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Philippus

(7,662 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλιππος/ Phílippos). Macedonian kings P. [3-7], including P. [4] II, P. [7] V; the apostle and evangelist P. [28]; philosophers and poets P. [29-32]. [German version] [I 1] Spartan naval leader in 411 BC Spartiate, commander at Miletus in 412 BC (Thuc. 8,28,5), sent in 411 with two triremes to Aspendus to move, with the support of Tissaphernes, the Phoenician fleet to fight Athens (Thuc. 8,87), but soon told the naúarchos Mindarus that his mission would be unsuccessful (Thuc. 8,99; [1. 244]). Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 B. …

Criton

(316 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κρίτων; Krítōn). [German version] [1] Wealthy friend of Socrates, of the same age Wealthy friend of  Socrates and of the same age, also from the Alopece demos (Pl. Ap. 33d; Pl. Crit. 44b; Xen. Mem. 2,9,2; 2,9,4); discussion partner of Socrates in Plato's ‘Criton’ and ‘Euthydemus’ and in Xen. Mem. 2,9,1-3. In Plato's ‘Criton’ he unsuccessfully advises Socrates to flee his prison. The Epicurean  Idomeneus claimed that not Criton but Aeschines [1] of Sphettus had done this (Diog. Laert. 2,60; 3,36). Diogenes Laërtios (2,121) lists the titles of 17 dialogues composed by C.  Socratics. Dörin…

Simon

(1,722 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Et al.
(Σίμων/ Símōn). [German version] [1] Sculptor in bronze from Aegina, c. 480-460 BC Sculptor in bronze from Aegina. S. participated with a horse and a charioteer in the votive offerings dedicated by Phormis at Olympia; accordingly, his period of artistic activity is around 480-460 BC. The base which belonged to it has been identified. A dog and an archer by S. (Plin. HN 34,90) probably formed a further group. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, nos. 402, 437  M. Zuppa, s.v. S. 2, EAA 7, 1966, 315  F. Eckstein, Anathemata, 1969, 43-49  E. Walter-Karydi, Die äginetische Bi…

Ichthyas

(71 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ἰχθύας; Ichthýas). Pupil of Euclides [2] of Megara, 4th cent. BC, member of the  Megarian School; eponymous character in a dialogue of  Diogenes [14] of Sinope. I. is usually identified with the man called in the MSS Icthydias or Ychtyas, who lost his life in an uprising against his home town (Megara?) (Tert. Apol. 46,16). Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 K. Döring, Die Megariker, 1972, 15, 91-94, 100-101 2 SSR II H.

Elis and Eretria, School of

(173 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] A construct of both ancient and modern historians of philosophy, based on the following facts: Hellenistic historians of philosophy grouped together  Phaedon of Elis and his disciples and their disciples as the School of Elis (Ἠλιακὴ αἵρεσις), and Phaedon's second or third generation disciple  Menedemus of Eretria and his followers as the School of Eretria (Ἐρετρική or Ἐρετριακὴ αἵρεσις) (Diog. Laert. 1,18-19 and passim). Modern historians of philosophy combined both traditions in…

Simmias

(168 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
(Σιμμίας). [German version] [1] S. from Thebes Friend of Socrates, 5th cent. BC Friend of Socrates [2] (Plat. Crit. 45b; Plat. Phdr. 242b; Xen. Mem. 1,2,48; 3,11,17); he and his companion Cebes were Socrates' main interlocutors in Plato's Phaídōn. According to Plat. Phd. 61de, before his stay in Athens S. met the Pythagorean Philolaus [2] in Thebes, but he himself was not a Pythagorean [1]. Plutarchus [2] has the conversation which is central to his work The Daimonion of Socrates (Περὶ τοῦ Σωκράτους δαιμονίου/Perì toû Sōkrátous daimoníou) take place in Thebes at the house of S., …

Pasiphon

(70 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Πασιφῶν; Pasiphôn), son of Lucianus, an 'Eretrian' (Elis and Eretria, School of), probably lived in the 1st half of the 3rd cent. BC. One of P.'s dialogues contained comments on Nicias [1] (Plut. Nicias 4,2). According toPersaeus [2] and Favorinus, P. was the true author of works commonly attributed to others (Aeschines [1], Antisthenes [1], Diogenes [14] of Sinope) (Diog. Laert. 2,61; 6,73). Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)

Cleinomachus

(100 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Κλεινόμαχος; Kleinómachos) of Thurii, student of  Euclides [2] of Megara,  Megarian School. According to Diog. Laert. 2,112, C. was the first to write ‘on statements and predicates and such matters’ (περὶ ἀξιωμάτων καὶ κατηγορημάτων καὶ τῶν τοιούτων). This comment hints at contributions to the development of dialectics that are greater than we can presently perceive. In any case, after C. some ancient historians of philosophy called the Megarian School the  ‘Dialectics’ (Diog. Lae…

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Phaenarete

(88 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Φαιναρέτη; Phainarétē). Mother of Patrocles from her first marriage, to Chaeredemus (Pl. Euthyd. 297e) and of Socrates from her second marriage, to Sophroniscus. In Pl. Tht. 148e-151d, Socrates explains that his mother was a midwife, and he equates his deeds with hers. It is not impossible that Plato invented the profession of P. for the sake of this metaphor, after which it became included as a 'fact' into the Socrates legend. Maieutic method Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) Bibliography A. Raubitschek, s.v. P. (2), RE 19, 1562f.

Euclides

(2,633 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Et al.
(Εὐκλείδης; Eukleídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian archon in 403/2 BC Athenian archon in 403/2 BC. During his year in office Athens made a new start following the Oligarchy of the Thirty (e.g., see And. 1,87-94) and, among others, officially adopted the Ionian alphabet (Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 155). Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) Bibliography Develin 199 LGPN 2, Εὐκλείδης (9). [German version] [2] of Megara Student of Socrates Student of Socrates, founder of the  Megarian School; born between 450 and 435, probably died early in the 360s. In Plato's Phaedon (59c) E. is named among those …

Alexinus

(186 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ἀλεξῖνος; Alexînos) of Elis: a philosopher of the  Megarian school, who lived in the decades around 300 BC, A. first taught in his hometown of Elis, then in Olympia. In his treatise ‘On Education’ (Περὶ ἀγωγῆς; Perì agōgês), A. adopted a mediating position in the dispute between philosophers and rhetoricians concerning which of them played the primary role in education: one can learn a certain degree of skill of argument from rhetoricians, but these arguments are based on experience, probability and assumption, rath…

Glaucon

(411 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Et al.
(Γλαύκων; Glaúkōn). [German version] [1] Athen. strategós about 440 BC Son of Leagoras, Athenian   stratēgós at Samos in 441-440 BC (Androtion FGrH 324 F 38 with comm.); in 439-438 and 435-434 stratēgós, in 433-432 commander of the fleet sent to Corcyra (Thuc. 1,51; Syll.3 72). Often mentioned on Attic   kalos-inscriptions in 480-450 BC. Traill, PAA 277035. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Critias, father of Plato's mother Perictione Son of  Critias, father of Charmides and of Plato's mother Perictione (Pl. Prt. 315a; Charm. 154ab; Symp. 222b; T…

Letters of Socrates and of the Socratics

(534 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] Transmitted in nine MSS from the period 1269/70 to the beginning of the 17th cent. are seven letters of Socrates [2] and 20 of the Socratics in various arrangements, some complete, some in selections (epist. 1-27, numbering according to Köhler [5]), and in addition six letters from and to Speusippus (epist. 28; 30-34), a letter from Plato to the Macedonian king Philippus [4] II. (epist. 29), and a final letter written in the Doric dialect riddled with corruptions, with unknown s…

Maieutic method

(164 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] from the Greek μαιευτική ( maieutikḗ, sc. téchnē), ‘midwifery. In Plato's dialogue Theaetetus (148e-151d) Socrates compares his ability to recognize whether or not hidden wisdom lies dormant in others, and to help them if necessary to bring it to light, with the craft of his mother, the midwife ( maía) Phaenarete, and of midwives in general, to recognize pregnancies and to help deliver the baby. It is contested whether or not the historical Socrates used this comparison but the stronger arguments speak against it. In Middle Plat…

Aristippus

(645 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
(Ἀρίστιππος; Arístippos) [German version] [1] Tyrant of Argos (middle of the 3rd cent. BC) From Argus, friend of the Antigonids, against whom his rival Aristeas called  Pyrrhus into the town in 272 BC (Plut. Pyrrh. 30,2); after 272/1 probably the tyrant [1. 396]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Tyrant of Argos (240-234 BC) Grandson of [1] [1. 711], son of the tyrant  Aristomachus [3], tyrant in 240-235/4; vanquished in an ambush near Cleonae by the repeated attacks of  Aratus [2] (Plut. Arat. 27-29 [2. 61-63], whom A. had sued a…

Moschus

(655 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence)
(Μόσχος; Mόschos). [German version] [1] From Elis, pupil of Phaidon M. from Elis, with Anchipylus a pupil (or pupil of a pupil) of Phaedon of Elis and teacher of Asclepiades [3] of Phleius and Menedemus [5] of Eretria. According to an ancient piece of gossip M. and Anchipylus are supposed to have subsisted only on water and figs their whole lives (Diog. Laert. 2,126; Athen. 2,44c). M. is presumably identical with the homonymous person whose name is the title of a dialogue by Stilpon (Diog. Laert. 2,120). Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) Bibliography SSR III E. [German version] [2] M. from Lampsacus…

Apollodorus

(3,070 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλόδωρος; Apollódōros). Political figures [German version] [1] Athenian politician (4th cent. BC) Son of  Pasion of Acharnae, Athenian rhetor and supporter of Demosthenes (394/93, died after 343 BC). A. was one of the richest Athenian citizens after 370. He undertook costly trierarchy liturgies (cf. IG II2 1609,83 and 89; IG II2 1612, b110; Dem. Or. 50,4-10; 40 and 58) and in 352/51 gained a victory as   choregos (IG II2 3039,2) but had only limited success in obtaining a political post commensurate with his wealth. From 370 to 350 BC he indulged in litigat…

Chaerephon

(141 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Χαιρεφών; Chairephṓn). From the Attic deme of Sphettus; from early youth a passionate follower of  Socrates. In Aristophanes' Clouds, Wasps and Birds C. is lampooned as an especially zealous and ascetic pupil of Socrates. As a committed democrat, he lived in exile during the tyranny of the  Thirty (404-403 BC) (Pl. Ap. 21a). C. was already dead by the time of Socrates' trial (399 BC). Plato (Ap. 20e-21a) and Xenophon (Apol. 14 Xen. Apol. 14) report that C. once asked the oracle at Delphi whether anyo…

Phaedo

(287 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Φαίδων; Phaídon) from Elis, b. 418/416 BC, date of death unknown. Title character of the Platonic dialogue Phaídōn. P. is believed to have been taken prisoner when the city of Elis was conquered, sold as a slave to Athens and forced to work in a brothel. After meeting Socrates, the philosopher apparently had one of his pupils buy P.'s freedom, and from then on P. devoted himself to philosophy (Diog. Laert. 2,31; 2,105 et passim). P. wrote two dialogues, titled Zṓpyros and Símōn. It is probably true that the story of Socrates' meeting with the magician Zopyrus,…
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