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Menelaïs

(64 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] (Μενελαΐς). Ort in Dolopia (Dolopes), den Philippos V. 185 v.Chr. als ehemals maked. zurückforderte (Liv. 39,26,1). M. ist evtl. am Nordhang des Itamos in einer Ruine bei Kasthanaia zu lokalisieren. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (Hrsg.), Top. antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 60, 81f.  F. Stählin, s.v. M., RE 15, 806.

Gyrton(e)

(178 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] (Γυρτών[η]). Sowohl in der Argonautensage (Argonautai; Apoll. Rhod. 1,57) als auch in der Ilias (Hom. Il. 2,738) erscheinen Lapithai aus G. Die Stadt gehörte urspr. zu Perrhaibia, war aber in histor. Zeit ein bed. Ort der thessal. Pelasgiotis. 431 v.Chr. befand sich bei den thessal. Hilfstruppen für Athen auch ein Kontingent aus G. (Thuk. 2,22). Im J. 215 wurden auf Geheiß Philippos' V. mindestens 60 Gyrtonier im benachbarten Larisa eingebürgert (IG IX 2, 517). 191 und 171 widerstand die Stad…

Pelethronium

(84 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Πελεθρόνιον; Pelethrónion). Valley or region on the western slopes of the peak of  Pelium in Thessalia, where Chiron is supposed to have grown up and where the herb chironion or centaurion, used for healing snake bites, grew. Hence poetically the epithet 'Pelethronian' is used for Chiron, but also generally for 'Thessalian'. Documentation: Nic. Ther. 438ff.; 505; Strab. 7,3,6; Verg. G. 3,115. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 43f.  Id., s.v. Pelethronion, RE 19, 269f.

Pelinna

(191 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Πελίννα; Pelínna). A city in Thessalian Hestiaeotis (Pind. Pyth. 10,4 and Str. 9,5,17: Πελινναῖον/ Pelinna ȋon; erroneously located in Phthiotis in Steph. Byz. s.v. Π., as in Plin. HN 4,32: Magnesia), the modern Paliogardiki east of Taxiarches (15 km east of Trikala); it features a well-preserved 3.2 km long wall round an area of 59 ha. P. gained independent significance only in the 4th cent. BC; from this time on, therefore, Pelinnaei appear more often in Delphic inscriptions as naopoioí (Temple economy) or hieromnemones (cf. Syll.3 p. 340f. and 444f.). P. wa…

Doliche

(319 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Wagner, Jörg (Tübingen)
[German version] Doliche [1] (Δολίχη; Dolíchē). City of the Perrhaebic Tripolis (with Azorus and Pythium) in western Olympus on the border of Macedonian Elimiotis. D. is now identified not with today's village of Duklista but with the ruins at the village of Sarantaporo. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography G. Lucas, La Tripolis de Perrhébie et ses confins, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 93-137 F. Stählin, Das hellen. Thessalien, 1924, 21 Th. Tzaphalias, in: Thessaliko Himerologio 8, 1985, 140-144 (exploration). …

Anticyra

(374 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Ἀντίκυρα; Antíkyra). [German version] [1] Settlement on the southern bank of the river  Spercheus Settlement on the southern bank of the river  Spercheus, in 480 BC still the location of its mouth into the sea (Hdt. 7,198), near the modern village of Komma. Originally, A. was part of the  Achaean Phthiotis, then fell to the  Malians in the Peloponnesian War (431 to 404 BC), and from about 280 BC, it was a member of the  Oeteaen league.  Ephialtes, who in 480 BC had betrayed to the Persians the way around The…

Malieis

(434 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Μαλιεῖς; Malieîs). Tribe of the estuary plain of the Spercheius, whose territory bordered on the gulf named after them, and in the west, in the Spercheius Valley, on that of the Aenianes. Homer makes no mention of them. They were among the original members of the Pylaeic-Delphic amphictyony ( amphiktyonía), whose first centre, the sanctuary of Demeter at Anthele, lay in their territory (Aeschin. or. 2,116; Paus. 10,8,2; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 63). Their archaic customs are often men…

Pythium

(243 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Πύθιον/ Pýthion). [German version] [1] Term for Attic sanctuaries to Apollo A term rarely used in modern archaeology but common in Antiquity for various Athenian and Attic sanctuaries to Apollo: 1. in southeast Athens on the right bank of the Ilissus (inscriptions, tripod bases extant); 2. cave sanctuary in the cliff on the northwest side of the Acropolis (numerous finds; however, often denoted in ancient literature with the cult name of Apóllōn Hypakraîos); 3. near the Daphni monastery on the sacred way to Eleusis (of undetermined location but presumably the sourc…

Pelium

(176 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Πήλιον; Pḗlion). A mountain range, extending on a north-west to south-east axis and consisting of various slates and chalks, demarcating Thessaly (Thessalians, Thessalia) in the east and, in Antiquity, forming the peninsula of Magnesia [1] from the Ossa [1] to the foothills of Sepia. In Antiquity, P. referred in a narrower sense to the highest peak (Pliassidi; 1624 m). The easterly slope to the sea is precipitous and entirely without harbours, and was feared by ancient navigators…

Onchestus

(316 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ὀγχηστός/ Onchēstós). [German version] [1] Site, mentioned in Homer, of a common Boeotian sanctuary to Poseidon This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians Site, already mentioned in Homer (Hom. Il. 2,506; H. Hom. ad Apollinem 229-238; H. Hom. ad Mercurium 185-188), of a common Boeotian sanctuary to Poseidon, whose origins may stretch back as far as the Mycenaean period [3]. Initially O. probably belonged to Thebes and from the 5th cent. BC to Haliartus; in the Hellenistic period O. was the political…

Pindus

(412 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] Mountain range (ὁ/ἡ Πίνδος; ho/hē Píndos). In antiquity, P. denoted only the central part of the huge, almost inaccessible wall of mountains traversing the whole of north and central Greece from north to south in a series of chains, most of which are over 2000 m in elevation, south of the Zygos Pass (Metsovo Pass, el. 1650 m) and west of Thessaly (Thessalians), dividing the river basins of the Peneius in the east and the Achelous [1] in the west. The mountain ranges to the north of …

Pyrasus

(104 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Πύρασος; Pýrasos). City in Achaea Phthiotis (Hom. Il. 2,695) on the northeastern edge of the Halmyrus plain, today's Nea Anchialos. Settled from prehistoric times until the present; in the historical era it belonged to Thebes (Str. 9,5,14). Archaeology: large Christian basilica and other buildings. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography F. Hild, E. Hanschmann, s. v. P., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 578 f.  P. Lazaridis, Βυζαντινὰ καὶ μεσαιωνικὰ μνημεῖα Θεσσαλίας: Νέα Ἀγχίαλος Φθιώτιδες Θῆβαι, in: AD 25, 1970, 286 f.  TIB 1, 271  E. Viss…

Meliboea

(423 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Μελίβοια/ Melíboia, Latin Meliboea). [German version] [1] Heroine Heroine, known within the Leto cult of Argos as Chloris [2] (on the aition: Paus. 2,21,9f.). In the Demeter cult of Hermion(e), Kore ( Persephone) bears the byname M. (Ath. 14,624e, the passage is textually disputed). M. first appears in Hom. Od. 11,281-287 as the daughter of Amphion [1], later also as the daughter of Niobe (Apollod. 3,47) and spouse of Neleus (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 117). Ath. 13,557a mentions her as the spouse of Theseus. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography R. Carden, The Papyrus Fragments of …

Arne

(215 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ἄρνη; Árnē). [German version] [1] Boeotian settlement Boeotian settlement (Hom. Il. 2,507). According to Str. 1,3,18; 9,2,34-35, A. was either equated with  Acraephia, or believed to have been drowned by  L. Copais. According to other sources, A. was the ancient name of  Chaeronea (Paus. 9,40,5; Steph. Byz. s.v. Χαιρώνεια). It is probably not identical with the fortress of Gla which had been abandoned in the late Mycenaean period [1].  Boeotia Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography 1 F. Noack, A., in: MDAI (A) 19, 1894, 405-485. J. M. Fossey, Papers in Boiotian Topography and H…

Peneius

(130 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Πηνειός; Pēneiós). The large main river of Thessaly, copious in flow throughout the year. With its many tributaries - in Pelasgiotis flowing from the north and in Thessaliotis primarily from the south - it irrigates almost all of Thessaly (Thessalia). Rising in the Pindus [1] some 5 km to the east of Metsovo, the P. flows through the two great plains of Thessaly in the north and, after a stretch of 227 km through the  Tempe Valley, into the Thermaic Gulf. References: Hom. Il. 2,755; Hdt. 7,128f. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography L. Darmez…

Elatea

(685 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ἐλάτεια; Eláteia). [German version] [1] Phocian town This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture In antiquity together with  Delphi (Str. 9,3,2) the largest (Paus. 10,34,1-2; Str. 9,2,19; Harpocr., Suda s.v. E.) and most famous Phocian town. Located in the farthest north of the Cephissus valley near modern Elatia (Leftà), E. dominated the road that led south from Thessaly and Locris through the passes of Thermopylae and Hyampolis. This location made E. a lively c…

Oeniadae

(493 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] [1] Acarnian town This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Aetolians, Aetolia | Acarnanians, Acarnania | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Οἰνιάδαι/ Oiniádai, occasionally Οἰνειάδαι/ Oineiádai). Acarnanian city near the mouth of the Achelous [1] (Thuc. 2,102,2f.; Str. 10,2,21). The city area, located near what is now Katochi, is located on a hill measuring 3 km in length and 2 km in width. Remains of the six-kilometer long city wall have been preserved, along with gate and tower installat…

Eretria

(1,056 words)

Author(s): Ducrey, Pierre (Lausanne) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ἐρέτρια; Erétria). [German version] [1] City on Euboea This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Ionic | Colonization | Apollo | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture | Boeotia, Boeotians City on Euboea Ducrey, Pierre (Lausanne) [German version] A. Location E. lies on the SW coast of  Euboea, at a distance of c. 20 km from the main town of Chalcis, across from Oropus on the mainland. First mentioned by Hom. Il. 2,536 (for the origin of the name E. cf. Str. 10,1,8). Aegilia belonged to the territory of E. (Hdt. 6,107; IG I2 376). Ducrey, Pierre …

Pindos

(349 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[English version] [1] Gebirge (ὁ/ἡ Πίνδος). Im Alt. bezeichnete man mit P. nur den mittleren Teil der gewaltigen, fast unzugänglichen Gebirgsmauer, die ganz Nord- und Mittelgriechenland von Norden nach Süden in mehreren Ketten von meist über 2000 m H durchzieht, südl. des Zygos-Passes (Paß von Metsovo, H 1650 m) und westl. von Thessalia (Thessaloi), die Wasserscheide zw. den Flußgebieten des Peneios im Osten und des Acheloos [1] im Westen. Die Gebirge nördl. davon trugen bes. Namen (vgl. das Boion-G…

Oiniadai

(446 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] [1] Akarnanische (Akarnanes) Stadt Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Aitoloi, Aitolia | Akarnanes, Akarnania | Bildung | Peloponnesischer Krieg | Theater (Οἰνιάδαι, vereinzelt Οἰνειάδαι). Akarnanische (Akarnanes) Stadt im Mündungsgebiet des Acheloos [1] (Thuk. 2,102,2f.; Strab. 10,2,21). Die Stadtanlage beim h. Katochi befindet sich auf einer 3 km langen, 2 km breiten Anhöhe. Erh. sind Reste der 6 km langen Stadtmauer mit Tor- und Turmanlagen, die ein Hafenkastell mit Schiffshäusern, ein…
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