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Hypatius

(397 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Student of Libanius, consularis Palaestinae primae 360/1 AD Student of  Libanius, from whom he received letters (Lib. Ep. 137; 157; 158). In AD 360/361 he was consularis Palaestinae primae (Lib. Ep. 156; 159). PLRE 1, 447 (H.us 1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Flavius H. Brother of empress Eusebia, consul 359 AD Brother of empress  Eusebia. Together with his brother Fl. Eusebius he was consul in AD 359 (Amm. Marc. 18,1,1). In 363 he was possibly vicarius urbis Romae (Cod. Theod. 3,5,8). He was sentenced along with his brother in a trial …

Bauto

(132 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Flavius B. was a Frank (Zos. 4,33,2) and a professed pagan (Ambr. Epist. 57). Under  Gratianus, he rose to the position of mag. mil. in c. AD 380 (Zos. 4,33,1) and aided  Theodosius I against the Goths. In 383, he became mag. peditum praesentalis and the authoritative advisor at the court of  Valentinianus II (Ambr. Epist. 24,4,8; 18,1,57). Although he was  Ambrosius' adversary in the dispute about the altar of Victory in 384, he seems to have aligned himself in the end with the bishop's arguments (Ambr. Epist. 17,18 and …

Equitius

(272 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
Relatively rare Roman family name (for derivation: Varro, Rust. 2,1,10). [German version] [1] E., L. Represented himself as son of Ti. Sempronius Gracchus Adventurer of uncertain origins, who in 102 BC represented himself as the son of the people's tribune Ti.  Sempronius Gracchus, killed in 133. He was acknowledged neither by the censor, Q. Caecilius [I 30] Metellus Numidicus, nor by the sister of Gracchus. As a follower of L. Ap(p)uleius [I 11] Saturninus, in 100 he stood for the post of people's tribune for 99, but was himself killed during the unrest that led to the death of Appuleius. E…

Eutychianus

(141 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Rom. officer from Cappadocia, eyewitness of the Persian campaign of AD 363 According to Malalas (p. 332,9ff.) a Roman officer from Cappadocia, who recorded his eyewitness account of Julian's Persian campaign of AD 363 in an annalistic history (FHG 4,6). Both the character and his work may well be fictitious (cf. FGrH II B 226, p. 638f.). PLRE 1, 319 E. (39). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Praef. praet. AD 396/7 Praef. praet. ( Illyrici?) in AD 396/7.; praef. praet. Orientis between 397 and 399; II in 404/5; cos. in 398. His identification with Typhu…

Romanus

(117 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Comes Africae from AD 364 to 373; he was supposed to protect the city of Leptis Magna from attacks by the Austoriani (Amm. Marc. 28,6,1-6). His administration led to frequent complaints from the population, but R. was supported at court by his relative, the magister officiorum Remigius (Amm. Marc. 27,9,1 f.). In 372 the Moor Firmus [3] was driven to usurpation  by R.' behaviour. Shortly afterwards R., having lost his position, was impeached (cf. Zos. 4,16,3), but with the help of Flavius Merobaudes [1] he w…

Ecdicius

(201 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
(Ĕκδίκιος; Ekdíkios) [German version] [2] Son of the Emperor Avitus, 5th cent. AD Arvernian from a senator's family, son of the emperor  Avitus [1], brother-in-law of Sidonius Apollinaris, received an excellent education (in Clermont). Around AD 469, he was probably at the court of  Anthemius [2]; probably in 471 he organized the defence of Clermont against the Visigoths using his own means. During a famine in Burgundy in 473, he supplied the (suffering) population with food. In 474, Iulius Nepos awarded the patricius title to him for his achievements and probably made him a magister utr…

Valentinianus

(2,009 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Flavius Valentinianus I Roman emperor 364-375. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] I. Origins and rise V. was born in Cibalae in Pannonia in AD 321 (Zos. 3,36,2; Amm. Marc. 30,6,6) as the son of the comes rei militaris Gratianus [1]. In 357, he was tribunus in Gaul (Amm. Marc. 16,11,6 f.); beginning in 360/1, he held high military office in Mesopotamia; in 362, he was comes et tribunus cornutorum there (Philostorgius, Historia ecclesiae 7,7). According to some Christian traditions, Iulianus [11] exiled him to Egyptian Thebes [1] in 362…

Thalassius

(456 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Θαλάσσιος; Thalássios). [German version] [1] Follower of Constantius [2] II, 4th cent. AD (Thalassius). Praefectus praetorio Orientis 351-353, from a family of curiales [2] of the East. Little is known about his career, but T. was obviously a loyal follower of Constantius [2] II: in 345, he acted as the emperor's comes in Aquileia; in 351, he held a high office at his court in Cibalae (Zos. 2,48,5); still in the same year, T. - probably a Christian - entered into the office of praetorian prefect of the East (Artemii Passio…

Severus

(1,402 words)

Author(s): Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg) | Brock, Sebastian P. (Oxford) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Σευῆρος; Seuêros). [German version] [1] Platonist, 2nd cent.? Platonist, probably 2nd cent. AD. He wrote a monograph On the soul [1. 80, 299; 2. 409-13, 428 f., 435 f.] and a commentary on Plato’s Timaeus [1. 52, 217 f.; 2. 407-9]. He appears in these works to be an original-minded, somewhat stoicizing interpreter of Aristotle’s doctrine of categories [1. 259; 2. 413 f.; 3. 66, 288 f.], and of Plato’s theories of the soul [1. 299; 3. 56, 278 f.] and of the origin of the world [4. 116-18, 417-21]. His works …

Sabinianus

(321 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Proclaimed emperor in AD 240 by the Carthaginians Was proclaimed emperor in AD 240 by the inhabitants of Carthage, but was shortly after defeated by the governor of Mauretania and delivered to Gordianus [3] III by his own followers (Zos. 1,17,1; SHA Gord. 23,4). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 1, 197. [German version] [2] see Vettius Sabinianus See Vettius Sabinianus. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [3] Magister equitum per Orientem, 359-360 AD At a great age m agister equitum per Orientem in AD 359-360 under Constantius [2] II. Ac…

Constantianus

(133 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Brother-in-law of Valentinian I, died c. 370 AD Brother-in-law of  Valentinian I. He led the fleet of the Euphrates in 363 in Julian’s Persian campaign (Amm. Marc. 23,3,9; Zos. 3,13,3). In 370 when tribunus stabuli in Valentinian’s Gaulish campaigns he was killed in an ambush (Amm. Marc. 28,2,10). PLRE 1,221. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Byzantine general under Justinian I Comes sacri stabuli (‘supervisor of the imperial stables’), Byzantine general in the war of  Justinian I against the Goths; from 536 in Dalmatia; after…

Andragathius

(68 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] From AD 383-388 A. was mag. equitum of the usurper Maximus. He murdered the emperor Gratian in 383 (Ambr. Commentarius in psalmis 61,23-25; Zos. 4,35,6). In 388 he prepared the defence of Maximus against Theodosius I and placed himself at the head of the fleet in the Adriatic. After Theodosius' victory he plunged himself into the sea (Oros. 7,35; Zos. 4,46 f.). Portmann, Werner (Berlin)

Cerialis

(149 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Bloch, René (Berne)
Roman cognomen (also Caerialis, Caerealis) of Latin origin, derived from the adjectival Cerealis (‘belonging to Ceres’); current from the Julian-Claudian era onwards (Schulze, 486f.; ThlL, Onom. 2,344f.).   Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [1] Brother-in-law of Valentinianus I, 4th cent. AD Brother of  Iustina, the wife of  Valentinianus I (Amm. Marc. 28,2,10). Tribunus stabuli (Amm. Marc. 30,5,19). In AD 375 he helped his nephew  Valentinianus II to the throne (Amm. Marc. 30,10,5). PLRE 1,197. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Dux Libyarum 405 AD In AD 4…

Eutropius

(731 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Author of a Lat. historical work Author of a Latin historical work, which according to its dedication was written at the instruction of Emperor Valens. The text indicates that the author had taken part in Julian's Persian campaign (10,16,1). In the intitulatio of a MS, he is referred to as a magister memoriae. It is still questionable whether he is identical with another Eutropius of the 2nd half of the 4th cent., whose name appears in other sources: possibly he was proconsul Asiae in 371/2, praef. praet. Illyrici in 380-1, and consul posterior in 387. The historical …

Censorinus

(469 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
[German version] [1] One of the 30 tyrants Character invented by the author of   Historia Augusta ; one of the so-called 30 tyrants, supposedly usurper under Claudius Gothicus, he was killed after seven days. For vita, SHA Tyr. Trig. 31,12; 32,8-33,6. PIR2 C 656. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) Bibliography K.-P. Johne, Kaiserbiographie und Senatsaristokratie, 1976, 122-28. [German version] [2] Caelius C., C. High official, 4th cent. AD High official of the time of  Constantinus the Great. He is known only from an inscription from Campania (ILS 1216), where the offi…

Eugenius

(682 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
(Εὐγένιος; Eugénios). [German version] [1] Flavius Eugenius Roman usurper, rhetor and emperor, about AD 400 Roman usurper in AD 392-394. He was a Christian, a teacher of grammar and rhetoric in Rome and he became magister scrinii for Valentinian II around 392 (Zos. 4,54,1). On 22 August 392 he was elevated to the position of emperor by Arbogast (Socr. 5,25; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 7,22,4). Constantly controlled by Arbogast, he first sought an agreement with Ambrosius and Theodosius I (Ambr. Epist. 57; Zos. 4,54f.; ILS 790). He was not …

Demetrius

(7,578 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος; Dēmḗtrios). Well-known personalities: the Macedonian King D. [2] Poliorketes; the politician and writer D. [4] of Phalerum; the Jewish-Hellenistic chronographer D. [29]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Officer under Alexander the Great Officer under Alexander [4], fought at Gaugamela as commander of a troop ( ile) of  Hetairoi and in India he commanded a hipparchy. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 256. [German version] [2] D. Poliorketes Son of  Antigonus [1], born 337/6 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,96,1). In 320 he m…

Anatolius

(262 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Praefectus praetorio for Illyria, AD 356-360 Lawyer from Berytus. The recipient of many letters from  Libanius. From AD 356/7 until his death (360) he was praefectus praetorio for Illyria. Prior to that he was consularis Syriae (possibly 349), vicarius Asiae (352) and procos. urbis Constantinopolitanae (354). 355 he declined appointment to the position of praefectus urbi Romae (Lib. Ep. 391). He is perhaps identical with the agrarian writer Vindonius Anatolius. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Mag. utriusque mil. praesentalis, after AD 447 AD 433…

Evagrius

(598 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
(Εὐάγριος; Euágrios) [German version] [1] Ponticus Christian writer and monastic leader Religious writer and monastic spiritual leader (AD 345-399). Born in the Pontic Ibora, he was a pupil of  Gregorius of Nazianzus; after periods spent in Constantinople (ordination to deacon) and Jerusalem, he stayed in the Egyptian anchorite community of Kellia (Nitrian desert) from 383 as a much sought-after spiritual advisor. Posthumously condemned as an Origenist (553 Council of Constantinople), his few extant works …

Arborius

(309 words)

Author(s): Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Aemilius Magnus, professor of rhetoric and lawyer in Tolosa Aemilius Magnus, son of Caecilius Argicius Arborius and Aemilia Corinthia Maura, and maternal uncle of the poet D. Magnus  Ausonius, whose education and career he influenced substantially (Auson. 162, p. 30 f.; 206, p. 63 f.). He worked as a respected professor of rhetoric and advocate in Tolosa and its neighbouring provinces, and, through this, must have become friends with the half-brothers of Constantine I. It is disputed whether he also held the office of praeses of Gallia Narbonensis (but cf. …
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