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(1,657 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Heckel, Hartwig (Bochum) | Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] [3] Stratēgos of the Arcadians around 366 BC (Αἰνέας; Ainéas). From Stymphalus. Stratēgos of the Arcadians around 366 BC (Xen. Hell. 7,3,1). Whether identical to  Aeneas [2] Tacticus, cannot be clarified.  Thebae Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography D. Whitehead, Aineias the Tactician, 1990, 10-13 A. Winterling, Polisbegriff und Stasistheorie des Aeneas Tacticus, in: Historia 40, 1991, 191-229, 201. [German version] [1] Myth Mythical figure from Trojan war (Αἰνείας, Αἰνέας [Aineías, Ainéas]; Latin Aeneas). Thraco-Illyrian name [17. 311 f.]. Hecke…

Philosophy, teaching of

(2,204 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] A. Institutional aspects Plato probably modelled his school, the Academy ( Akadēmeía) - named after the gymnasium in which instruction was held - after the Pythagorean communities (Pl. Resp. 10,600b; Pythagorean School). In turn, his institution served as a model for later philosophical schools, which (unlike the Sophists, whose groups of pupils met at a variety of locations for brief periods of time) continued to exist in Athens for centuries: the Lyceum (Peripatos) founded by Aristotle (Ar…


(3,037 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
(γυμνάσιον; gymnásion). [German version] I. Building style Public facility for sporting and musical leisure activities in the Greek polis; the term is derived from γυμνός/ gymnós (naked) and refers to the  nakedness at sports practices and competitions. Synonymous with gymnasium for the period from the 4th cent. BC in ancient written sources as well as in modern specialized literature is the concept of the  palaistra (cf. Vitruvius 5,11). This as the ‘Wrestler school’ originally referred only to a functionally determine…


(4,165 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] A. Preliminary remarks The study of communication ‘deals with the problems of interhuman communication and all related phenomena’ [1]. It has a broad agenda which cannot be considered here in all of its diverse aspects. This article focuses on the eminent aspect of linguistic communication whose widespread manifestations can only receive selective attention. Ancient theories of signs and philosophical theories of communication ( Philosophy of language), for instance, will not be addressed. Hadot, Pierre (Limours) [German version] B. The spread of Greek an…


(1,354 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Et al.
(Ἀμώνιος; Ammónios). [German version] [1] Favourite of  Alexander [II 13] I (Balas), middle of the 2nd cent. BC Favourite of  Alexander [II 13] I (Balas); ruled in his place in Syria, executed relatives and followers of (the deceased) Demetrius I and oppressed the Antiochenes. When he attempted an attack on Ptolemy VI, certainly Alexander's most important supporter, and Ptolemy demanded that A. be handed over, Alexander actually declined to do this, so Ptolemy broke with Alexander: despite dressing as a woman, A…


(3,872 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
(Πλωτῖνος; Plōtînos). Greek philosopher, founder of Neoplatonism. [German version] A. Life P. was born in AD 205 (in the 13th year of the rule of Septimius Severus) and died in 270 at the age of 66 (Porph. Vita Plotini 2,34). His ethnic origin is difficult to determine. Eunapius (p. 456 Boissonnade) lists as his place of birth Lycon in Egypt (the town has been identified as Lyconpolis). The information is problematic because according to Porphyrius P. kept his place of birth secret. Proclus (Platonis Theol…


(842 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours) | Brock, Sebastian P. (Oxford)
[German version] [1] The prophet Elijah …


(217 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] [1] C., Ti. Teacher of Latin rhetoric and orator, 2nd cent. AD Teacher of Latin rhetoric and orator of high-flown speeches at the time of Antonines who was even listened to by  Gellius (13,22); befriende…


(391 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
(Ἀσκληπιόδοτος; Asklepiódotos). [German version] [1] Ptolemaean governor of Caria after 305 BC…

Alexandrian School

(238 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] Collective term for the Neoplatonists who taught in Alexandria from the 5th to the 6th cents. AD, among them Hypatia, Hierocles, Hermias, Ammonius, David, Elias, Philoponus (the latter only to the extent that …


(1,022 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] (Σιμπλίκιος/ Simplíkios, Latin Simplicius; c. AD 490-560). Neoplatonic philosopher, from Cilicia, according to Agathias (Historiae 2, 30, 3-31,4 Keydell). Pupil of the Neoplatonists Ammonius [12] and Damascius. One commentary survives, on the Encheiridion ('Handbook') of Epictetus [2], along with commentaries on writings of Aristotle (Aristoteles [6]): on the Categoriae, the Physica, De caelo and De anima. The authenticity of the last commentary has been disputed by C. Steel [1. 105-140], without sufficient reason [2]. The commentarie…


(364 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] (Ὑπατία; Hypatía) Neoplatonic philosopher at Alexandria [2] (died in AD 415), daughter of the philosopher (best known as a mathematician)  Theon of Alexandria. She provided the edition of the Almagest by Ptolemaeus [65] I (from book III), which was placed before Theon's commentary [1]. She wrote commentaries (now lost) on  Diophantus [4], on the ‘Conics’ of  Apollonius [13] of Perge and on the ‘Handy Tables’ of Ptolemy (Suda I.4,664-646 Adler). The (presumably private) lessons she gave in philosophy, which included mathematics, were highly successful. Although her teaching consisted of the usual commentaries on the works of Plato, Aristotle or other philosophers, they created a stir because a woman taught them. Her moral strictness was likewise admired. A trait of Cynic shamelessness has been seen in the fact that she showed a pupil who was in love with her her underwear stained with menstrual blood, but this may equally be seen as an example of Plotinic influence (Suda I.4,664-646 Adler) [3]. In her Neoplatonic thinking, like her pupil  Synesius, she may have owed more to Plotinus and Porphyry than to Iamblichus. Seven letters (10; 15; 16; 46; 81; 124; 154 Garyza) from Synesius to H. have survived, in which he describes her as his mother, sister, teacher and benefactor. H. was lynched by the Christian rabble of Alexandria. The rabble-rousing propaganda of the city's bishop, Cyrillus I, against the city prefect Orestes, who was known to be a friend of H. (Socrates Hist. eccl. 7,13-15), sho…


(73 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] Neoplatonic (4th cent. AD), pupil of Iamblichus' pupil  Aedesius [1] in Pergamum. He taught the future emperor Julian, at first in Pergamum with Eusebius of Myndus, then in Ephesus with the Neoplatonic philosopher Maximus. C. was also the teacher of Eunapius, who, in his Vitae philosophorum et sophistarum


(1,246 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
(Ἱεροκλῆς; Hieroklês). [German version] [1] Carian mercenary leader of the 3rd cent. BC Carian mercenary leader of the 3rd cent. BC. In 287/6 together with Heraclides he foiled the attempt of Athenian democrats to take the Piraeus and the Munychia (Polyaenus, Strat. 5,17). Under  Antigonus [2] Gonatas, H. held the position of a Macedonian phroúrarchos (‘commandant of a garrison’) in Piraeus and repeatedly was host to the king. He was a friend of the leader of the Academy, Arcesilaus [5] (Diog. Laert. 4,39f.) and acquainted with Menedemus (Diog. Laert. 2,127).  Demetrius [2] Engels, Joh…


(247 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] (not Chalcidius). Christian philosopher; his dates are disputed: he either lived from the second half of the 3rd to the first half of the 4th cent. AD [1] or from the first half to the middle of 4th cent. [2]. Assigning his commentary on Plato's Timaeus to a particular school of thought (for Middle Platonism see [1] or Neoplatonism, see [2; 3; 4; 5]), is further complicated by the fact that important tenets, like those on providence and fatum, have basically remained unchanged from Middle Platonism to the end of Neoplatonism [6]. C.'s Timaeus commentary is also the first Latin source to contain nu…


(208 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Neoplatonist from Cappadocia Neoplatonist from Cappadocia († before AD 355), pupil of  Iamblichus. Only source: Eunapius, Vitae philosophorum et sophistarum. After th…


(2,436 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] A. Definition The term ‘Neoplatonism’ was coined in the 19th cent. and originally referred to a specific form of Platonism (Plato) in the 3rd to 5th cents. AD; in a wider sense, the term refers to the intellectual trends of the same period or later that share some of Platonism's characteristics. Hadot, Pierre (Limours) [German version] B. General characteristics Like most ancient philosophical schools, the Neoplatonic schools in Rome, Athens, Alexandria, Apamea etc. were communities of teaching and learning that imposed on their members a…


(1,726 words)

Author(s): Hofmann, Heinz (Tübingen) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] [1] [...]us C. s. M.  Arruntius Claudianus Hofmann, Heinz (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Claudius C. Graeco-Latin poet, c. AD 400 Graeco-Latin poet (about AD 400) from Alexandria. C. first wrote Greek poetry of which the opening of a ‘gigantomachy is preserved, whose praefatio in elegiac distichs indicates recitation in Alexandria. Of the seven epigrams in the  Anthologia Palatina

Philosophical life

(1,518 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
Ancient Greek and Latin philosophy was characterized not only by the fact that it formulated theories about the world and mankind; it also represented a way of life. Hence choosing to adhere to a certain philosophical school meant not so much the adopting a particular doctrine as it did the realization of a particular way of life [1; 2; 3; 4; 5] (cf. Sext. Emp. Adv. math. 9,178-180), i.e. living in a way that outsiders might regard strange and even absurd. This was often realized within the philosophical schools - communities in which teachers and pupils had daily contact with one another ( contubernium, Sen. Ep. 6,6), and frequently also lived and had meals together. [German version] A. The Presocratic period H. Diels [6] compiled all of the evidence indicating that school communities of teachers and pupils already existed in the period of the Presocratics; only for the case of the Pythagoreans (Pythagorean School) is there clear documentation that membership in a certain school meant a certain kind of philosophical life. For instance, Plato in his Politeia (Plat. Resp. …