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Antipolis

(112 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Colonization | Batavian Revolt (Ἀντίπολις; Antípolis). Harbour town in Gallia Narbonensis, modern Antibes, inhabited from the 10th cent. BC, a colony of  Massalia in the territory of the Deciates, opposite of Nicaea (thus its name: Str. 4,1,5; 9. Plin. HN 3,5,34). In 154 BC, A. was harried by the  Ligures, and called for Rome to help: Pol. 33,7,2. Greek and Latin inscriptions: IG XIV, 2424-30; CIL XII 165-246 [1]. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. Chastagnol, Inscr. lat. de Narbonnaise 2, 1992. J. Clergues, A…

Gates

(22 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] People in Aquitaine between the Elusates and the Ausci (only in Caes. B Gall. 3,27). Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Isar(a)

(251 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Left tributary of the Rhodanus Left tributary of the Rhodanus, modern Isère, has its source in the  Alpes Graiae as a mountain stream ( torrens: Plin. HN 3,33; maximum flumen: Cic. Fam. 10,15,3) and flows through the territory of the Allobroges. In 218 BC Hannibal marched upstream from the confluence of the I. and the Rhodanus (Pol. 3,49; Liv. 21,31). It was here that Q. Fabius Maximus beat the Arverni in 121 BC (Flor. Epit. 1,37,4). Further evidence: Str. 4,1,11; 2,3; 6,6; Ptol. 2,10,4; Cass. Dio 37,47. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography P. Guichonnet (ed.), Histoir…

Parthenium

(65 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Παρθένιον/ Parthénion). The lowest part of the Argive-Arcadian border range (elevation up to 1215 m at Hagios Elias) with important roads connecting the Argolid and Arcadia (Arcadians), at elevations from 753 to 900 m, still called Partheni today. Sources: Hdt. 6,105,1ff. [1. 472f.]; Paus. 8,6,4; 54,6f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography 1 Jost. Pritchett 3, 1980, 81-95; 4, 1982, 80-87; 6, 1989, 107-111  Müller, 820.

Ensérune

(132 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Fortified high-altitude settlement ( oppidum?) between Béziers and Narbonne on a hill c. 120 m high, well protected by steep slopes to the north and to the east; it ruled a plain surrounded by ponds and crossed by an important traffic route between the Iberian and Italian peoples. Three settlement phases are documented by ceramic finds (end of 6th cent. BC ─ end of 1st cent. AD). The second phase ( c. 425-220 BC) includes the building of a city wall (4th cent.), and of the necropolis with its numerous Celtic finds; there is evidence of trading relati…

Lusi

(304 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λουσοί/ Lousoí; ethnicon inscription Λουσιάτας/ Lousiátas; literary also Λουσιεύς, Λουσεύς probably after the Attic demoticon). Town in northern Arcadia between Cynaetha and Cleitor near modern Chamakou (at a height of about 1,000 m), sanctuary of Artemis Hemera, Hemerasia games. The sanctuary lies in the foothills of Chelmos southwest of modern Ano-L. and Kato-L. above a small plain in the south. Building remains only from the 4th-3rd cents. BC (propylaea, bouleuterion, Doric temple)…

Gallia/Gaul

(1,109 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] A. Land and population in pre-Roman times G. comprises the most western part of the European rump, between the Rhine, the Alps, the Mediterranean, the Pyrenees and the Atlantic. Five large river-systems supply the land with water: the Garumna (Garonne) in the south-west, the Liger (Loire) in the centre and the west, the Sequana (Seine) in the north, the Mosa (Maas) with a tributary of the Rhine, the Mosella (Mosel), in the north-east, and the most important water vein, the Rhodanus (Rhôn…

Myrsinus

(78 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μύρσινος; Mýrsinos). Town of the Epeii tribe in Elis (Hom. Il. 2,616). According to Str. 8,3,10, Myrtoúntion it was 70 stades to the north of the town of Elis on the coast (cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.). There is a debate surrounding its identification with a fortress on Cape Araxus in the northwest of the Peloponnese [1. 17-19]. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 B. Sergent, Sur les frontières de l'Élide aux hautes époques, in: REA 80, 1978, 16-35.

Argos

(1,811 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Theatre | Doric Migration | Dark Ages | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Achaeans, Achaea | Apollo | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Oracles | Peloponnesian War | Athletes | Delian League | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Ἄργος; Árgos). I. Mythical characters [German version] [I 1] Son of Zeus and Niobe The son of Zeus and Niobe, brother of Pelasgus (Acusilaus FGrH 2 F 25), husband of Evadne, father of Epidaurus i.a. (Hes. fr. 247), or Pei…

Santoni

(210 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic tribe in southwestern Gaul (Caes. B Gall. 1,10,1; 11,6; 3,11,5; Mela 3,23; It. Ant. 459,3; Str. 4,2,1; 6,11: Σάντονοι/ Sántonoi; Ptol. 2,7,7: Σάντονες/ Sántones), in the modern Saintonge (Dépt. Charente-Maritime, partially Dépt. Charente [1]). The S. participated in the rebellion of Vercingetorix in 52 BC (Caes. B Gall. 7,75,3). Under Roman rule, they formed a civitas of the province of Aquitania (Plin. HN 4,108: S. liberi) with their capital at Mediolan(i)um [4] Santonum (Gallia, with map). Under Diocletianus, this was added to the provi…

Narbonensis

(301 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] The name N. was given in 27 BC to the Roman provincia Transalpina, which was formed from Gaulish areas either side of the Rhodanus (moder Rhone). It had been occupied by the Romans between 125 and 118 BC after a call for help from Massalia in the dispute with the Salluvii tribe. The boundaries of the province were the Mediterranean coast from the Varus (Var) as far as the Pyrenees, the Alps, Lacus Lemanus (Lake Geneva), the upper reaches of the Rhodanus (excluding Lugdunum), the foothills of …

Pallantium

(168 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Παλλάντειον/ Pallánteion, lit. Παλλάντιον/ Pallántion). City on the western edge of the eastern Arcadian plain, 7 km south of Tripoli, with a few remains on a hill that juts out from the Kravari mountain range (earlier Boreion), today P. again (formerly Berbati). Remains of the acropolis wall and of four temples from the Archaic and Classical periods [1] are preserved. P. was an independent city in the 4th and 2nd cents. BC despite its incorporation in the synoikismós of Megalopol…

Noviodunum

(998 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] [1] Capital of the Suessiones This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Oppidum Capital of the Suessiones, occupied by Caesar in 57 BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,12). N. can be identified with the oppidum of Pommiers (west of Soisson, De partement of Aisne). This was abandoned at the latest under Augustus, by about 50 BC a new one had come into being in the plain near Villeneuve-Saint-Germain [1; 2]. With the founding of the Gallo-Roman capital civitas of Augusta Suessionum in about 20 BC other settlement came to an end. Schön, Franz (Regens…

Melaeneae

(73 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μελαινεαί/ Melaineaí, Latin Melaenae). Town in western Arcadia, north of the river Alpheius, 40 stadia ( c. 7 km) west of Buphagium, abandoned by Pausanias's time (Paus. 5,7,1; 8,3,3; 26,8), perhaps near modern Kokkora, south of Kakouraeika (Kakouraei). There are some remains of an estate from the Roman period. Evidence: Plin. HN 4,20; Tab. Peut. 7,5; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μελαιναί. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Jost, 74-77 E. Meyer, Peloponnesische Wanderungen, 1939, 101-106.

Methydrium

(221 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μεθύδριον/ Methýdrion, locally Μετίδριον/ Metídrion). City in northern Arcadia with a small number of ruins near the modern M. (formerly Nemnitsa), south of Vytina (at a height of approximately 1000 m). Originally independent, M. belonged to Orchomenus, probably from 400/368 BC, and to Megale Polis from 369/360 BC (?). Border inscription: [5. 664; 1; 2]. Remains of a circular wall dating from the 4th cent. BC. [3]. M. was several times temporarily independent (Syll.3 490,18ff., c. 234/3 BC; Syll.3 559,61; coins). The place is mentioned in Theoph. FGrH 115 …

Narbo

(635 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Caesar | Christianity | Wine | | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Limes | Pilgrimage | Punic Wars | Rome | Rome City in Gallia Narbonensis on the right bank of the lower Atax in the territory of the Volcae Arecomici (Strab. 4,1,12), modern Narbonne. In the pre-Roman period there was a settlement here on the mythical road of Heracles from Spain to the Rhône. From the 6th cent. BC, 4 km from N., there was an oppidum on the Montlaurès Hill, which was known by the name of Naro (Avien. 587; [1]). The lagoon between…

Cephis(s)us

(543 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] [1] River in central Greece (Κηφισ(σ)ός; Kēphis(s)ós). Main river of central Greece (Pind. Ol. 14,1; Pind. Pyth. 4,46). Its perennial main source is in  Lilaea (Phocis) at Mount Parnassus (Hom. Il. 2,523; Str. 9,2,19; Paus. 9,24,1; 10,33,4f.; Plin. HN 4,27; around the spring was an important sanctuary whose priests were eponymous for Lilaea: FdD 3,4,2, p. 206-209, no. 132-135); further non-permanent sources were in Doris. The C. passes through Phocis and Boeotia, and flows at Orchomenus…

Apta Iulia

(96 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity City of the  Vulgientes;   colonia (CIL XII 1005; 1116; 1118; It. Ant. 343,3 cf. 388,4; Sid. Apoll. Epist. 9,9,1); civitas Aptensium (Pol. Silv. 16,3); possessed the   ius Latii (Plin. HN 3,36), situated on the road from  Mediolanum to  Arelate. Today Apt (Vaucluse) on the Coulon, which joins the Durance from the north (near to its confluence with the  Rhodanus). In the 6th cent. AD most of the inhabitants left the city to seek refuge on the nearby heights. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Entremont

(90 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic-Ligurian oppidum, main location of the Salluvii, 3 km north of Aix-en-Provence. In c. 2nd cent. BC two residential estates, the second of which surrounds the first without having destroyed it, proves the development of the town formation, which was stopped by the Romans between 124 and 90 BC. Ancient remains: town wall, roads, sanctuary (heroon?), sculptures, coins from Massalia, numerous crafts products. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography P. Arcelin et al., Voyage en Massalie, 1990, 101-106 F. Benoît, Entremont, capitale celto-ligure des Salyens…

Pylos

(1,818 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg)
(Πύλος/ Pýlos). [German version] [1] Homeric P. Kingdom of Nestor In Homer, P. can designate both the domain and residence of Nestor [1] [3. 119-126]. The geographic information on the location of the palace - however concretely verifiable in the actual topography - given in Homer in the Iliad and the Odyssey each lead to different locations. In the tale of Nestor, the so-called Nestorís in the 11th book of the Iliad (cf. [2. 296-298] on Hom. Il. 11,670-762), the information clearly points to a place south of the Alpheius [1]. In the Odyssey, on the other h…
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