Personals der Staatsführung im Staatsstreich –, sondern einen kompletten Systemwandel mit sich bringt. Verwendung fand der Begriff urspr. in der Astronomie (Umlaufbahn eines Himmelskörpers). Seit der frühen Neuzeit ist er Bez. für umstürzende Wandlungen des polit. Syste…


(1,599 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Ward, Graham | Grözinger, Albrecht | Renftle, Barbara
[English Version] I. Soziologisch und sozialgeschichtlich Der erstmals bei R. Pannwitz (Die Krisis der eur. Kultur, 1917) nachweisbare Begriff umfaßt ein breites Spektrum heterogener Bedeutungen, dessen Extreme durch die Vorstellung einer neuen Epoche nach dem Ende der Moderne einerseits und Konzepte reflexiver Radikalisierung moderner Pluralitätserfahrungen andererseits markiert werden. Die schnelle Durchsetzung des Begriffs seit den 70er Jahren des 20.Jh. begann in den nordamer. Kunst- und Literatu…

Liberal Theology

(2,253 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Schelander, Robert | Blaser, Klauspeter
[German Version] I. General – II. Church History – III. Systematics – IV. Practical Theology – V. Missiology I. General The expression liberal theology became prevalent in the “Saddle Period” (Reinhart Koselleck) of Neo-Protestantism between 1780 and 1820; it denotes a type of “modern theology” that combines strong demands for individual freedom through criticism of religious tradition, differentiation of subjective faith from ecclesiastically defined confessions of faith, an individualistic understanding of reli…


(1,835 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Ward, Graham | Grözinger, Albrecht | Renftle, Barbara
[German Version] I. Sociology and Social History First attested in the writings of R. Pannwitz ( Die Krisis der europäischen Kultur, 1917), the concept of postmodernism spans a wide spectrum of heterogeneous meanings, the extremes of which are marked, on the one hand, by the notion of a new age that is meant to follow upon the end of modernity, and on the other hand by conceptions of a reflexive radicalization of modern experiences of plurality. The rapid adoption of the concept since the 1970s began in North Amer…


(4,291 words)

Author(s): Langewiesche, Dieter | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Zenkert, Georg | Gräb, Wilhelm
[German Version] I. History – II. Philosophy – III. Social Sciences and Ethics – IV. Religion I. History 1. General Since the 18th century, European liberalism has fought for a civil society, demanding three kinds of civil rights: (1) equality before the law, guaranteed by the rule of law; (2) equal opportunity for political participation, made possible by the right to vote and free access to the public arena; (3) provision of basic social opportunities. Legal equality was the first of these demands put forward…


(3,474 words)

Author(s): Stroh, Ralf | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Amjad-Ali, Charles
[German Version] I. Concept The term revolution (from Lat. revolvere, “turn over”) denotes a sudden qualitative change of existing circumstances and processes, a change that does not just affect individual elements – like the replacement of government personnel in a coup – but brings change of the overall system. The term was used originally in astronomy for the orbit of a heavenly body. Since the early modern era, has been used to refer to changes that overturn the political system, but this definition …

Modern Times

(4,825 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Puster, Rolf W. | Gräb, Wilhelm
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Philosophy – III. Practical Theology I. Church History 1. The German term Neuzeit, which first appeared in church historiography around 1870, and which corresponds to the English term “modern times,” encompasses a broad spectrum of heterogeneous meanings. Terms such as tempus novum, historia nova, or neue Zeit (“new times”) – in contrast to the Middle Ages (I) – were coined in the 17th century to express experiences, both fascinating and frightening, of accelerated change in many areas of life along with…


(5,477 words)

Author(s): Koschorke, Klaus | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Pierard, Richard V.
[German Version] I. The Concept Nationalism may be described as an integrative ideology that claims that loyalty to the inclusive body of the ¶ nation has absolute priority over all other commitments. Such competing loyalties include loyalty to a particular estate or social class, a dynasty, a local state, a region, a tribe, a denomination, or a religion. While the concept of a nation played a role in political debates in medieval Europe, its reference was not to the totality of the people but to the ruling class (the nationes of the nobility and the clergy). Modern nationalism emer…


(3,842 words)

Author(s): Hübinger, Gangolf | Oberreuter, Heinrich | Mayeur, Jean-M. | Slenczka, Notger | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] I. Begriff, geschichtliche und rechtliche Grundlagen Der Parteienbegriff blieb in der polit. Semantik der eur. Neuzeit stets mehrdeutig, und die hist. Ausprägungsformen der P. waren äußerst vielfältig. Als intermediäre, organisatorisch verfestigte Gesinnungsgemeinschaften zw. Gesamtbevölkerung und Regierung und legitimiert durch das jeweilige nationale Wahlrecht beförderten P. den Prozeß der Parlamentarisierung und Demokratisierung polit. Herrschaft. In England mit den Tories und Whig…


(3,729 words)

Author(s): Hübinger, Gangolf | Mürmel, Heinz | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Felmy, Karl Christian | Schwarz, Johannes Valentin | Et al.
[English Version] I. Religiös-kulturelle Zeitschriften In der 2. Hälfte des 19.Jh. erlebte das deutschsprachige Zeitschriftenwesen einen großen Aufschwung. Für 1890 waren 3203, für 1900 bereits 5231 und für 1914 6689 Einzeltitel erfaßt. Die Z. wurde zum Leitmedium in Wiss. und Kultur. In der Theol. stieg ihr Anteil an den Gesamterscheinungen zw. 1800 und 1908 von 8,3 auf 26,5%. Zw. Fachzeitschriften und Gemeindeblätter schob sich im Zuge der Differenzierung der Zeitschriftenprofile der Typus der rel…


(2,516 words)

Author(s): Junginger, Horst | Gertz, Jan Christian | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Grethlein, Christian | Ustorf, Werner
[English Version] I. ReligionswissenschaftlichVolk (V.) und Volkstum sind polit. Funktionsbegriffe, die dazu dienen, eine kollektive Einheit abzugrenzen und in einen bestimmten Sinnzusammenhang einzufügen (s.u. III.). Von einem dt. V. als Subjekt seiner Gesch. kann man erst ab dem 18.Jh. sprechen. V.a. die Kirchenspaltung und die darauf folgenden Religionskriege des 16. und 17.Jh. verhinderten die Ausbildung einer übergreifenden polit. oder rel. Identität auf lange Zeit. Ein nationales Zusammenwac…

Parties, Political and Church

(4,565 words)

Author(s): Hübinger, Gangolf | Oberreuter, Heinrich | Mayeur, Jean-M. | Slenczka, Notger | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] I. Concept, Historical and Legal Foundations The concept of the party has always been polyvalent in the political semantics of European modernity, while the historical configurations of parties have been subject to extreme variations. As intermediary, organizationally cemented groups representing shared views and positioned between the general population and the government, and legitimized by the respective national electoral law, parties have helped promote the parliamentarization and …

People and Nationhood

(3,043 words)

Author(s): Junginger, Horst | Gertz, Jan Christian | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Grethlein, Christian | Ustorf, Werner
[German Version] I. Religious Studies People and nationhood are functional political terms that serve to define a collective entity and to incorporate it into a specific context (see III below). Only since the 18th century has it been possible to speak of a German nation as the active subject of its own history. The rupture of the church at the Reformation and the subsequent wars of religion in the 16th and 17th century long prevented the development of an inclusive political or religious identity. It …

Journals, Religious

(4,530 words)

Author(s): Hübinger, Gangolf | Mürmel, Heinz | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Felmy, Karl Christian | Schwarz, Johannes Valentin | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religio-Cultural Journals – II. Journals of Religious Studies – III. Christianity – IV. Judaism – V. Islam I. Religio-Cultural Journals During the second half of the 19th century, the publication of German-language journals experienced a tremendous upsurge. While the year 1890 saw the publication of 3,203 individual titles, the number had grown to 5,231 by the year 1900 and to 6,689 by 1914. Journals became the preferred medium in academia and culture. In the field of theology, the proportion …


(6,587 words)

Author(s): Bergunder, Michael | Lehmann, Hartmut | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Mathisen, James A. | Wall, Heinrich de | Et al.
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich In den 60er Jahren des 20.Jh. begann in der Religionswiss. eine intensive Diskussion der kontinuierlichen Abnahme rel. Bindungen in eur. Ländern. Es waren dabei v.a. die Entwürfe von Bryan Wilson (Religion in Secular Society, 1966) und Peter L. Berger (The Sacred Canopy, 1967), die, anknüpfend an Konzepte von Max  Weber, É.  Durkheim u.a., zur Formulierung einer sog. Säkularisierungsthese führten. Säkularisierung (S.) beschreibt demnach einen selbstver…


(9,782 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Otto | Vollenweider, Samuel | Schwartz, Daniel R. | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Figal, Günter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. New Testament – III. Early Judaism – IV. Church History – V. Philosophy – VI. Philosophy of Religion – VII. Dogmatics – VIII. Ethics – IX. Sociology, Politics, and Law I. Old Testament 1. The concept of political freedom, which originated in the Greek polis (City cult), first appeared in Hellenistic Jewish historiography. The Stoics' concept of freedom, which contrasts inner freedom and outward constraint, has no counterpart in the OT. The OT is rooted in an internal mythological cultur…


(7,317 words)

Author(s): Bergunder, Michael | Lehmann, Hartmut | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Mathisen, James A. | de Wall, Heinrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies In the 1960s, religious studies began to discuss the continuing decline of religious commitment in Europe intensively. In particular the writings of Bryan Wilson ( Religion in a Secular Society, 1966) and Peter L. Berger ( The Sacred Canopy, 1967), drawing on the ideas of M. Weber, É. Durkheim, and others led to formulation of a so-called theory of secularization, where secularization denotes a natural aspect of the process of modernization, in which the traditional religious legitimation of the world has increasingly lost…
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