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Silures

(131 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Celtic tribe in Southeast Wales from the coast to the Wye, especially in the coastal plain of present-day Glamorgan. The S. resisted the Romans from AD 44, at first under Caratacus (Tac. Ann. 12,32 f.; 12,38-40; 14,29), but were finally subdued in AD 74-76 by Frontinus (Tac. Agr. 17). In the 2nd cent., possibly under Hadrian, the S. were organised as civitas Silurum with the capital of Venta Silurum (present-day Caerwent). Modest villae were built in the coastal plain. In the end, the S. came to be the most Romanised tribe in Wales. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography V. E. …

Glevum

(216 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Britannia The region around Gloucester, located at the lowest lying crossing-point over the Severn, was first occupied by the Roman army in c. AD 50. A legion base was erected in Kingsholm, probably by the legio XX Valeria Victrix [1]; this was abandoned in c. AD 60 and replaced towards the end of the rulership of Nero by a fortress on the ground of modern Gloucester, which itself was abandoned in c. AD 74/5. On the grounds of the fortress, the colonia Glevum was founded using the fortress' …

Trinovantes

(79 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Celtic people, settled in the region of modern Essex in the late Iron Age. In the middle of the 1st cent. BC they were under pressure from the neighbouring Catuvellauni (Caes. Gall. 5,20) and for some time were dependent on them. Under their king Cunobellinus ( c. 10-40 AD) they were again independent and dominant in southern Britain. Their largest oppidum was Camulodunum.…

Catuvellauni

(83 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)

Sabrina

(60 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] River rising in Mid-Wales and flowing into the Bristol Channel (Tac. Ann. 12,31; Ptol. 2,3,3), modern Severn. Its valley played an important role in the period of the Roman conquest, with legionary bases at Glevum and Viroconium (modern Wroxeter). Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-Names of Roman Britain, 1979, 450 f.

Cilurnum

(117 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)

Aquae

(2,365 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Et al.
I. Italy [German version] A. Albulae Sulphurous sources of the Lago della Soforata on the right bank of the  Anio, 16 km from Rome; cult site. The springs are cold and have healing properties;  Nero had them canalized into the Domus Aurea. Large Roman   villa near Bagni della Regina. CIL XIV 3908-18. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] A. Angae In Bruttium between Consentia and Vibo Valentia, today Terme Caronte of Lamezia Terme. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] A. Apollinares Thermal springs between Careiae and  Tarquinii (It. Ant. 300); unidentified (…

Scotti

(80 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] ( Scoti, 'Scots'). A Celtic people - wild and bellicose according to Roman reports - which originally settled in the north of Hibernia (Ireland) (Oros. 1,2,81 f.). In the late 4th cent. AD, groups of them ferried across to Britannia (Amm. 18,2,3; 26,4,5; 27,8,1; 29,4,7). The S. had been Christianised before AD 431 in Hibernia by the deacon Palladius (Prosp. 1301) and came to develop a very active monastery culture. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography G. and A. Ritchie, Scotland, 1985.

Londinium

(806 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Christianity | | Commerce | Limes | Rome | Rome | Britannia (modern London). The Roman city of L. - the name possibly contains the Celtic personal name Londinos - lay, probably without pre-Roman precursors, at the most suitable crossing point of the Tamesis (Thames), which drew the attention of the Romans at the time of the invasion in AD 43. The early settlement was on hills on both sides of the swampy valley of the Walbrook that flows from the nor…

Iceni

(184 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Celtic tribe in the are…

Maeatae

(119 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)

Thule

(202 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Θούλη/ Thoúlē). T. was a concept, occasionally a literary term (Antonius [3]), less often a geographical location. The idea of a country in the northern Ocean, far to the north of Britannia, can be found in Verg. G. 1,30 and almost certainly refers to an account by Pytheas [4]. Strabo (1,4,2-5; 2,4,1; 2,5,8; 4,5,5) was the first geographer to use the place name T., but he does not say anything about its geographical location. Tac. Agr. 10 and Ptol. 2,3,32 applied T. to the Shetland Islands, but probably only because it was the northernmost known land. Lack of clarity about where and what T. was continued throughout Antiquity. Procop. Goth. 2,15,4 ff. ascribed the name to Scandinavia. Everything said about T. was known only from hearsay; but it is at least possible that the much-cited tradition of the 'frozen sea' (Str. 1,4,2; disputed translation) was based on the eye-witness account of an individual. The references to 6-month days and 6-month nights (Plin. HN 2,186) are based on…

Mona

(231 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Island off the coast of …

Regni

(116 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Regini). Celtic tribe, who settled in the area of Hampshire and West Sussex and was part of the Kingdom of Commius (mid 1st cent. BC) and of Cogidubnus (one cent. later). The main city was Noviomagus (present-day Chichester), home to a temple of Neptune and Minerva in the 1st cent. AD [1. 91]. Located near Noviomagus and 1,6 km west of Chic…

Uxellodunum

(155 words)

Author(s): Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie (Nancy) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] [1] Oppidum in the territory of the Cadurci This item can be found on the following maps: Celts | Oppidum Oppidum in the territory of the  Cadurci (Caes. Gall. 8,32,2) in Aquitania, conquered by Caesar in 51 BC (Caes. Gall. 8,39-44). The location of  U. is disputed among the following places: l'Impernal de Luzech [2. 109-111], le Puy d'Issolu near Vayrac [2. 133-136], Murcens-Cras [1], Capdenac. Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie (Nancy) Bibliography 1 O. Buchsenschutz, G. Mercadier, Recherche sur l'oppidum de Murcens-Cras, …

Promunturium, Promontorium

(612 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
('promontory', 'cape'). [German version] [1] Promontorium Cantium Headland in the far south-east of Britannia, opposite the mouth of the Rhine (τὸ Κάντιον). Headland in the far south-east of Britannia, opposite the mouth of the Rhine; a landmark for seamen and geographers, modern South Foreland/Kent ( cf. Caes. B Gall. 5,13,1; 14,1; 22,1; Diod. Sic. 5,21,3; Str. 1,4,3; 4,3,3; 5,1). Cantium probably means 'corner' in Celtic [1]. The exposed location in the far south-east of the island gave its name to the Cantiaci, and the name was also applied to the ki…

Luguvallium

(293 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] The Roman military facilities and the city of L., modern Carlisle, form one of the most important complexes on the northern border of Britannia. Most phases in the history of L. are poorly documented, and the findings of many of the most recent excavations have not yet been published. The earliest Roman site is a fort at the crossing of the river Eden (probably AD 78/9) [1; 5]. This was demolished shortly after AD 100 and rebuilt at another location (until AD 160). A series of sto…

Venta Silurum

(156 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Town in South Wales, modern Caerwent. After the defeat of the Silures by the Roman governor Frontinus c. AD 74-76 (Tac. Agr. 17,3) VS developed into a centre of civilian settlement in the Vale of Glamorgan. VS became the capital, probably under Hadrian, of the civitas of the Silures (cf. [1]). The construction of public buildings (forum, basilica, temple) began after 125. In the late 2nd cent. AD VS was fortified with earthworks. In late Antiquity VS flourished economically (construction of numerous private houses in stone)…

Pons

(1,427 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Roads and bridges, construction of see Roads and bridges, construction of Eder, Walter (Berlin) [German version] [2] Voting bridge The term
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