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Daphne

(449 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Baudy, Gerhard (Constance) | Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg)
[German version] [1] (δάφνη; dáphnē). Used in antiquity as a name for the plant sacred to Apollo and Artemis ─ the  laurel Laurus nobilis L. of the Lauraceae family, not the Thymelaeacea genus of the daphne with which we are familiar today ( Cneorum). Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) [German version] [2] Nymph, transformed into a laurel tree (Δάφνη; Dáphnē). The chaste nymph D. devoted to  Artemis and who loved to hunt, was a daughter of the river god Ladon (or Peneius) and  Gaia. She fled from Apollo, who tried to force his affections on her, and tur…

Fornacalia

(224 words)

Author(s): Baudy, Gerhard (Constance)
[German version] The   feriae conceptivae held in February in the   curiae whose date was set by the Curio Maximus (Ov. Fast. 2,527f.). The roasting of religiously symbolic ‘primitive grain’   far (Paul. Fest. 73; 82 L.; Plin. HN 18,7f.) was celebrated. The ‘oven goddess’ (Ov. Fast. 6,313f.) Fornax (Ov. Fast. 2,525; Lact. Inst. 1,20,35) may be interpreted as a projection of the feast. Since the Vestals distributed   mola salsa on the  Lupercalia, for the preparation of which they needed roasted emmer, a date before 15 February may be assumed for the Fornacalia. Those who did not know to which cu…

Iasion

(483 words)

Author(s): Baudy, Gerhard (Constance)
[German version] (Ἰασίων; Iasíōn, also Ἰάσιος; Iásios and Ἴασος; Íasos). An adolescent hero from the realm of agricultural mysteries. According to a tradition from Crete, I. fathers  Plutus (personification of a wealth of grain) with  Demeter on a thrice ploughed fallow field; for this, Zeus kills him with lightning (Hom. Od. 5,125-128; Hes. Theog. 969-974; cf. schol. Theoc. 3,49-51d; Ov. Am. 3,10,25ff.). The myth explains the emergence of agriculture after the flood (schol. Hom. Od. 5,125). Older resear…

Carnea, Carneus, Carnus

(1,177 words)

Author(s): Baudy, Gerhard (Constance)
[German version] (Κάρνεια, Κάρνειος, Κάρνος; Kárneia, Kárneios, Kárnos). The C. was a standard Dorian midsummer festival dedicated to Apollo Carneus (to the ‘ram’-Apollo, cf. Hsch. s.v. κάρνος ... πρόβατον) with musical agons (Hellanicus of Lesbos, FGrH 4 F 85). It was allegedly institutionalized in 676/3 BC (Sosibius, FGrH 595 F 3). Part of the festival was the sacrifice of a ram: in Theocritus (5,82f.) a shepherd raises a choice ram just for the C. The epithet Carneus did not belong solely to  Apollo…

Abaris

(380 words)

Author(s): Baudy, Gerhard (Constance)
[German version] (Ἄβαρις). Mythical figure derived from the cult of Apollo, formed on the model of shamanistic miracle-working priests [1; 2; 3; 4]. Dated by Pindar in the time of Croesus (fr. 270 Maehler), also dated earlier by other authors [5. 16]. According to Hdt. 4,36 A., coming from the imaginary northern land of the  Hyperborei, carried the spear of  Apollo around Greece, without partaking of any food. He prophesied in a state of divine possession (Lycurg. fr. 86 = Orat. Att. p. 271 Baiter…

Natalis templi

(165 words)

Author(s): Baudy, Gerhard (Constance)
[German version] Natalis templi was the day on which a newly erected or restored sanctuary was consecrated to ‘its deity and thereby dedicated to its purpose. A public sacrifice offered each year commemorated this dedicatio and consecratio . The popular ‘temple birthday (Serv. Aen. 8,60) was an official holiday only if it was celebrated on the festival day of the deity involved. Otherwise, it could add a social or political dimension to the traditional celebration days of the gods: craftsmen, for example, congregated at the Roman sanctuary of Minerva on the Aventine on its natalis templi

Nudipedalia

(160 words)

Author(s): Baudy, Gerhard (Constance)
[German version] A custom comparable, although not identical, to the aquaelicium , in which, during periods of extended drought, a procession of supplication was held to the Temple of Jupiter at the Capitol (Petron. 44; Tert. Apol. 40,14; Tert. De ieiunio 16,5). The name is derived from the bare feet of the married women ( matrona [1]) who were an essential part of this ritual. The women wore their hair loose, in contrast to their normal custom. The magistrates as well dispensed with their usual signs of status: they did not wear the toga praetexta ; their lictors kept the fasces lowered. Demo…

Floralia

(489 words)

Author(s): Baudy, Gerhard (Constance)
[German version] Celebrated in honour of ‘mother  Flora’, these were the   ludi (Cic. Verr. 2,5,36) which ran from the birth date of the temple on 28 April (Verrius Flaccus, Fasti Praenestini for this date; Ov. Fast. 4,947) to early May (Ov. Fast. 5,183ff.). F. are also attested to for Pisaurum (CIL XI 6357), Alba Fucens (CIL IX 3947) and Cirta (CIL VIII 6958) (see also the Agnone bronze [1]). The peasant calendars (  menologia ) and the Fasti Venusini record for 3 May a sacrifice to Flora that was meant to relate to the F. [2. 1974; 3]. According to myth, the Sabine Titus Tatius had alrea…

Parentalia

(505 words)

Author(s): Baudy, Gerhard (Constance)
[German version] The festive period of the Parentalia (Menologium Colotianum InscrIt 13,2 p. 287; Menologium Vallense InscrIt 13,2 p. 293, cf. p. 408f.), celebrated in February, gave all Romans the opportunity to come together to commemorate their deceased parents and relatives, as was done privately on the anniversary of their deaths (Verg. Aen. 5,46ff.; Ov. Fast. 2,533ff.). A sacrifice to the Vestalis maxima (Vestals) marked the official beginning of the period on the 13th of February (Philocalus, InscrIt 13,2 p. 241: Virgo Vesta(lis) parentat). It concluded with the public …

Lernaea

(707 words)

Author(s): Baudy, Gerhard (Constance)
[German version] (Λερναῖα; Lernaîa). A celebration of the mysteries of Demeter and Dionysus Bugenes in Argive Lerna, where both deities were honoured in a cult community (Paus. 2,36,7; 37,1), documented in literature and inscriptions [2. 290]. The mythical founder of the Lernaea was Philammon (Paus. 2,37,2). At the festival, an epiphany of tauromorphic Dionysus took place from the lake next to the sacred grove; it was triggered by trumpet signals and the drowning sacrifice of a lamb for the god…
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