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Augustus [2]

(305 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Αὔγουστος; Aúgoustos, Σεβαστός; Sebastós). From the time of its first bestowal as a honorific on 16 January AD 27 ( Feriale Cumanum, R. Gest. div. Aug. 34) on  Octavianus, and its bequeathal by him to  Tiberius [1], the title of A. (‘the Sublime’) became an established titular component of the imperial name, but without at the same time bestowing any legal powers. Elevation to A. by the Senate, in the 3rd cent. often by the army ( Soldier emperors), marked the official installation ( dies imperii) of the Roman ruler; the praenomen Imperatoris was added to the title as …

Cetrius

(52 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] C. Severus C., tribune of the praetorians; in AD 69, together with Subrius Dexter and Pompeius Longinus, he came out in support of  Galba to oppose the incipient rise of  Otho (Tac. Hist. 1,31). He is probably the beneficiarius from ILS 2073. PIR C 703. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Dorimachus

(206 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Δωρίμαχος; Dōrímachos). Aetolian from Trichonion, son of Nicostratus, was victorious as stratēgós of the Aetolian league in 221-20 BC with  Scopas against Messenia (Pol. 4,10-13). In 220-19 he plundered Epirus and set the temple of Zeus in Dodona on fire (Diod. Sic. 26,4,7; Pol. 4,67). He turned against Thessaly in order to withdraw Philipp V from the siege of Pale (Pol. 5,5,1), then heard of Philipp's invasion in Aetolia, from where on his arrival the Macedons had already withdrawn victoriously (Pol. 5,17,5-8). In 211, D., who as princeps Aetolorum (Liv. 26,24,7) h…

Licinia

(561 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Of noble descent, wife of M. Porcius Cato [1] Woman of noble descent; by marrying her in 192 or 191 BC, M. Porcius Cato [1] rose into the aristocracy [1. 54] (Plut. Cato 20,1). Her son was M. Porcius Cato Licinianus. She probably died in 155. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. Astin, Cato the Censor, 1978, 67; 105; 263. [German version] [2] In 153 BC accused of poisoning her husband In 153 BC ([1. 12]: 154 BC), she and another woman named Publicia were accused of poisoning their husbands; strangled by family members following the verdict…

Eunus

(200 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Εὔνους; Eúnous). Syrian, leader of the slave revolts in Sicily in 141-132 BC. He gathered together 400 slaves and conquered Enna; other towns joined the rebellion. Favoured by the good portent of his name (‘well disposed’) and his talent for prophecy [2. 28-29], as a result of his success he was chosen to be king in the Hellenistic manner; he called himself Antiochus (Diod. Sic. 34,2,24; [3]) and took on the traditional insignia of rule, although this indicates his desire for unit…

Diogeiton

(77 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Διογείτων; Diogeítōn). In 401/400 BC, D. was on trial because of abuse of the custody of his brother Diodotus' children and the embezzlement of his fortune. The prosecutor was one of the children of Diodotus, who had died in 409/408; he was also D.'s grandchild, since Diodotus had married the daughter of D. (Lys. or. 32, contra D.). Traill, PAA 325580. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography J. M. Moore, D.'s Dioikesis, in: GRBS 23, 1982, 351-355.

Decebalus

(299 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Δεκέβαλος; Dekébalos). D. was the last Dacian king, reigning from c. AD 87-106. In addition to modern-day western and central Transylvania, his kingdom included the Banat and the Walachian plains. According to Cass. Dio (67,6,1-2) he was a match for Rome thanks to his excellent military skills, uniting the Dacian tribes and even persuading Sarmatian and German groups to join him against Rome. After he had conquered parts of Iazygian territory and invaded Moesia in 85/86, a war against Domi…

Bardylis

(108 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Illyrian king in the first half of the 4th cent. BC Illyrian king in the first half of the 4th cent. BC, founder of a dynasty (Theopomp. fr. 35; Cic. Off. 2,40). He played a major role in the victory over Perdiccas III in 359 BC; fell in the following year fighting against Philip II. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography P. Cabanes, Les Illyriens de B. à Genthios, 1988 N.G.L. Hammond, The Battle between Philip and B., in: Antichthon 23, 1989, 1-9. [German version] [2] Perhaps grandson of B. Perhaps grandson of B. [1], father of Bircenna, wife of  Pyrrhus of Epirus. Strothman…

Hermenericus

(79 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] see Ermanaric see  Ermanaric Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] Son of Flavius Ardabur [2] Aspar, consul 465 AD Youngest son of Flavius Ardabur [2] Aspar (Candidus FHG 4, 135), cos. AD 465 (Chron. min. 3,535 Mommsen). When his father was murdered, he was able to save himself, possibly with the help of Zeno, whose daughter he married, by fleeing to Constantinople. He later returned (Theophanes a. 5964). PLRE 2,549 (Herminericus). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Papiria

(41 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Daughter of C. Papirius [I 17] Maso, consul 231 BC, first wife of L. Aemilius [I 32] Paullus. Their sons were Q. Fabius [I 23] Maximus (Aemilianus) and P. Cornelius [I 70] Scipio Aemilianus (Plut. Aemilius Paulus 5,1-4). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Magia Polla

(46 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (also Maia). Mother of the poet Vergilius, of lowly birth. Her dream of the birth of Virgil in Suetonius (Suet. De viris illustribus, Vergilius 1-3). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography G. Brugnoli, Phocas, Vita di Vergilio, 1984 Id. (ed.), Vitae Vergilianae antiquae, 1997.

Dellius

(211 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(handwritten also Deillius, Deillios). [German version] Q.D. (Name in Cass. Dio 49,39,2), referred to by Messalla Corvinus as desultor bellorum civium, as in 43 BC he defected from P. Cornelius [I 29] Dolabella to C. Cassius [I 10], the next year to Mark Antony and finally, shortly before the battle of Actium, to the camp of Octavian, with important information about Antony's troops (Sen. Suas. 1,7). Octavian held him in high regard (Sen. Clem. 1,10,1; Horace dedicated Carm. 2,3 to him). Between 41 and 31 he undert…

Lucilia

(98 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Niece of the poet C. Lucilius [I 6], mother of Cn. Pompey Magnus Daughter of Manlius Lucilius, niece of the poet C. Lucilius [I 6], wife of Cn. Pompey Strabo ( cos. in 89 BC), from a senatorial family. She was the mother of Cn. Pompeius Magnus and of a daughter (Vell. Pat. 2,29,2). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] Probably the sister of L. [1] Probably the sister of L. [1], mother of M. Attius [I 1] Balbus. His daughter Atia [1] was the mother of Augustus (Suet. Aug. 4,1). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Paulina

(67 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Of noble origin, adherent of Isis, wife of Sentius Saturninus, and desired by Decius [II 3] Mundus. The latter finally seduced her in AD 19, purportedly as the god Anubis and with the help of the priests of Isis. Her husband reported the deception to the emperor Tiberius, who had those involved severely punished (Ios. Ant. Iud. 18,66-77). PIR2 P 168. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Apotheosis

(1,362 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] Although apotheosis as such contradicts the principle of monotheism and therefore cannot occur in Christianity, Christian society from the time of Constantine found ways to maintain the elevation of the ruler above the mortal plane and into the sphere of divinity. In addition, individual forms of apotheosis can be observed again and again, intended either to correspond precisely to this need or to exemplify Christ’s ascension. A type of the latter, which shows Christ being wafted…

Vir egregius

(210 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (literally approximately 'outstanding man'). First encountered under Marcus [2] Aurelius as a general term for the members of the ordo equester [1.28] ( Equites Romani ), from 180/183 recorded as an official non-inheritable title of office (CIL VIII 10570, col. IV, l. 10). In the 3rd cent. AD its significance declined; in his decree of 317, Licinius [II 4] recognizes four grades of equestrian rank: perfectissimus vir, ducenarius vir, centenarius vir, and egregius vir as the lowest (Cod. Theod. 12,1,5, l. 5). The inferiority of the title was due to the…

Pomponia

(291 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Mother of P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio Africanus Mother of P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio Africanus, whom she (according to Liv. 26,19,6; Gell. 6,1,1-4) is supposed (in imitation of the history of the birth of Alexander [4] the Great) to have conceived with a snake (= Jupiter). He is also supposed to have given her an account of a dream of his, that he and his elder brother Lucius would take office as aediles, and she was very moved by this (Pol. 10,4,4-5,7); the story is incredible and fallacious (cf. [1. 200 f.]). Perhaps with its help Scipio married …

Postumia

(74 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Last member of the Postumii Albini gens. Born in c. 94, wife of the lawyer Servius Sulpicius Rufus ( cos. in 51). Her children were a son of the same name and a daughter Sulpicia. Cicero mentions P. and her son (Cic. Att. 5,21,9; cf. Shackleton Bailey ad. loc.; Cic. Fam. 4,2,1; 4,2,4; Cic. Phil. 9,5.). Suetonius (Suet. Iul. 50,1) mentions P. among the high-ranking women Caesar seduced. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

British Usurpation

(197 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Usurpation within the Roman Empire, in Britain (AD 286-296) and in the coastal region of north-west Gaul (AD 286-293). The praefectus classis Britannicae  Carausius, under threat of execution for alleged misappropriation of booty, had himself acclaimed emperor, went to Britain with his fleet, and there and on the channel coast of Gaul ( Gesoriacum) set up the British Usurpation (BU). Rulership and administration followed the Roman model; consolidation of his rule and stimulation of th…

Lutatia

(56 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Daughter of Q. Lutatius [3] Catulus ( cos. in 102 BC) and Servilia, sister of Q. Lutatius [4] Catulus ( cos. in 78), she was the first wife of the orator Q. Hortensius [7] Hortalus to whom she remained married until her death in about 55 BC (Cic. De Or. 3,228f.). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
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