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Dardani

(391 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Scheer, Tanja (Rome)
(Δάρδανοι; Dárdanoi). [German version] [5] Powerful Illyrian tribal group in the south-western part of Moesia superior, strongly influenced by Thrace, particularly in the east of the region. The region was within the sphere of influence of the Macedonians, who gained control over Dardania in c. 335 BC. However, the D. continued to strive for a certain degree of independence. In 284 BC they were united under the rule of one king and waged prolonged wars against the Macedonians. In 229 the D. defeated Demetrius II, who died soon after his d…

Cius, [2]

(112 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman fortification and statio on the road along the Danube from Carsium to Beroe and Troesmis in Moesia Inferior, modern Gîrliciu/Constanţa in Rumania (It. Ant. 224: Cio; Not. Dign. Or. 39,6,14: Cii). A Roman garrison may already be assumed in the 2nd and 3rd cents. AD, in the 4th cent. C. was the base of a cuneus (division) equitum stablesianorum. In 369 Emperor Valens defeated the Gothic king Athanaric there (CI…

Ulpianum

(127 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia (Οὐλπιανόν/ Ou lpianón, Οὐλπιάνα/ Ou lpiána). Roman fort and probably from the time of Hadrianus a municipium in Moesia superior (Moesi; Ptol. 3,9,6; Procop. Goth. 4,25,13; Procop. Aed. 4,1,29; Iord. Get. 285), modern Gračanica (in the district of Priština in Kosovo). There is evidence of a decurio and an ordo municipii; in the Severan period (beginning of the 3rd cent. AD) U. was called Res Publica Ulpiana

Pannonia

(1,883 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Up to subjugation by Rome Region and Roman province to the north and east of the Danube (Ister [2]), bordered in the south by the region south of the Savus; the western border ran west of the line between Vindobona, Poetovio and Emona, now the western part of Hungary, the Slovakian territory around Gerulata, the Austrian around the Viennese Basin and Burgenland, as well as the northern strip of Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The country was named after its original inhabitants (Παννόνιοι/ Pannónioi, cf. Str. 7,5,2; Παίονες/ Paíones, cf. 1,1,10). This lllyrian group of tribes, exposed to strong Celtic influence and centred around North Dalmatia and north of the Savus, included the Breuci, Andizetes, Ditiones and Periustae (Str. 7,5,3, cf. 7,5,10). Its name was also passed on to other, non-Celtic tribes and later referred to the entire area of northern Dalmatia as far as the Danube. One area where remnants of the language of the Pannonii, little known today and attributed to the Indo-European group, are found is in place na…

Quadriburgium

(352 words)

Author(s): Kuhnen, Hans-Peter (Trier) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Late Antique type of fort Late Antique type of fort. The high defensive wall, generally on a square ground plan with sides measuring between 15 and 40 m, was protected on the outside by square or rectangular corner and intermediate towers. Troop casements abutted inside. The inner courtyard contained a subterranean cistern. Fortifications [III B]; Limes Kuhnen, Hans-Peter (Trier) Bibliography S. Johnson, Late Roman Fortifications, 1983, 27, 253 ff. [German version] [2] Settlement, probable find site on the hill of Qualburg (lower Rhine) Settlement, probably the find site on the hill at the village of Qualburg on the left bank of the lower Rhine (Germany). In use during the Roman Period from the 1st to at least the 4th cent. AD. A small military site is evidenced for the early 2nd cent. AD (possibly a station of beneficiarii , CIL XIII 8700), probably established after the Batavian Revolt. Around AD 250, Q. was extended into a larger fortification by the numerus Ursariensium. The settlement was destroyed by a Germanic assault, pro…

Nicopolis

(1,739 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νικόπολις; Nikópolis). [German version] [1] Town on the upper Nestus river This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia Town on the upper Nestus river on the road from Philippopolis to the Aegean coast (Ptol. 3,11,13: Ν. ἡ περὶ Νέσσον; 8,11,7; Hierocles, Synekdemos 636,5), near modern Goce Delčev (Bulgaria), founded in AD 106 by Traianus. From the 2nd to 4th cents. AD, N. reached a high economic and cultural level (minting from Commodus to Caracalla: HN 287; thermal baths, peristyle buildings, sculpt…

Dorticum

(116 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia (Δορτικόν; Dortikón). Roman fort on the right bank of the Danube at the mouth of the Timacus (modern Timok), originally in Moesia Superior, in Dacia Ripensis after 271, today Vrav, Vidin in Bulgaria. In the 4th cent., location of the cuneus equitum Dalmatarum Divitensium. Still known as a fortress under Justinian. On its localization cf. also [1. 60, 77,248]. References: Geogr. Rav. 4,7,8; Tab. Peut.; It. Ant. 219,1; Not. Dign. Or. 42,3,14; Ptol. 3,9,4 (Δορτικόν); Procop. Aed. 4,6,20. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography 1 V. I. Velkov, Die thrakische und dakische Stadt in der Spätantike, 1959 (Bulgarian with Ger. summary). TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 55.

Sarmizegetusa

(236 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia | Limes | Pertinax | Rome | Balkans, languages Town in Dacia (cf. Ptol. 3,8,9: Ζαρμιζεγέθουσα/ Zarmizegéthousa; Cass. Dio 68,8,7: Ζερμιζεγέθουσα/ Zermizegéthousa; Dig. 50,15,1,9: Zarmizegetusa; Geogr. Rav 4,7: Sarmazege; Tab. Peut. 7,5: Sarmategte; in the inscriptions mainly S.), modern Hunedoara, Haţeg (Romania). In the pre-Roman Period, the centre was a settlement of the Daci and residence of the Dacian kings (S. Regia in Dacia Superior). Owing…

Savaria

(198 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Limes | Pannonia | Rome | Rome Roman colony in Pannonia superior, modern Szombathely in western Hungary. Its location on the Amber Road (route Aquileia - Carnuntum) and good road connections to Arrabona and via Sopianae to Sirmium enabled a swift economic growth. Under Claudius [III 1] a colony was founded in S. ( Colonia Divi Claudii S.: Plin. HN 3,146), t ribus Claudia. Until AD 106 S. was the administrative centre of the province. As a centre of communications and admi…

Marsonia

(83 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Fort and settlement in Pannonia inferior on the river Savus and on the road from Siscia to Sirmium, modern Slavonski Brod in Croatia. The road starting at Siscia bifurcated north of Marsonia; the northern branch led to Sirmium via Cibalae, the southern branch via Marsonia and Saldis. In late antiquity, auxilia ascarii are mentioned as the garrison of Marsonia (Not. Dign. Occ. 32,43). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography M. Fluss, s.v. M., RE 14, 1981 TIR L 34, Budapest, 1968, 78.

Mediolan(i)um

(673 words)

Author(s): Heucke, Clemens (Munich) | Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Et al.
(Μεδιολάν[ι]ον/ Mediolán[i]on). [German version] [1] Modern Milan This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Italy, languages | Pilgrimage | Regio, regiones | Rome | Batavian Revolt The modern city of Milan. It was founded in the early 4th cent. BC by the Insubres (Liv. 5,34,9) at the juncture of several Alpine valleys in the Padus/Po plain (Pol. 2,34,10); in 222 BC, it was captured by Cn. Scipio; it was later to become the most important city of that region (Pol.…

Brigetio

(136 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Legio | Limes | Pannonia | Pertinax Important Roman settlement (1st -4th cent. AD; municipium, later colonia); legion camp on the right bank of the Danube in Pannonia inferior, now Szöny/Komárom (Hungary). The legio I adiutrix was stationed in B. As the counter fort Celamantia (now Iža/Komárne in Slovakia) on the left bank of the Danube, B. was a strong military base in the defence against the tribes settling beyond the Danube. In B. Emperor Valentinian I died in 375 du…

Savus

(81 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Σάουος; Sáouos). Right-hand tributary of the Danube in the south of  Pannonia (Plin. HN 3,128; 147 f.; Ptol. 2,16,1 f.; 3,9,1;  Str. 4,6,10; Geogr. Rav. 4,20), modern Sava (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia). In its middle and lower reaches it was navigable. On its banks there were important communications nodes (Neviodunum, Siscia, Sirmium, Singidunum). S. was also worshipped as a river deity (CIL III, 4009). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 33 Tergeste, 1961, 65  TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 100.

Lugio

(174 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Λουγίωνον; Lougíōnon, Ptol. 2,15,3; Lugione, It. Ant. 244; Tab. Peut. 6,1; Lucione, Cod. Iust. 9,20,10f.). Roman auxiliary fort in Pannonia inferior, modern Dunaszekcsö (in the Hungarian county of Baranya), in the post-Diocletian period Florentia. The camp was probably established under Domitian to protect the crossing of the Danube and the road junction situated in L. The first garrison was made up of the cohors II Asturum et Callaecorum and the cohors VII Breucorum. After the withdrawal of the cohors II Asturum (under Commodus), the cohors I Noricorum moved into…

Cibalae

(92 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia Important road junction in Pannonia inferior, modern Vinkovci (Croatia). Municipium since the time of Hadrian (CIL III 3267), colonia Aurelia from the 3rd cent. AD (CIL VI 2833). Monuments: remains of buildings, water pipes, thermae, graves, inscriptions, small finds. In AD 314 Licinius was defeated in a battle near C. by Constantine the Great (Eutr. 10,5; Zos. 2,18,4, also describing the location of C.). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 46f.

Brongus

(63 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Βρόγγος, Βάργος, Μάργος; Bróngos, Bárgos, Márgos). River in Moesia superior, rising on the eastern slope of the Scardus mountain range (Stara Planina) and flows into the Danube above Viminacium; now Morava (Hdt. 4,49; Str. 7,5,12; Ptol. 3,9,3; Eutr. 9,13). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography D. Dečev, Die thrak. Sprachreste, 1957, 90 Vl. Georgiev, La toponymie ancienne de la péninsule Balcanique, 1961, 33.

Tiarantus

(59 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Τιαραντός; Tiarantós). Left bank tributary of the Danube (Ister [1]), rising in the lands of the Scythae; smaller and turned farther westward than the Pyretus (Hdt. 4,48,2 f.), possibly identifiable with the modern Seret. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography A. Herrmann, s. v. T., RE 6 A, 762  A. Corcella, in: S. M. Medaglia (ed.), Erodoto, Le Storie, 4, 1993, here 272 (with comm.).

Vetus Salina

(220 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman auxiliary fort and civilian settlement ( canabae and vicus) on the Aquincum - Intercisa - Altinum Limes road (Ptol. 2,16,4: Σαλίνον/ Salínon; It. Ant. 245,4: Vetus Salinae; Not. Dign. Occ. 33,16,37: Vetusalina; Tab. Peut. 5,4: Vetusalo; Geogr. Rav 220,8: Belsalino = Bet(u)salino?; CIL III 10305: ' cives Romani ad Vetussalinas consistentes'/"Roman citizens settled at VS"), modern Adony in the megye of Fejér in Hungary. Originally a wood-and-earth fort was built in VS (three building periods from the middle of the 1st cent. until the 12…

Naissus

(645 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: | Commerce | Moesi, Moesia | Pertinax | Pilgrimage [German version] I. Site; Roman period Municipium in Moesia Superior (or Dardania; Ναϊσσός/ Naïssos: Ptol. 3,4,9; Νάϊσ(σ)ος/ Náïs(s)os: Zos. 1,45,1; 3,11,1f.; Procop. Goth. 3,40,2; Ναϊσσούπολις/ Naïssoúpolis: Procop. Aed. 4,1,31; Naissus/ Naisus is the usual form in Latin sources; Naessus: Amm. Marc. 21,10,5), modern Niš in Serbia. Originally a Thracian settlement, which by the 1st cent. AD was evidently used by the Romans as an occasional base. Its indig…

Florentiana

(81 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Φλωρεντίανα; Phlōrentíana: Procop. Aed. 4,4,1-3). Roman fortress on the Danuvius (Danube) near the mouth of the Timacus (modern Timok). Originally in Moesia Superior, from AD 271 in Dacia Ripensis, probably modern Florentin near Vidin in Bulgaria. The fortress, destroyed in late antiquity, was rebuilt at the time of Justinian for strategic reasons. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography V. I. Velkov, Die thrak. und dak. Stadt in der Spätant., 1959, 75 (Bulgarian with German summary) TIR L. 34, 1968, 59 (bibliography).
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