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(155 words)

Author(s): Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie (Nancy) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] [1] Oppidum in the territory of the Cadurci This item can be found on the following maps: Celts | Oppidum Oppidum in the territory of the  Cadurci (Caes. Gall. 8,32,2) in Aquitania, conquered by Caesar in 51 BC (Caes. Gall. 8,39-44). The location of  U. is disputed among the following places: l'Impernal de Luzech [2. 109-111], le Puy d'Issolu near Vayrac [2. 133-136], Murcens-Cras [1], Capdenac. Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie (Nancy) Bibliography 1 O. Buchsenschutz, G. Mercadier, Recherche sur l'oppidum de Murcens-Cras, in: Aquitania 7, 1989, 25-51 2 M. I. Labrousse…


(630 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie (Nancy)
[German version] [1] Celtic people in Umbria and Picenum Celtic people which migrated at the end of the 4th cent. BC from the south of Gaul into the area between the Apennine mountains and the Ionios Kolpos (Adriatic) in the region of the Rivers Sena and Tinna in Umbria and Picenum (Liv. 5,35,3). As allies of the Samnites in the third Samnite War, they were defeated by the Romans in 295 BC, and their territory was seized by Rome; they were expelled a few years later ( Ager Gallicus ). Rome founded Sena Gallica there probably in 289 BC (Pol. 2,19,12; Liv. Epit. …


(115 words)

Author(s): Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie (Nancy)
[German version] The vicani (‘villagers’) N. (CIL XIII 1373f.) settled on a hill in the territory of the Bituriges Cubi (modern Néris, Dépt. Allier); the rise of the vicus from the time of Augustus was due to thermal springs ( Aquae Neri, Tab. Peut. 2,3) and its position at the intersection of the Augustonemetum - Limonum and Avaricum - Augustonemetum roads (CIL XIII 8922) to the south of the civitas Biturigum Cubum. It became a municipality: two baths (restoration of the southern bath by L. Julius Equester, CIL XIII 1376-1381), two aqueducts, a building for th…


(523 words)

Author(s): Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie (Nancy)
[German version] Celtic tribe between the Allobroges, Vellavii, Arverni, Haedui and Ambarri with three oppida (Essalois, Crêt-Chatelard, Jœuvre) controlling the Liger (Loire), which flowed north-south through their territory. As clientes of the Haedui (Caes. Gall. 7,64; 75) they also came to the aid of Vercingetorix at Alesia in 52 BC. Under Augustus a civitas libera of Gallia Lugdunensis (Plin. HN 4,107; CIL XIII 8862; 8864), they had to surrender part of their territory to the founding of the colony of Lugdunum in 43 BC. Several roads (Tab. Peut.…


(115 words)

Author(s): Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie (Nancy)
[German version] Celtic people, neighbours of the Gabali, Arverni, Allobroges, Segovellauni and Helvii, in the Gallic War allied with the Arverni (Caesar I C), in whose contingent they took part at the Battle of Alesia in 52 BC (Caes. Gall. 7,75; Str. 4,2,2). Under Augustus they were assigned to the province of Aquitania with a capital at Ruessium (modern Saint-Paulien). Under Claudius [III 1] or Tiberius [1] they received Ius Latii (Latin Law II; cf. [2. no. 25]). In late Antiquity they were part of Aquitanica Prima. Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie (Nancy) Bibliography 1 M. Provost, B. Re…


(158 words)

Author(s): Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie (Nancy)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Gallia/Gaul | Limes (Limonum). Celtic oppidum of the Pictones or Pictavi (Caes. B Gall. 8,26) at the confluence of Clain and Boivre at the crossing of the roads Bordeaux - - Tours and Nantes - Lyons (It. Ant. 459), modern Poitiers. From the time of Augustus the main city of the civitas Pictonum [1] with an orthogonal town plan [2], Forum, baths, aqueducts and amphitheatre [3]. Possibly L. superseded Mediolanum Santonum (modern Saintes) in the 2nd cent. AD as the capital of Aquitania II. The fi…


(280 words)

Author(s): Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie (Nancy)
[German version] (Τούρωνοι/ Toúrōnoi). Celtic people on the middle reaches of the Liger (modern Loire; Ptol. 2,11,22), neighbouring the Cenomanni [2] in the north, the Andegavi and the Pictones in the west, the Bituriges and the Carnutes in the east. The T. were among the first to support Vercingetorix in 52 BC and Iulius [II 126] Sacrovir in 21 AD (Tac. Ann. 3,41; 3,46). The T. were a civitas in the province of Gallia Lugdunensis probably from the time of Augustus (CIL XIII 3076 f., middle of the 1st cent. AD: civitas libera et immunis), with a new capital established under August…


(158 words)

Author(s): Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie (Nancy)
[German version] (Τάρβελλοι/ Tárbelloi). People in the west of Aquitania (Caes. B Gall. 3,20-27; Ptol. 2,7,9; with an unexplained epithet in Plin. HN 4,108: T. Quattuorsignani; cf. ILS 6962) living on both sides of the middle and lower Aturrus (modern Adour). Extracting gold brought them a certain wealth (Str. 4,2,1), as did hot and cold mineral springs (Plin. HN 31,4); their focus, however, remained on field and meadow husbandry. Subjugated in 56 BC by P. Licinius [I 16], the T. formed with other peoples the Civitas Aquensium in Gallia Aquitania with capital Aquae Tarbellicae (…


(395 words)

Author(s): Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie (Nancy)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Christianity | | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Punic Wars (Τολῶσσα/ Tolôssa). Main city of the Volcae Tectosages (Str. 4,1,13; Plin. HN 3,37; Ptol. 2,10,9; Cass. Dio 27,90) on a terrace on the right shore of the upper Garumna, present-day Toulouse. Allied with Rome probably from 121 BC on, T. revolted against the Romans in 106 BC, only to be captured and plundered by the consul Servilius [I 12] Caepio (on the story about the stolen sacred treasure, the aurum Tolosanum, 'gold of T.', cf. Cic. Nat. D. 3,74; Gell. NA 3,9,7; Str. loc. …


(245 words)

Author(s): Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie (Nancy)
[German version] Celtic people in the south of the Massif Central [1] between the Arverni in the north, the Cadurci in the west, the Gabali in the east and the Volcae in the south. Because they were vassals of the Arverni, part of their territory was taken by the Romans ( R. provinciales) after the defeat of King Bituitus in 121 BC. In 52 BC, they sent 12,000 men to Alesia (Caes. B Gall. 7,75). Under Augustus, Segodunum became the main town of their  civitas [2]. It first belonged to Aquitania, after the provincial reform of Diocletianus to Aquitania I. Segodunum was connected …


(183 words)

Author(s): Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie (Nancy)
[German version] Celtic people in central Gaul [1], a region rich in gold, tin and iron (Str. 4,2,2). Sedullus, a leader of the L., fell in battle at Alesia (Caes. B Gall. 7,88,4). After incorporation into the province of Aquitania, Augustoritum was the capital of the civitas Lemovicum [2], and still in the 1st cent. AD it was administered by the so-called vergobretus [3] and later by duumviri. Brive [4], Blotomago and Carovicus are well known as vici (‘villages’). Under Diocletian, the L. were annexed to Aquitania I [5]. Around AD 300, Martialis, the bishop of Limoges, …