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Cratinus

(1,123 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
(Κρατῖνος; Kratînos). [German version] [1] Poet of the Attic Old Comedy, 5th cent. BC Son of Callimedes, important poet of the Attic Old  Comedy. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) [German version] A. Biographical information The first appearance of C. is documented for the late 450s BC [1. test. 4ab; cf. test. 5]; his death probably occurred between 423 ( Terminus post quem: his last piece, the Pytínē/‘The Bottle’; cf. [1. test. 3]) and 421 (in Aristoph. Pax 700-703, he is allegedly dead [1. test. 10]); he allegedly lived to be 94 years old [1. test. 3].…

Rutilius

(2,145 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich) | Et al.
Name of a widely-branched Roman plebeian family who became well known from the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC on, but only achieved the consulate for the first time at the end of the cent. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] R. Lupus, P. Consul in 90 BC Praetor no later than 93 BC; consul in 90. During the Social War [3], he received the command of the northern army; against the advice of hi…

Cascellius

(132 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (C. Aulus Cascellius). Jurist, pupil of Volcatius, who in turn was taught by Q.  Mucius Pontifex (Dig. 1,2,2,45; Plin. HN 8,144); evident in documents of 73 BC as a senator, he held no further office after his quaestorship, but dedicated himself to practical jurisprudence [2]. The iudicium Cascellianum (Gai. Inst. 4,166a), which he had drafted, allowed the winner of a sponsio trial to claim for material restitution within the framework of prohibitory interdicts on property (a form of interim order for the protection of property) [1] (  restitutio )…

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). …

Cyrillus

(1,862 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Tosi, Renzo (Bologna) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
(Κύριλλος; Kýrillos) [German version] [1] C. of Jerusalem Bishop Born c. AD 313, he was a member of the Jerusalem clergy (Jer. Chron. 2365 [GCS Eus. 7,236,7f. Helm/Treu]), and from 348 to 386 served as bishop of Jerusalem; he came to this office rather as a follower of the Homoeans (cf. Jer. loc. cit., Socr. 2,38,2 and Sozom. Hist. eccl. 4,20,1) than as a Nicaean (cf. Theod. Hist. eccl. 2,26,6). In 358 he was relieved of his office by  Acacius [2] of Caesarea and banished to Tarsus, rehabilitated in 359 a…

Thalelaeus

(109 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Professor of law ( antecessor) under Iustinianus [1] I, presumably in Berytus, one of the eight addresses of the Const. Omnem (ordinances for study brought into force with the conclusion of the Digesta in AD 533), who wrote a Greek paraphrase of the Codex (II.) Iustinianus. The work, preserved in the Basilika and their scholia (Byzantium I. B.3.), contains useful information on T.' teachings on the Codex. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography D. Simon, Aus dem Kodexunterricht des T., in: ZRG 86, 1969, 334-383; RIDA 16, 1969, 283-308; ZRG 87, 1…

Urseius Ferox

(94 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Roman jurist of the early Principate (1st cent. AD), reviewed in at least ten books (Coll. 12,7,9) the opinions of the founders of law schools, on the one hand Sabinus [II 5] and Cassius [II 14], on the other  Proculus [1]. Other than five citations in Ulpian and in Iulius [IV 16] Paulus, the work is known only from the commentary

Scaevola

(303 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Probably originally a Roman family name, recorded as a cognomen ('left-handed'), in the Republican period in the Mucii family (Mucius [I 2; 4-10; II 2]); for the legend of origin see Mucius [I 2]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] …

Furius

(3,311 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
Name of an ancient Roman patrician lineage (on inscriptions also Fourios), derived from the praenomen Fusus and also occurring occasionally in the original form Fusius in the literary tradition; the family perhaps came from Tusculum (cf. the family grave of the Furii ILLRP 895-903). The numerous members of the gens from the early Republic in the 5th/4th cents. BC are scarcely tangible as historical persons, and their history is in part later annalistic invention. Most well known is the ‘Saviour of Rome’ after the catas…

Fulvius

(3,286 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
Roman plebeian gentes name, derived from fulvus (‘reddish yellow, brownish yellow’ [1. 1,561], probably named after hair colour); further evidence: [2. 170], inscriptions also Folvius (ILLRP 124 et passim). The Roman gens probably came from Tusculum (Cic. Planc. 20; cf. Cic. Phil. 3,16; Plin. HN 7,136), where F. [I 15] also had put up works of art from the spoils of war. The most important branches are initially the Centumali, Curvi and Paetini, since the 3rd cent. BC the Flacci and Nobiliores. Genealogical tree: [3. 231f.]. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] F. Bambalio, M. Father of Fulvia [2] (‘Stammerer’), probably a little respected descendant of the famous Fulvians, father of Fulvia [2] (Cic. Phil. 2,90; 3,16; Cass. Dio 45,47,4; 46,7,1). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] F. Centumalus, Cn. Cos. 229 BC Consul in 229 BC with L. Postumius, landed on Corcyra, with his colleague he conquered and expelled the Illyrians from Apollonia and in 228 celebrated a naval triumph (MRR 1,228f.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 3] F. Centumalus, Cn. Cos. 211 BC As curulian aedile he put on four-day theatrical performances for the first time in 214 BC; praetor in 213; as consul in 211 with P. Sulpicius Galba, he protected Rome against Hannibal, then, in 210, remained in his area of office, Apulia, with extended imperium, and fell in b…

Florentinus

(324 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Gaulish correspondent of Symmachus Came from a Gaulish family; correspondent of Symmachus (Epist. 4,50-57), probably a pagan. In AD 379 he probably held the notary's office. It is doubtful whether he is identical with the homonymous comes sacrarum largitionum [1. 100-103]; in 395 quaestor sacri cubiculi; from 395 to 397, thus for an unusually long time, attested as praefectus urbi Romae, proved successful during a famine. Claudian [2] dedicated the second book of De raptu Proserpinae to him (praef. 50). Leppin, Hartmut (Hann…

Tryphoninus

(88 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] The Roman jurist Claudius T. ( c. 200 AD), presumably of oriental origin [3], pupil of Cervidius Scaevola [1] (Dig. 49,17,19 pr.) and consiliarius of Septimius [II 7] Severus (Dig. 49,14,50). He wrote discussions of controversial legal cases ( Disputationes, 21 B.) and Notae ('notes') on the Digesta and Responsa of his teacher [1; 2]. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography 1 H. T. Klami, Entscheidung und Begründung in den Kommentaren Tryphonins zu Scaevolas Responsen, 1975 2 M. Sixto, Las anotaciones de Trifonino, vol. 1, 1989; vol. 2, 1991 3 D. Liebs, J…

Vindius Verus

(66 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Roman jurist, suffect consul in 138 AD (CIL XVI 84) and consiliarius of Antoninus [1] Pius (SHA Pius 12,1), represented in Iustinianus's [1] Digesta (6th century AD) with only five indirect citations. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography O. Lenel, Palingenesia Iuris Civilis, vol. 2, 1889, 1223 f.  R. A. Bauman, Lawyers and Politics in the Early Roman Empire, 1989, 248 f.  D. Liebs, Jurisprudenz, in: HLL 4, 1997, 106.

Dorotheus

(861 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
(Δωρόθεος; Dōrótheos). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Argos, 5th cent. BC Sculptor of bronze from Argos. Known by two signatures from the middle of the 5th cent. BC on bases in Delphi and in Hermione (Crete), with traces of an inlet for a horse or rider statue. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures des sculptures grecques, 1, 1953, no. 30-31 P. Orlandini, I donari firmati da Kresilas e Dorotheos a Hermione, in: ArchCl 3, 1951, 94-98. [German version] [2] Painter, from the mid 1st cent. AD …

Iunius

(8,102 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Et al.
Roman surname, derived from the name of the goddess Iuno [1. 470; 2. 731]. The gens was plebeian; the idea that this family originated from the patrician founder of the Republic L. I. [I 4] Brutus (Cic. Att. 13,40,1), which was particularly propagated by the murderers of Caesar, M. and D. I. Brutus [I 10 and 12], was already a matter of controversy in ancient times (Plut. Brutus 1,6-8). T.  Pomponius Atticus (Nep. Att. 18,3) composed a family history at the request of M. Brutus. This gens became politically im…

Tertullianus

(2,381 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Habermehl, Peter (Berlin)
[German version] …

II Roman

(108 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[No German version] [II 1] Provincial jurist, beginning of the 3rd cent. AD A provincial jurist of the Greek-speaking area [3], who under Septimius Severus and Caracalla (early 3rd cent. AD) wrote tractates on extraordinary procedural law -- the first in classical jurisprudence ( De cognitionibus: 6 vols.; see [2]) -- and fiscal law ( De iure fisci et populi: 4 vols.), furthermore a commentary on edicts ( Edicti monitorium: 6 vols.; see [1]) as well as Institutiones (3 vols.) and Quaestiones (2 vols.). PIR2 C 231. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography 1 Schulz, 238f. 2 R. Bonini, …
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