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Darlehen

(1,473 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[English version] I. Alter Orient Als vertragliche Leistung, bei der der Empfänger von Geld oder anderen vertretbaren Sachen zur Rückgabe bzw. Gegenleistung verpflichtet wird, ist das D. in Mesopotamien von der Mitte des 3. Jt.v.Chr. [1. 141-145] bis in hell. Zeit [2. 43-45; 3. 119] bezeugt [4. 189-203]. Als Gläubiger traten sowohl Privatpersonen als auch (Vertreter von) Institutionen (Tempel, Palast) in Erscheinung. Gegenstand des D. waren vor allem Silber und Gerste, daneben auch andere Metalle bzw…

Eukrates

(113 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Εὐκράτης). [English version] [1] Athenischer Stratege 432/1 v.Chr. Athenischer Stratege im J. 432/1 v.Chr. (IG I3 365.5), beteiligt an einem Feldzug nach Makedonien. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [English version] [2] Chorege und Stratege in Athen um 415 v. Chr. Chorege und Stratege in Athen. Bruder des Nikias. 415 v.Chr. wegen des Hermenfrevels angezeigt, aber wieder freigelassen (And. 1,47; 66). 412/1 als Stratege in Thrakien. 405/4 erneut Stratege, widersetzte er sich während der Blockade Athens mit anderen Strategen den von Theramenes …

Pasion

(358 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Köln) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Πασίων). [English version] [1] Griech. Söldneranführer (Ende 5. Jh. v. Chr.) P. aus Megara führte eine Söldnereinheit zu Kyros [3] nach Sardeis (Xen. an. 1,2,3), setzte sich dann aber zusammen mit dem Söldnerführer Xenias in Myriandos unter ungeklärten Umständen vom Heer des Kyros ab (ebd. 1,4,6-9). Beck, Hans (Köln) [English version] [2] Freigelassener aus Athen, 4. Jh. In der Person des P. ist die geschäftliche Tätigkeit eines trapezítēs in Athen gut faßbar; ursprünglich war P. Sklave von Antisthenes und Archestratos; nach seiner Freil…

Kleandros

(275 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Κλέανδρος). [English version] [1] K. aus Gela Begründete 505 v. Chr. die Tyrannis in Gela Sohn des Pantares. K. begründete ca. 505 v.Chr. die Tyrannis in Gela und fiel nach siebenjähriger Regierung einem Mordanschlag zum Opfer. K. schuf die Voraussetzungen für den Aufstieg Gelas unter seinem Bruder und Nachfolger Hippokrates [4] (Hdt. 7,154; Aristot. pol. 1316a 37f.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography D. Asheri, in: CAH 42, 1988, 758  H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 137. [English version] [2] Spartanischer Befehlshaber in Byzantion um 400 v. Chr. Spartanischer B…

Hermon

(445 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[English version] [1] Bergmassiv Bergmassiv (maximale Höhe 2814 m) im Süden des Antilibanon; hebr. Ḥærmôn (von ḥrm “Bann, Tabu”), griech. Ἀερμών, lat. Hermon, modern Ǧabal aš-Šaiḫ, “Berg des Weißhaarigen” / Ǧabal aṯ-Ṯalǧ, “Schneeberg”. Dt 3,9 setzt H. mit dem phöniz. Śiriōn und amoritisch Śenīr gleich, von daher wäre H. als Šryn im Ugarit., Šarijana im Hethit. und Saniru im Assyr. zu finden. Der biblischen Überlieferung gilt der H. als die nördl. Grenze des von Moses und Josua eroberten Landes östl. des Jordan (Jos 11,17; Dt 3,8). Aus den biblischen…

Banken

(1,853 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Andreau, Jean (Paris)
[English version] I. Alter Orient Banken als Institutionen, deren spezifische Aufgabe darin besteht, den Zahlungsverkehr zu vermitteln, Einlagen anzunehmen und Kredite zu gewähren, hat es im Alten Orient nicht gegeben. Zwar sind Deposit- und Kreditgeschäfte in den altoriental. Gesellschaften in unterschiedlicher Quantität und Intensität sowohl im Bereich der Palast- und Tempelwirtschaft als auch im individuellen privaten Rechts- und Wirtschaftsverkehr bezeugt, doch waren sie stets den jeweils dominie…

Iatrokles

(254 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Köln) | Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
(Ἰατροκλῆς). [English version] [1] Athener, Oligarch, 4. Jh. v. Chr. Athener, floh 411 v.Chr. nach der demokrat. Erhebung auf der athen. Flotte vor Samos mit dem Trierarchen Eratosthenes [1] u.a. von der im Hellespont operierenden Flotte nach Athen, wo er sich für die Oligarchie einsetzte (Lys. 12,42). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Traill, PAA 531050. [English version] [2] Sohn des Pasiphon, ca. 350 v. Chr. Sohn des Pasiphon, 348 v.Chr. von Philippos II. bei der Eroberung von Olynthos gefangengenommen, aber danach freigelassen (Aischin. leg. 15…

Polystratos

(367 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πολύστρατος). [English version] [1] Begüterter Athener, Ratsherr 411 v. Chr. Begüterter Athener, bekleidete mehrfach Ämter, war 411 v. Chr. Ratsherr und nach dem oligarchischen Umsturz an der Auswahl der 5000 Bürger beteiligt, die künftig als einzige polit. Rechte besitzen sollten. In den Seegefechten bei Eretria gegen die Spartaner wurde er verwundet. Nach dem Sturz der 400 ( tetrakósioi ) wurde P. zu einer hohen Geldbuße verurteilt und um 410/409 im Alter von 70 J. erneut wohl wegen seiner polit. Tätigkeit angeklagt; von seiner…

Pheidon

(487 words)

Author(s): Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Φείδων; Pheídōn). [German version] [1] Ph. the Corinthian From Corinth, legislator, early 7th cent. BC According to Aristot. Pol. 1265b 12-16, he was one of the 'oldest legislators' who is said to have been the originator of a law in which the number of houses had to equal the number of citizens; it appears therefore to have served to protect the owners of plots of land and to maintain the balance of land ownership ratios ( klḗros ). Like the similar law of Philolaus [1], the law is probably authentic; it was possibly still in use in the time of the Bacchiadae regime (early 7th cent. BC). Hölkeskamp…

Conon

(985 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Κόνων; Kónōn). [German version] [1] Athenian, after 411/10 BC repeatedly stratēgós Athenian, in 413 BC commander in Naupactus, after 411/10 repeatedly stratēgós. C. was bottled up in 406 by the Peloponnesian fleet in the port of Mytilene and lost 30 ships (Xen. Hell. 1,6,14-23; Diod. Sic. 13,77-79). After Athens' victory at the  Arginusae he was freed. Since he did not participate in the battle, he was not deposed and sentenced to death like the other generals (Xen. Hell. 1,6,38-7,1). He escaped the destruction of …

Iatrocles

(282 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
(Ἰατροκλῆς; Iatroklês). [German version] [1] Athenian, oligarch, 4th cent. BC Athenian, fled in 411 BC after the pro-democratic uprising of the Athenian fleet off Samos with the trierarch  Eratosthenes [1] and others, when the fleet was operating in the Hellespont, to Athens, where he supported the oligarchy (Lys. 12,42). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Traill, PAA 531050. [German version] [2] Son of Pasiphon, approx. 350 BC Son of Pasiphon, in 348 BC captured by  Philippus II during the conquest of  Olynthus but then released (Aeschin. Leg. 15-16…

Banks

(2,042 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Andreau, Jean (Paris)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Banks as institutions whose specific task consists of arranging payment transactions, accepting deposits and granting credits, did not exist in the Ancient Orient. There is evidence of deposit and credit operations in ancient oriental societies of differing quantity and intensity, both in the domain of palace and temple economy and in individual private legal and economic transactions, but they were always subordinate to the respectively dominating redistributive an…

Theogenes

(485 words)

Author(s): Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Θεογένης/ Theogénēs). [German version] [1] Athlete from Thasos, 5th cent. BC Famous fighter from the island of Thasos, Olympic champion in 480 BC (against Euthymus of Locri [1. nos. 191; 214; 222]) in fist-fighting [1. no. 201] and in 476 BC in pankration [1. no. 215]. This constellation of victories was first documented for T. on an inscription in Delphi [2. no. 37] dating from the 2nd cent. BC, which attests that the athlete was adored by his home polis for as long as four generations after his death. Pausanias tells of three victories in Delphi, ten in the Isthmia a…

Meidias

(508 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μειδίας/ Meidías). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue, 420-400 BC Athenian demagogue. Nothing certain is known about his role in politics (Pl. Alc. 1,120a-b). Between 420 and 400 BC he was mocked by comedians for embezzlement of public funds, as a sycophant and braggart, and for his breeding of quails and cockerels (Aristoph. Av. 1297f.; Metagenes fr. 12; Phryn. fr. 4; 43; Pl. fr. 85; 116 PCG). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9714 Traill, PAA 637170. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor, c. 400-330 BC Athenian rhetor, son of Cephisodorus of Anagyrus, born c…

Pythodorus

(519 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
(Πυθόδωρος/ Pythódōros). [German version] [1] Athenian, paved the way (in 411BC) for the oligarchic constitution of the 400 Athenian who, according to [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 29,1-2 (cf. Thuc. 8,67,1), in 411 BC made a motion in the public assembly to elect a further 20 'preliminary counselors' ( próbouloi) to draw up proposals for saving the state. He thus paved the way for the oligarchic constitution of the 400 ( tetrakósioi ). Diog. Laert. 9,54 (= Diels/Kranz 80 A 1) names him as the prosecutor of Protagoras [1]. P. may be identical with the …

Cleander

(290 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Κλέανδρος; Kléandros). [German version] [1] C. of Gela Founded tyrannis in Gela in 505 BC Son of Pantares. C. founded c. 505 BC the tyrannis in  Gela and was assassinated after governing for seven years. C. created the preconditions for the rise of Gela under his brother and successor Hippocrates [4] (Hdt. 7,154; Aristot. Pol. 1316a 37f.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography D. Asheri, in: CAH 42, 1988, 758 H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 137. [German version] [2] Spartan commander in Byzantium c. 400 BC Spartan commander ( harmostḗs) in Byzantium. After the Greek…

Polystratus

(387 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πολύστρατος/ Polýstratos). [German version] [1] Wealthy Athenian, councillor 411 BC Wealthy Athenian, frequent office-holder, member of the boulḗ in 411 BC. After the oligarchic coup, he took part in the selection of the 5,000 citizens to whom political rights would in future be restricted. He was wounded in the naval battles against the Spartans off Eretria. After the fall of the Four Hundred (Tetrakosioi), P. was fined heavily; he was prosecuted again c. 410/409 at age 70, probably for his political activities. Parts of his defence survive in the 20th speech of t…

Thrasyllus

(670 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster) | Harmon, Roger (Basle)
(Θράσυλλος; Thrásyllos). [German version] [1] Athenian commander in the Peloponnesian War (also Θράσυλος; Thrásylos). From Athens, served as a hoplite in the armed forces on Samos in 411 BC and was significantly involved there in the overthrow of an oligarchic revolution (Thuc. 8,73). Together with Thrasybulus [3], he organized the resistance against the oligarchs in Athens ( tetrakósioi [2]) and, through an oath, obliged the Athenian forces and the Samians to defend their democracy and continue the war (Thuc. 8,75,2). After being elected stratēgoí (Thuc…

Eurymedon

(520 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Martini, Wolfram (Gießen)
(Εὐρυμέδων; Eurymédōn, ‘far-prevailing’ [2]). The name of several heroes, usable in hexameters. [German version] [1] King of the Giants King of the  Giants, by his daughter Periboea grandfather of Nausithous the son of Poseidon, ancestor of the Phaeacian kings. E. brought himself and his people to ruin (Hom. Od. 7,58-60 with schol. and Eust.). According to  Euphorion fr. 99 Powell (schol. Hom. Il. 14,295-296) he raped Hera, whereupon she bore  Prometheus. For this Zeus later hurled E. into the Tartarus. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 F. Vian, s.v. E.1, LIMC 4.1, 105 2 Kamptz 84, …

Thrasybulus

(1,055 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Θρασύβουλος/ Thrasýboulos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Miletus [2], ca. 600 BC Prýtanis or aisymnḗtēs, then tyrant (Aristot. Pol. 1305a 16-18) of Miletus [2], at the time of its greatest prosperity around the turn of the 7th to the 6th cent. BC; a contemporary of Thales (Diog. Laert. 1,27). According to Herodotus, T. was able to end a twelve-year war against the Lydian kings Sadyattes [2] and Alyattes (Hdt. 1,17-23; Polyaenus, Strat. 6,47) by a trick (Hdt. 1,22: pretended wealth), and to persuade Alyatte…
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