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Style, stylistic figures

(697 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] I. General definition Style (from Lat. stilus, 'stilt' > 'stylus' > 'writing style'; Gk. λέξις/ léxis) refers to the individual manner in which a person expresses himself orally or in writing. Its specific character is formed through the (more or less intentional) use of shaping elements such as stylistic figures during the process of turning thought concepts into language with the conscious or subconscious purpose of achieving certain situat…

Linear B

(1,104 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] A. Basics The Linear B script, deciphered in 1952 by M. Ventris and J. Chadwick, renders the earliest known Greek dialect, Mycenaean. As in the case of the older Linear A, the character signs of this writing system consist of lines ( Greece, writing systems).…

Ellipsis

(210 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] (Greek ἔλλειψις; élleipsis: ‘omission’, Lat. ellı̄psis: Quint. Inst. 8,6,21, cf. 9,3,58); in contrast with brachylogy, it refers to the actual omission of a syntactically essential constituent of a sentence, which can, however, be restored verbatim (not merely in its meaning) from context and situation (cf. Donat. 4,395,11:

Labiovelar

(269 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] (< Latin labium ‘Lip’ and velum ‘sail’). Stop simultaneously articulated with lips and velum. The labio-velars

Digamma

(519 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] Sixth letter of the Greek alphabet representing the sound value /u̯/at the beginning of a syllable (bilabial pronunciation as in water). The name digamma (‘double gamma’, i.e. ‘one gamma above another ’, cf. ὥσπερ γάμμα διτταῖς ἐπὶ μίαν ὀρθὴν ἐπιζευγνύμενον ταῖς πλαγίοις, Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,20,3) refers to the appearance of the letter  and unlike other letter names was coined by the Greeks themselves. The model for the diga…

Behaghel's law

(188 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] Summarizing term for the five principles of word order and clause order established by O. Behaghel (1854-1936) [2]. The best known of the five is the so-called law of increasing parts (

Parenthesis

(336 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] The common technical term since Graeco-Roman times (Greek: παρένθεσις/ parénthesis, παρέμπτωσις/ parémptosis; Latin: interpositio, interclusio, 'insertion'; cf. Quint. Inst. 9,3,23) for a unit inserted into a sentence that remains structurally independent of the entire syntactic surroundings.  The parenthesis can consist of a single word, a group of words, an entire sentence, or compound sentence.  In modern usage, in contrast to ancient texts, the parenthesis is identified by punctuation marks…

Tmesis

(262 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)

Prolepsis

(186 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] (πρόληψις/ prólēpsis, 'anticipation'; Latin anticipatio or praeceptio). Originally a technical term of forensic oratory (Quint. Inst. 4,1,49) denoting an addressing and rebuttal of opposing arguments before they have actually been formulated, the prolepsis as a rhetorical figure of syntactic inversion designates the anticipation of a nominal sentence constituent. A distinction is drawn between adjectival and substantival prolepsis: In adjectival prolepsis, the adjective attaches to a su…

Mycenaean

(838 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] Mycenaean is the term for the form of Gree…

Apo koinou

(142 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)

Indo-European languages

(1,016 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] …

Polysyndeton

(188 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] (πολυσύνδετον/ polysýndeton, 'bound together many times'). Repetition of a coordinating copulative or disjunctive conjunction (cf. Quint. Inst. 9,3,50: “schema, quod coniunctionibus abundat: ... ho…

Asyn­deton

(147 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)

Greece, systems of writing

(568 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] The history of  writing shows that throughout the world there a…

Indo-Aryan languages

(324 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] The Indo-Aryan languages (IL) comprise the majority of those  Indo-European languages that have be…

Ellipse

(191 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[English version] (griech. ἔλλειψις: “Auslassung”, lat. ellı̄psis: Quint. inst. 8,6,21, vgl. 9,3,58); im Unterschied zur Brachylogie tatsächliche Einsparung einer synt. erforderlichen Satzkonstituente, die im Wortlaut (nicht nur dem Sinn nach) ohne weiteres aus der Situation ergänzt werden kann (vgl. Don. 4,395,11: e. est defe…

Behaghelsches Gesetz

(176 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[English version] Zusammenfassende Bezeichnung für fünf von O. Behaghel (1854-1936) aufgestellte Grundsätze der Wort- und Satzgliedstellung [2]. Am bekanntesten davon ist das sog. Gesetz der wachsenden Glieder: Es stützt sich auf die schon in der Ant. beobachtete Neigung, vom kürzeren zum längeren Glied überzugehen [1. 139; 2. 6], vgl. Demetrios Phalereus, de elocutione 18: ἐν δὲ τοῖς συνθέτοις περιόδοις τὸ τελευταῖον κῶλον μακρότερον χρὴ εἶναι. Cic. de orat. 3,48: quare aut paria esse debent posteriora superioribus et extrema primis aut, quod etiam est melius …

Digamma

(486 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[English version] …
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