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Societies, Theological

(534 words)

Author(s): WilhelmGraf, Friedrich
[German Version] The roots of scientific societies go back to the learned societies of the Enlightenment. In the secular form of private associations, scholars began joining in specialized societies in the post-Napoleonic period (Vormärz); they wished to articulate their interests, influence public opinion, and organize discussions of central questions in t…

Deutscher Evangelischer Kirchenbund

(360 words)

Author(s): Wilhelm Graf, Friedrich
[German Version] (DEKB; German Association of Protestant Churches). The end of ecclesiastical authority in the hands of the territorial princes and the birth of the Weimar Republic in 1919 provoked debates about internal reform and democratization of the church and the possibility of a national church. In the name of territorial autonomy, politically and ecclesiastically con…

Confessionalism

(636 words)

Author(s): Wilhelm Graf, Friedrich
[German Version] The origins and the history of the concept have scarcely been investigated. The earliest known German attestations date from the Vormärz , around 1830. In terms of its conceptual history, confessionalism …

Confession Cultures

(566 words)

Author(s): Wilhelm Graf, Friedrich
[German Version] The relatively recent concept of confession cultures belongs to the terminology of modern cultural studies, where it is employed in conjunction with the analysis of the processes of confessional socialization, especially in Germany, but also in other multi-denominational European societies. Following the end of the confessionally homogeneous society of the old German Reich, during which ecclesial and political authorities had effected a denomina…

Neo-Protestantism

(1,043 words)

Author(s): Wilhelm Graf, Friedrich | Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] I. Church History Talk of a “new” or “modern” Protestantism surfaced sporadically c. 1800, but did not achieve a firm foothold until the hardening of deep religious and cultural divides between “liberal theologians” (Liberal theology), mediation theologians (Mediation theology), theological Hegelians (Hegelianism), and Neo-Lutheran confessionalists (Neo-Lutheranism) during the 1830s. The neologism neo-Protestants

Wendland

(380 words)

Author(s): Wilhelm Graf, Friedrich
[English Version] Wendland, Heinz-Dietrich (22.6.1900 Berlin – 7.8.1992 Hamburg). Der durch die »deutschnationale Tradition des prot. Pfarrhauses« (Wege 18) geprägte W. gehörte seit 1913 dem »Wandervogel« (Jugendbewegung), seit 1919 dem »Wingolf« an. 1921 Mitbegründer des »Jungnationalen Bundes«. Ab 1919 Theologiestudium in Berlin und Heide…

Radikalismus, sozialer

(504 words)

Author(s): Wilhelm Graf, Friedrich
[English Version] . Der Begriff R. wird in Alltagssprachen, Fachsprachen verschiedener Wiss. und polit. Diskursen gebraucht. Dt. polit. Begriffsprägungen lassen sich erstmals in den ideenpolit. Debatten des Vormärz (: I.) und in den mit ihnen eng verknüpften rel. Parteienkämpfen nachweisen. Maßgebend waren damals bri…

Wellhausen

(724 words)

Author(s): Wilhelm Graf, Friedrich
[English Version] Wellhausen, Julius (17.5.1844 Hameln – 7.1.1918 Göttingen). Der Sohn eines konservativ luth. Pastors studierte in Göttingen ev. Theol., stark beeinflußt durch H. Ewald, der ihn neben bibl. Exegese auch Syrisch und Arabisch lehrte. Nach der 1870 erfolgten Göttinger Lizentiatenpromotion und Habil. im Fache AT wurde W. 1872 als Ordinarius nach Greifswald berufen. Sofern der »kirchl. und wiss. Standpunkt« je elementar verschieden seien, ein Theologieprof. aber für die Kirche gute Pfarrer auszubilden habe, legte der m…