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Tractatores

(121 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (Greek τρακτευταί/ trakteutaí). Accounting official, primarily in the financial administration, which came under the praefectus praetorio , first attested in a 468 AD law of the emperor Leo [4] I (Cod.  Just. Epit. 10,23,3,3). In the provinces they were responsible for the annual notification of the amount and use of taxes, supervised the collection and passing on of all tax demands and saw to the recovery of financial arrears; for this they also received armed assistance when needed. They were selected by the heads of the office. Negligence by tractatores attracted …

Serena

(127 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Born c. AD 365 in Spain, daughter of Honorius [2], niece of Theodosius I, who held in great esteem the highly educated S., adopted her after the death of her father in 379(?) and in 384 married her to Stilicho. Children of this marriage were Maria [I 3], Eucherius [2] and Thermantia. S. gained significant influence at the court of Honorius [3], who she had cared for when he was a child. In 408 she came into opposition with Stilicho but nevertheless fell into disgrace when he was ki…

Iovinus

(274 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Flavius I. 361 AD magister equitum of Iulianus [11] In AD 361 Magister Equitum of  Iulianus [11] (Amm. Marc. 21,8,3; 22,3,1), in 363 Mag. Mil. per Gallias (Amm. Marc. 25,8,11; 10,6-17; 26,5,1-3). I. continued to hold these offices under Valentinianus and Valens. In 366 victory over the Alamanni on the upper Mosel (Amm. Marc. 27,2). He was consul in 367, and remained active in Gaul and Britain until 369. He was a Christian and built the church of Saint Agricola in Reims (CIL XIII 3256). PLRE 1, 462f. (F.I. 6). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) …

Spectabilis

(163 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (or vir spectabilis, Greek períbleptos, also spektabílios). Senatorial title, coined in Late Antiquity, for officials ranking second to the illustres (Illustris vir), originally used in the sense of admirabilis ('admirable'), from the middle of the 2nd cent. also to describe prominent persons. The title is first recorded in AD 365 (Cod. Theod. 7,6,1); the usage initially fluctuated considerably between illustres, spectabiles and clarissimi (Vir clarissimus) and seems not to have been unequivocally fixed until c. 400. The first to be given the title were the p rocon…

Rusticus

(528 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
Roman cognomen; Antistius [II 4], Fabius [II 19], Iunius [II 27-28]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Theologian from Rome, from 547 in Constantinople and Egypt Deacon of the city of Rome, resided at Constantinople with his uncle Pope Vigilius from AD 547. Became a ferocious defender of the 'Three Chapters' (Synodos), for which reason Vigilius excommunicated him in 550. Banished after the 5th Ecumenical Synod (553), initially to Egyptian Thebes, he wrote Contra Acephalos against the Monophysites (Monophysitism). Subsequently in exile in the Akoimet…

Pompeianus

(219 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Consul ord. in AD 209 Cos. ord. in AD 209. Identical with L. Aurellius Commodus P. (AE 1978, 733 = 1979, 560; RMD 1, 73; SEG 32, 1149). PIR2 P 568. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] Consul suff. in an unknown year Cos. suff. on 13 May of an unknown year (CIL XVI 127); it is possible that there is a connection with the P. who is mentioned in CIL VI 40646 as consul in about AD 212. PIR2 P 567; 569. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] Clodius P. (PIR2 P 570) see Clodius [II 12] Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [4] C. Gabinius Barbarus P. (PIR2 P 566) see Gabinius […

Oclatinius

(169 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] M. O. Adventus. Born before AD 160, he came from very humble circumstances and according to Cassius Dio could not read (79,14,1). Under Septimius Severus, O. rose through lowly military positions to the position of princeps peregrinorum and then transferred to the administrative service. In 205-207 p rocurator of Britain under L. Alfen(i)us [2] Senecio [1. no. 1234]. Under Caracalla he was praefectus praetorio together with M. Opellius Macrinus (Herodian. 4,14,2; Cod. Just. Epit. 9,51,1). He went to Mesopotamia with Caracal…

Macedonius

(746 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Writer of a paean, c. 300 BC? Author of a paean to Apollo and Asclepius passed down to us in inscriptions (1st cent. BC) in Delphi, created perhaps already around 300 BC [1; 2], in dactylic metre [3]. Probably not identical with M. [2] (thus still [4]). The content and structure of the paean closely follow the Erythraean paean and Isyllus; cf. Ariphron. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 W. Peek, Att. Versinschr. (Abhandlungen der Sächsischen Akademie der Wiss. Leipzig, Philol.-histor. Klasse 69/2), 1980, 45f. (Text) 2 L. Käppel, Paian, 1992, 200-206, 383f. (text…

Marina

(126 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] M. Severa Mother of the emperor Gratianus, around AD 370 First wife of Valentinianus I, mother of the emperor Gratianus [2], whose elevation to Augustus she helped effect; removed from the court and divorced before AD 370 because of some fraud, in 375 called back to the court by Gratianus. PLRE I, 828, 2. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Youngest daughter of Arcadius and Eudoxia, AD 403-449 Youngest daughter of Arcadius and Eudoxia [1], born 403, died AD 449; built a palace in Constantinople; following the example…

Praeses

(159 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (literally: 'chairman/president') initially used in 2nd and 3rd cents. AD as a special honorific Latin title for governors, later becoming established in official usage for an equestrian procurator . Subsequently, in the wake of the administrative reorganization under Diocletian and Constantine [1] I, it became a special title for the lowest group of provincial governors after the consularis and corrector , esp. in the many newly created small provinces. The ranking hierarchy, however, was subject to changes. In the Notitia dignitatum , 40 praesides are mentio…

Numerius

(564 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
During the Republican era, the praenomen Numerius (abbr. N.) was used in Roman aristocracy only by the Fabii (Fabius). They are said to have borrowed it from Samnium around 470 BC (Fest. 174 et passim). In fact, this praenomen is found most frequently during the Republican period in Oscan inscriptions: Niumsis, Νυμψισ, Νο(μ)ψισ < * Numesis (the Latin N. as well is most frequent in the former Oscan region); in addition there is the Umbrian Numesier (= Latin Nomesi; bilingual inscription [3. 9]). In Latin the original Oscan-Umbrian name was affected by rhotacism and was ass…

Thermantia

(154 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Mother of Theodosius [II 2] I, 4th cent. AD Mother of Theodosius [II 2] I; died before AD 389/391. PLRE 1, 909 no. 1. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Niece of Theodosius [II 2] I, c. AD 400 Granddaughter of T. [1], adopted, with her sister Serena, into the family of her uncle Theodosius [II 2] the Great before AD 384 and treated as an adopted daughter (Claud., Laus Serenae 105-109; 118; 187; Aur. Vict. Epit. Caes. 48,1); married to a high-ranking officer. PLRE 1, 909 no. 2. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [3…

Flacilla

(97 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Aelia Flavia F. First wife of the emperor Theodosius I; three children were born of the marriage contracted in c. AD 376: the later emperors  Arcadius and  Honorius as well as  Pulcheria. In 379 F. was appointed Augusta. The committed supporter of Nicene Christianity (Sozom. Hist. eccl. 7,6; Theod. Hist. eccl. 5,19) was considered pious and charitable. When she died in 386 in Skotumis (Thrace), Gregorius [2] of Nyssa held the funerary oration (PG 46, 877-892). Her statue was erected in the Senate building (Them. Or. 19,228b). PLRE 1, 341f. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Fr…

Helpidius

(274 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Vicarius urbis Romae, 321-324 AD In AD 321-324 vicarius urbis Romae (Cod. Theod. 2,8,1; 16,2,5; 13,5,4; Cod. Iust. 8,10,6 calls him agens vicem praefectorum praetorio). In 329 he was still the recipient of laws (Cod. Theod. 9,21,4; 13,5,4); as such a long period in office as a vicarius would have been unusual, we should assume that he held a higher office in the meantime, perhaps that he was praefectus praetorio Italiae. PLRE 1, 413 (H. 1). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Claudius H. Praefectus praetorio Orientis 360-361 AD Paphlagon…

Palatini

(386 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] The term 'palatini' was used since the 4th cent. AD as a designation for those serving in a military or civil capacity at court ( palatium) or in close association with it. Among the palatini of the militia armata were the soldiers of the scholae palatinae and also those of the elite troops first attested in 365, but probably already separated from the comitatenses around 320. We know from the notitia dignitatum of 157 units of palatini, most of whom came under the jurisdiction of the magistri militum praesentales ( magister militum ); however, in the…

Magister officiorum

(1,248 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] A. Origin of the office An office of late antiquity created by Constantinus [1] I, which was among the highest in the Roman empire (Not. Dign. Or. 11; Not. Dign. Occ. 9), attested for the first time in AD 320 (Cod. Theod. 16,10,1). The great imperial chancelleries ( scrinium ) of the magister memoriae, magister epistularum and magister libellorum and lesser palace officials, such as admissionales, interpretes, mensores ( mensor ), decani ( decanius ), stratores, cursores, lampadarii , and notarii ( notarius ) were first of all probably mandated to the magister officiorum

Minervius

(112 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Consul before AD 370/1 Consular before AD 370/1; at this time a member of a Senate deputation to the court of Valentinianus I, protesting against the use of torture on senators; possibly the M. of Trier mentioned by Symmachus (ep. 4,30) ( Augusta Treverorum). PLRE 1, 603, 1. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Official, around AD 395 Possibly a son of M. [1]. probably magister epistularum in AD 394/5, thereafter active in Gaul; comes rerum privatarum in 397/8, comes sacrarum largitionum in 398/9; addressee of several letters of S…

Promotus

(105 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Flavius P., possibly comes Africae before AD 386, magister militum 386-391; defeated the Greuthungi in the lower reaches of the Danube as magister peditum per Thracias in 386; magister equitum 388-391. P. led the cavalry against Magnus Maximus [II 7] in 388, became consul in 389 and extricated Theodosius I [II 2] from a difficult military position in 391. A fierce conflict with Rufinus [II 3] led to fighting in the consistorium and, in 391, probably also to P.' death in Thrace in an ambush allegedly instigated by Rufinus. His tw…

Magnus

(1,025 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Et al.
Roman cognomen, which originally designated bodily size or birth order (‘the Elder’), as in the Republican period in the case of Sp. Postumius Albinus M. ( cos. 148 BC) and T. Roscius M. (Cic. Rosc. Am. 17) [1. 275; 3. 47]. As an assumption of the epithet of Alexander [4] ‘the Great’ (ὁ μέγας/ ho mégas, in the sense of great historical importance), first taken by Cn. Pompeius ( cos. 70 and 55) in the 1st cent. BC, then inherited by his sons Cn. and Sex. Pompeius and their descendants. Sex. Pompeius used M. also as a praenomen resp. nomen gentile [4. 364f.]. In the Imperial period, more frequen…

Princeps castrorum

(79 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] PC peregrinorum or princeps peregrinorum was the designation of the highest-ranking centurio in the frumentarii stationed at Rome in the castra peregrina. Until the late 2nd cent. AD, the PC had no further opportunity for promotion, but from the 3rd cent. on, he could attain the highest offices of state (governor, praefectus praetorio ) (Cass. Dio 78,14; CIL VIII 2529; ILS 1372). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography A. von Domaszewski, Die Rangordnung des römischen Heeres, 21967.
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