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(2,444 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias | Dinkel, Christoph
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion – II. Dogmatics – III. Practical Theology I. Philosophy of Religion The term pantheism (from Gk πᾶν/ pán, “all,” and ϑεός/ theós, “God”) is a product of the 18th-century critical debates about religion. Coined in discussions about B. de Spinoza, it refers to religio-philosophical conceptions that undertake to relate God and the world through the idea of an all-embracing unity. Its central concept is the immanence of God (Transcendence and immanence) in the totality of all that ex…

Liberal Theology

(2,253 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Schelander, Robert | Blaser, Klauspeter
[German Version] I. General – II. Church History – III. Systematics – IV. Practical Theology – V. Missiology I. General The expression liberal theology became prevalent in the “Saddle Period” (Reinhart Koselleck) of Neo-Protestantism between 1780 and 1820; it denotes a type of “modern theology” that combines strong demands for individual freedom through criticism of religious tradition, differentiation of subjective faith from ecclesiastically defined confessions of faith, an individualistic understanding of reli…

Jatho, Karl Wilhelm

(258 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] (Sep 25, 1851, Kassel – Mar 11, 1913, Cologne). After attending school and military service, Jatho studied theology in Marburg and Leipzig. In 1876, he entered the service of the church (pastor in Bucharest and Boppard am Rhein). After 1891, he held office in Cologne. In 1903, Jatho published the first collection of his sermons. This publication and subsequent others of a similar nature attracted great attention because of their vibrant expression of religion, although they also e…

Fuchs, Emil

(192 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] (May 13, 1874, Beerfelden – Feb 13, 1971, Berlin) became pastor in Rüsselsheim in 1905, in Eisenach in 1918, and was professor of religion at the Pädagogische Akademie (teacher training college) in Kiel from 1931. Fuchs was dismissed from the civil service in 1933. During the Third Reich, he was forbidden to engage in any form of public activity. For a time, he joined a Quaker congregation. Disappointed by postwar developments in the West, he accepted an appointment as professor o…

Krause, Heinrich

(163 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] (Jun 2, 1816, Weißensee near Berlin – Jun 8, 1868, Weißensee), studied theology in Berlin from 1834 onward and received his Lic.theol. in 1845. After having been refused a Habilitation, Krause was active as a liberal Protestant journalist: he became editor of the Zeitschrift für die unirte evangelische Kirche in 1848 and of the popular journal Der Protestant in 1851. From 1854 until his death, he was editor of the Protestantische Kirchenzeitung für das evangelische Deutschland. In 1848, Krause was one of the founders of the Berliner Unionsverein (Berlin …

Religiöser Menschheitsbund

(145 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] The Religiöser Menschheitsbund (Religious Humanity Alliance) was founded in 1921 by R. Otto in analogy to the League of Nations. As an inter-religious group it aimed to bring the ideals of social justice and peace to bear at an international level. Through the gathering of representatives of various religions, attention was to be drawn to the ethical implications of political action, and a contribution made to the “actualization of common moral goals” (Otto). In its orientation to…

Nagel, Julius

(206 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] (Sep 17, 1809, Bahn, Pomerania – Jan 17, 1884, Breslau [Wrocław]). From 1835 Nagel was a pastor in Colzow, Wollin Island. Although influenced during his theological studies in Berlin by F.D.E. Schleiermacher, Nagel was very critical of church union. His attitude led in 1847 to his resignation as pastor of Trieglaff, Pomerania province, a post he had held since 1841, and to his withdrawal from the Protestant Church of Prussia. Nagel joined the separate, not officially recognized Lu…

Rauschenbusch, August Christian Ernst

(137 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] (May 27, 1777, Bünde, Westphalia – Apr 19, 1840, Altena), 1801 pastor in Lüdenscheid, 1802 in Kronenberg, 1808 head of the Bürgerschule in Schwelm, between 1815 and 1840 pastor in Altena on the Lenne, from 1824 to 1827 superintendent in Iserlohn (1808 Dr.phil., Heidelberg). Rauschenbusch published numerous theological and historical works, including the Leben Jesu im Zusammenhange dargestellt (1837 [The life of Jesus presented in context]). He was joint editor of the hymnal, Bergisches Gesangbuch (1808), and author of a small reform education manual ( Erziehungsbü…

Piechowski, Paul Felix

(182 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] (Jun 30, 1892, Turoschein, East Prussia – Jun 9, 1966, Bonn-Bad Godesberg), studied theology and philosophy from 1911 to 1914 (Lic.theol., Dr.phil.); this was followed by military service until 1919. In 1919 he became pastor in Berlin-Neukölln, in 1928 in Berlin-Britz; he was removed from office in 1934 following disciplinary proceedings. After medi-¶ cal studies, he practiced as a doctor from 1938. In the 1920s Piechowski took part in founding religious socialist organizations. Around 1930 he was one of the best-known representativ…

Stephan, Horst Emil

(193 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] (Sep 27, 1873, Sayda, Saxony – Jan 9, 1954, Leipzig). While studying theology in Leipzig, he began teaching in Zittau and Leipzig in 1899. In 1906 he earned his habilitation in Leipzig and in 1907 in Marburg, where he was appointed associate professor in 1911 and full professor of systematic theology in 1919. In 1922 he moved to Halle and in 1926 to ¶ Leipzig, where he retired in 1938 but continued to teach until 1949. Stephan followed in the footsteps of F.D.E. Schleiermacher and the tradition of liberal theology ( Geschichte der evangelischen Theologie seit dem Deutsc…

Foerster, Erich

(143 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] (Nov 4, 1865, Greifswald – Oct 12, 1945, Frankfurt am Main) became pastor in Hirschberg im Riesengebirge (Polish: Jelenia Góra), from 1895 to 1935 in Frankfurt am Main (a German Evangelical Reformed congregation). From 1891 to 1903, Foerster edited the Chronik der Christlichen Welt . In 1915, he became honorary professor of the philosophy and history of religion at the University of Frankfurt. Initially a proponent of a liberal Protestant cultural theology, from the mid-1920s on Foerster moved closer to K…

Kögel, Johannes Theodor Rudolf

(302 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] (Feb 18, 1829, Birnbaum, Posen – Jul 2, 1896, Berlin). Following his studies of theology in Halle (with F. Tholuck and Julius Müller) and Berlin, Kögel taught at a Gymnasium in Dresden from 1852 to 1854. From 1857, he was pastor of the German Protestant congregation in The Hague. In 1862, he was appointed the fourth court chaplain at Berlin Cathedral and chief councillor at the ministry of education and cultural affairs. In 1868, he received his Dr.theol. in Bonn. In 1881, Kögel, …

Undogmatic Christianity

(346 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] Precursors of an explicit Protestant theological antidogmatism go back to the Reformation period. It played a central role in the theology of the Enlightenment. Numerous theologians and philosophers of religion in the late 18th century presented the beliefs of the Christian faith with a massive criticism of dogma (e.g. J.G. Herder, Von Religion, Lehrmeinungen und Gebräuchen, 1798). The phrase became a shibboleth in theological politics in the last third of the 19th century. It was mostly theologians holding ecclesiastical positions that…

Mulert, Christian Hermann

(229 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] (Jan 11, 1879, Niederbobritzsch, Saxony – Jul 22, 1950, Mügeln near Leipzig). From 1897 to 1903, Mulert studied theology and philosophy in Leipzig, Marburg, Berlin, and Kiel. After some years as a pastor and teacher of religion, he was from 1907 a university lecturer in Kiel. In 1917 he became assistant professor, and in 1920 full professor of systematic theology at the University of Kiel. In 1935 he resigned his chair in protest against National Socialist higher education policy. Mulert was one of the protagonists of liberal Protestantism in the first half …

Wehrung, Gottfried Georg

(189 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] (Oct 6, 1880, Dorlisheim, Elsaß [Alsace] – Jan 20, 1959, Tübingen). In 1906 he was appointed tutor in Straßburg, where he became associate professor of systematic theology in 1915. In 1920 he was appointed professor of systematic theology at Münster, in 1927 at Halle, and in 1921 at Tübingen. From 1923 to 1955 he was an editor of the Zeitschrift für systematische Theologie. In his theology, Wehrung attempt to overcome the problems of substantiation raised by the debate over historicism through an understanding of religion grounded in ethics ( Geschichte und Glaube, 1933…


(977 words)

Author(s): Clayton, Philip | Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] I. Terminology; Natural Science – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Dogmatics I. Terminology; Natural Science The term panentheism originated as a theological concept, but it is also used in the natural sciences. It expresses the view that the world exists in God, even though God is more than the world (Transcendence and immanence: I; see also II and III below). The major arguments for panentheism from the perspective of the natural sciences include the standard arguments for classical philosophical theism (Natural theology). Panentheists a…

Knolle, Theodor

(108 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] (Jun 18, 1885, Hildesheim – Dec 1, 1955, Hamburg). Knolle, a cofounder of the Luther Society in 1918, became chief pastor of St. Petri in Hamburg in 1924. In 1929 he received his D.theol. from Halle. In 1933 he was appointed general superintendent in Hamburg, but conflicts with the Deutsche Christen (German Christians) forced him to resign his office the next year. In 1950 he was appointed professor of practical theology at the Kirchliche Hochschule in Hamburg; in 1954 he became regional bishop of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Hamburg. Matthias Wolfes Bibliography W…


(1,043 words)

Author(s): Wilhelm Graf, Friedrich | Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] I. Church History Talk of a “new” or “modern” Protestantism surfaced sporadically c. 1800, but did not achieve a firm foothold until the hardening of deep religious and cultural divides between “liberal theologians” (Liberal theology), mediation theologians (Mediation theology), theological Hegelians (Hegelianism), and Neo-Lutheran confessionalists (Neo-Lutheranism) during the 1830s. The neologism neo-Protestants was initially used in the late 1830s as a pejorative description of Protestant theologians who interpreted the Reformat…


(173 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[English Version] Nagel, Julius (17.9.1809 Bahn, Pommern – 17.1.1884 Breslau), seit 1835 Pfarrer in Colzow, Insel Wollin. Obwohl während des Theologiestudiums in Berlin von F. Schleiermacher beeinflußt, vertrat N. eine streng unionskrit. Haltung. Sie führte 1847 zur Niederlegung des 1841 übernommenen Pfarramtes in Trieglaff, Provinz Pommern, und zum Austritt aus der Ev. Kirche Preußens. N. schloß sich der separierten, offiziell nicht anerkannten Luth. Kirche in Preußen an und wurde hier seit den fr…


(928 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Wolfes, Matthias
[English Version] I. Kirchengeschichtlich Formeln vom »neuen« oder »modernen Protestantismus« tauchten vereinzelt um 1800 auf, gewannen aber erst seit der Fixierung tiefer religions- und kulturpolit. Gegensätze zw. »liberalen Theologen« (liberale Theologie), Vermittlungstheologen (Vermittlungstheologie), theol. Hegelianern (Hegelianismus) und neuluth. Konfessionalisten (Neuluthertum) während der 30er Jahre des 19.Jh. einen festen Gehalt. Der Neologismus »die Neuprotestanten« wurde in den späten 30e…


(153 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[English Version] Piechowski, Paul Felix (30.6.1892 Turoscheln, Ostpreußen – 9.6.1966 Bonn-Bad Godesberg). 1911–1914 Studium der Theol. und Philos. (Lic. theol.; Dr. phil.), anschließend bis 1919 Militäreinsatz; 1919 Pfarrer in Berlin-Neukölln, 1928 in Berlin-Britz; 1934 Amtsenthebung wegen eines Disziplinarvergehens. Nach Medizinstudium (Dr. med.) seit 1938 als Arzt tätig. P. beteiligte sich in den 20er Jahren an der Gründung rel.-sozialistischer Organisationen. Um 1930 war er einer der bekanntest…


(116 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[English Version] Rauschenbusch, August Christian Ernst (27.5.1777 Bünde, Westfalen – 19.4.1840 Altena), 1801 Pfarrer in Lüdenscheid, 1802 in Kronenberg, 1808 Direktor der Bürgerschule in Schwelm, 1815–1840 Pfarrer in Altena/Lenne, 1824–1827 Superintendent in Iserlohn (1808 Dr. phil. Heidelberg). R. legte zahlreiche theol. und hist. Veröff. vor, darunter das »Leben Jesu im Zusammenhange dargestellt« (1837). Er war Mithg. des »Bergischen Gesangbuches« (1808) und Autor eines reformpäd. »Erziehungsbüchl…


(2,259 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias | Dinkel, Christoph
[English Version] I. Religionsphilosophisch Der Begriff P. (abgeleitet von griech. πα˜n̆/pa´n, »alles«, und ϑεο´ς/theo´s, »Gott«) entstammt den religionskrit. Debatten des 18.Jh. Urspr. bezogen auf B. de Spinoza bez. er diejenigen religionsphilos. Konzeptionen, die die Zuordnung von Gott und Welt über eine All-Einheitsidee vornehmen. Sein zentraler Begriffsinhalt ist die Immanenz Gottes (Transzendenz/Immanenz) in der Totalität des Existenten. Im Mittelpunkt der pantheistischen Theoriebildung steht die Erört…


(916 words)

Author(s): Clayton, Philip | Wolfes, Matthias
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff und naturwissenschaftlich P. ist ein urspr. theol. Begriff, der jedoch auch in naturwiss. Kontexten verwandt wird. Er ist Ausdruck der Ansicht, daß die Welt im Göttlichen existiert, auch wenn Gott mehr ist als die Welt (Transzendenz/Immanenz: I.; s.u. II.; III.). – Hauptargumente aus naturwiss. Sicht für einen P. sind u.a. die Standardargumente zugunsten des klassischen philos. Theismus (natürliche Theologie). Außerdem suchen Panentheisten nach Anzeichen für ein intern…

Undogmatisches Christentum

(301 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[English Version] . Vorläufer eines expliziten prot.-theol. Antidogmatismus reichen bis in die Reformationszeit zurück. Zentrale Bedeutung erhielt er in der Aufklärungstheol. Zahlreiche Theologen und Religionsphilosophen des späten 18.Jh. profilierten die christl. Glaubensüberzeugungen über eine massive Dogmenkritik (z.B. J.G. Herder, Von Rel., Lehrmeinungen und Gebräuchen, 1798). Zum theologiepolit. Schlagwort wurde der Begriff im letzten Drittel des 19.Jh. Meist in kirchl. Stellungen tätige Theologen strebten ein »rein bibl. dogmenfreies…


(162 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[English Version] Stephan, Horst Emil (27.9.1873 Sayda, Sachsen – 9.1.1954 Leipzig). Theologiestudium in Leipzig, seit 1899 Lehrer in Zittau und Leipzig. 1906 Habil. zunächst in Leipzig, 1907 in Marburg; dort 1911 a.o. und 1919 o.Prof. für Syst. Theol.; 1922 in Halle, seit 1926 in Leipzig (Ruhestand 1938; Lehrtätigkeit bis 1949). – S. knüpft an die Theol. der Aufklärung (: II.), F. Schleiermacher und die liberal-theol. Tradition (liberale Theologie) an (Gesch. der ev. Theol. seit dem Dt. Idealismus…


(147 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[English Version] Wehrung, Gottfried Georg (6.10.1880 Dorlisheim, Elsaß – 20.1.1959 Tübingen). 1906 Studienleiter in Straßburg, 1915 dort a.o.Prof., 1920 o.Prof. für Syst. Theol. in Münster, 1927 in Halle, 1931 in Tübingen. 1923–1955 Mithg. der ZSTh. In seiner theol. Konzeption versuchte W., die durch die Historismusdebatte aufgeworfenen Begründungsprobleme über ein ethisch fundiertes Religionsverständnis zu überwinden (Gesch. und Glaube, 1933). Sehr intensiv hat W. sich der Schleiermacherforschung …
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