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Therma, Thermae

(40 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Θέρμα, Θέρμαι/ Thérma, Thérmai). Town in Corinthia with hot springs (Xen. Hell. 4,5,3; 4,5,8), probably identical to modern Loutraki, near which there are still such springs today. Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography J. Salmon, Wealthy Corinth, 1984, 156 f., 366.


(116 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Κερησσός; Kerēssós). Fortress in Boeotia near Thespiae, its localization disputed [1]. According to tradition, the citizens of Thespiae retreated twice to C.: in the 6th cent. BC prior to the battle of C. in the Thessalian-Boeotian war [2], and again in 371 BC in the war between the secessionist citizens of Thespiae and the Boeotians [3]. Source references: Plut. Camillus 19,138a; Plut. Mor. 866f; Paus. 9,14,1-4. Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography 1 R. J. Buck, The Site of Ceressus, in: Teiresias, Suppl. 1, 1972, 31-40 2 M. Sordi, La battaglia di Ceresso e…


(116 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Ταφιασσός; Taphiassós). Mountain and headland on the northern coast of the Gulf of Corinth (Corinth, Gulf of), opposite Patrae, presumably in the border area between Aetolia and (western) Locris near Chalcis [2]. The smell of sulphur springs on the southeastern slopes of the mountain is supposed to be from the graves of Nessus and other Centaurs (Str. 9,4,8; Paus. 10,38,2). Mount T. can probably be identified with the 1041 m high Mount Klokova. The distinctive headland on the Gulf…


(134 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Τενέα; Tenéa). Town in southern Corinthia on a route into Argolis (cf. Xen. Hell. 4,4,19), probably to the south of modern Chiliomodion (ancient remains with a necropolis). Inhabitants of T. are supposed to have taken part in the founding of Syracusae. On the destruction of Corinth in 146 BC (Mummius [I 3]) the already autonomous town was spared because of its relations with Rome and is recorded in the 2nd cent. AD as independent [1. no. 228]. Apollo was the main god worshipped in…


(117 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Linear B | Boeotia, Boeotians (Κρεῦσις). Boeotian port on the  Corinthian Gulf in the bay of Livadostro, belonging to Thespiae (Str. 9,2,25; Liv. 36,21,5; Paus. 9,32,1). Near the coast are the remains of a fortress linked to a quay system. C. had increased importance as a port during the Spartan-Theban conflicts before 371 BC (Xen. Hell. 4,5,10; 5,4,16f.; 6,4,3f.; Xen. Ag. 2,18). In the 2nd and 1st cents. BC C. was an important Roman harbour (Liv. 36,21,5; 42,56,5). Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography Fossey, 157-163 G. Gauv…


(337 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] [1] Port of Megara on the Bay of Saronia (Νίσαια/ Nísaia). Port of Megara [2] on the Saronikos Kolpos near modern Páchi [1. 259]. To the east of N. in Antiquity there was the island (now part of the mainland) of Minoa [2. 56-62], connected to the mainland by a bridge (Thuc. 3,51,3). Megara and its citizens are often described in ancient sources as ‘Nisaean’ [3. 156]. In the 6th cent. BC, N. temporarily belonged to Athens (Hdt. 1,59; Plut. Solon 12,3). In 461 BC the Athenians occupied N. a second time (Thuc. 1,103,4) and connected it with the c…


(388 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Ποσείδιον/ Poseídion). [German version] [1] Sanctuary of Poseidon Samios on the coast of Triphylia Sanctuary of Poseidon Samios with a busy harbour on the coast of Triphylia (probably meant in  Hom. Od. 3,4 ff.; Str. 8,3,13; 3,16 f.; 3,20) in the Klidi coastal pass at the foot of the Kaiapha mountains, exact location not known. The P. was once the central sanctuary of Triphylia with a festival of its own. The cult statue of Poseidon at the time of Pausanias (2nd cent. AD) was in Elis [2] (Paus. 6,25,6). Samicum Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography R. Baladié, Le Péloponnèse de Strabon, 198…

Pelodes limen

(72 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Πηλώδης λιμήν; Pēlṓdēs limḗn), the modern Liqeni i Butrintit. A lake in the vicinity of Buthrotum (the modern Butrint). Rich in fish, the PL is connected by a narrow strait to the Ionios Kolpos. Sources: Str. 7,7,5; Ptol. 3,14,4. Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography R. Hodges et al., Late-Antique and Byzantine Butrint: Interim Report on the Port and its Hinterland (1994-95), in: Journal of Roman Archaeology 10, 1997, 207-234.


(97 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Πρόσχιον/ Próschion, ethnikon Πρόσχειος/ Próscheios). Settlement in Aetolia, to the west of Pleuron in the vicinity of Achelous [1] (Thuc. 3,102,5; 106,1). According to Str. 10,2,6, the Aetolians relocated Pylene to a higher situation, and renamed it P. (Ath. 9,411a). P. may have been nearby the present-day Etoliko, but its location cannot be pinpointed with certainty. Inhabitants are mentioned in Hellenistic inscriptions: IG IV2 1,95,38; IG IX 12 1,11; 137; IG XI 4, 1075. SEG 41, 528; FdD III 4, 213; 362; BCH 85, 1961, 79. Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography C. Ant…


(2,675 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen)
[German version] [1] Daughter of Creon (Μεγάρα/ Megára, Μεγάρη/ Megárē). Daughter of Creon [1] of Thebes, wife of Heracles [1] (Hom. Od. 11,269-270), who had received her hand in thanks for the liberation of Thebes from tribute to Erginus, and mother of some of the Heraclidae. Whereas the Thebans according to Paus. 9,11,2 tell of the insane Heracles' infanticide (on his insanity Cypria p. 40,28f. PEG) as nothing other than what Stesichorus (= 230 PMGF) and Panyassis (= fr. 1 PEG) relate, the version of P…


(342 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] [1] City in Boeotia (Νῖσα/ Nîsa). City in Boeotia, mentioned only in the Homeric catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,508). In Antiquity, it was identified (Paus. 1,39,4-6) with Megara [2], the main port of which was called Nisaea, but this is unlikely. Evidence: Str. 9,2,14; Dionysius Calliphontus 102; schol. Theocr. 12,27; schol. Hom. Il. 2,508. Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography E. Visser, Homers Katalog der Schiffe, 1997, 279f. [German version] [2] City and fortress complex in Turkmenistan This item can be found on the following maps: Graeco…


(88 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Σιδοῦς/ Sidoûs). Fortified place in the territory of Corinth near the Isthmus on the Saronic Gulf, modern Sousaki. According to Steph. Byz. s. v. Σ., either a Corinthian kṓmē (cf. Hsch. s. v. Σιδουντιάς) or a Megaran epíneion/'anchorage' (cf. also Scyl. 55; Plin. HN 4,23). Because of its location, S. had strategic significance, as in the Corinthian War in 392/1 BC (Xen. Hell. 4,4,13; 4,5,19). S. was famous for the quality of its apples (Ath. 3,82a-c). Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography J. Wiseman, The Land of the Ancient Corinthians, 1978, 19 f.


(327 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (γένος; génos, pl. γένη/ génē). The term has been used commonly in archaic Greece with the meaning ‘of aristocratic origin’, in addition in the sense of house, family, generation, species etc. [1]. In the research Attic génē were for a long time regarded as exclusive noble clans whose former dominance was still demonstrated in the later privileges (supervision of admission to the phratria and exclusive holding of positions as priests). According to the investigation by [2] and [3], the génē are today regarded as local village communities which arose in archa…


(581 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Παρνασσός/ Parnassós, Παρνησ(σ)ός/ Parnēs(s)ós, Lat. Parnassus; regarding the name [1]). Extensive central massif with many peaks in central Greece. The highest peak, modern Lykeri, reaches a height of 2457 m. In the north-east and north, the massif falls away steeply to the plain of Cephis(s)us. In the west a pass between Graviá Amphissa divides P. from the Korax mountain range. In the south-east, a hollow stretches between Helikon and P., and foothills in the south stretch to the Gu…


(125 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (also Hismenos; Ἰσμηνός; Ismēnós, Ἱσμηνός; Ismēnós). Boeotian river with its source in  Thebes [1] near the Cadmeia. Outside the city it joined the  Dirce and flowed into the  Hylice. In poetry the I. is frequently mentioned. Apollo Ismenius was worshipped in the Ismenium south-east of the Cadmeia above the I. The river god I. gradually became part of the oracle cult of Apollo. A Geometrical temple in the Ismenium was destroyed by fire c. 700 BC and a second temple was erected in the 6th cent. In the 4th cent. a peripteros remained unfinished. Evidence in: Pind. Pyth.…


(106 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Aegean Koine | Boeotia, Boeotians (Εὔτρησις; Eútrēsis). Boeotian settlement near the modern Leuctra. The settlement mound, Arkophodi by its modern name, was on the road from Thespiae to Plataea. The settlement was already of importance in the early Greek period and was also mentioned in Homer's catalogue of ships (Il. 2,502). Later, despite its allegedly famous Apollo oracle, it became no more than a dependent settlemen…


(67 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia (Πυλήνη/ Pylḗnē). Aetolian city, mentioned in the Homeric catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,639; Stat. Theb. 4,102;  Hsch. s. v. Π.; Steph. Byz. s. v. Π.). In the pre-Hellenistic period, P. was relocated to a higher site and renamed Proschium. Aetolians, Aetolia (with map) Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography C. Antonetti, Les Étoliens, 1990, 278-280.


(215 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ἄρνη; Árnē). [German version] [1] Boeotian settlement Boeotian settlement (Hom. Il. 2,507). According to Str. 1,3,18; 9,2,34-35, A. was either equated with  Acraephia, or believed to have been drowned by  L. Copais. According to other sources, A. was the ancient name of  Chaeronea (Paus. 9,40,5; Steph. Byz. s.v. Χαιρώνεια). It is probably not identical with the fortress of Gla which had been abandoned in the late Mycenaean period [1].  Boeotia Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography 1 F. Noack, A., in: MDAI (A) 19, 1894, 405-485. J. M. Fossey, Papers in Boiotian Topography and H…


(456 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Grain Trade, Grain Import | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Pompeius | Boeotia, Boeotians (Πλάταιαι/ Plátaiai, Πλαταιαί/ Plataiaí, Lat. Plataeae; ethnic Πλαταιεύς/ Plataieús). City in southern Boeotia, in the northern foothills of Mount Cithaeron, near the Asopus. The site was inhabited from the Helladic into the Byzantine Period [1]. The city walls, still recognizable today, were built at various times. A ring wall c. 3 km in length was probably erected in the reign of Philip II (Phi…


(348 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Aetolians, Aetolia | Achaeans, Achaea | Education / Culture (Πλευρῶν; Pleurôn). City in south-western Aetolian Aeolis [2] (ethnic names Πλευρώνιος/ Pleurṓnios and Πλευρωνεύς/ Pleurōneús, the area was called Πλευρωνία/ Pleurōnía, Str. 10,2,5). Listed as an Aetolian city in the Homeric catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,639), P. had broken away from the Aetoloi in the 6th/5th cent. BC (Thuc. 3,102,5) and at the end of the 5th cent. became a member of the Achaean League (…
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