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Quincussis

(151 words)

Author(s): Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] Roman coin of 5 asses (As), modern word formed in analogy to quadrussis. As a cast coin (Aes grave) each with the value indication V: Rome c. 225 BC, weight c. 1400 g ( as on the libral standard, cf. Libra [1]), obverse head of Janus, reverse prora ('prow') (on authenticity: [1]); Rome c. 213 BC, weight 365 g ( as on the quadrantal standard); obverse Diana or Ilia, reverse prora [3. 32]; Etruria, weight 748 g and 707 g (Etruscan as of 151.6 g), obverse wheel, reverse anchor [2. 265]. Earlier numismatic literature described Roman heavy bronze ingots decorate…

Tetradrachmon

(192 words)

Author(s): Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] (τετράδραχμον/ tetrádrachmon or τετρᾶχμον/ tetráchmon; Latin tetradrachmum, tetrachmum, Cic. Fam. 12, 13,4; Liv. 34,52,6). Coin of 4 drachmai (Drachme [1]), the usual large silver coin in the Attic and Phoenician/Rhodean coinage standards (Coinage, standards of), approximately 14-17 g in weight; the standard coin was a statḗr . Tetrádrachma minted from the late 6th cent. BC until the end of the 4th in Athens (Owls (coins)) and tetradrachma minted in accordance with the Attic coinage standard by Alexander [4] the Great (obv. bust of Heracles, r…

Small coins, shortage of

(1,175 words)

Author(s): Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] In the early period of the history of Greek money, despite the limited number in circulation, there was no shortage of small coins, since to a great extent everyday dealings were probably still conducted without coins. A shortage arises in developed money economies when the minting or supply of small coins fails. This could happen more easily in ancient economies than in the present day since minting served the needs of the state (seigniorage, payments to mercenaries) more than th…

Senatus consultum

(910 words)

Author(s): Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] [1] A formal resolution of the Roman Senate (SC; sometimes senatus sententia: ILS 18; 35a; 8208; informally also senatus decretum, e.g. Cic. Mil. 87; Cic. Sest. 32, or in archaic form senati decretum: Sall. Cat. 30,3 and passim). The formal resolution by which the Roman Senate pronounced advice or instructions at the request ( consulere) of magistrates; while not binding legally, it was in practice: in the Imperial Period, to some extent it even acquired force of law (Gai. Inst. 1,4; Pompon. Dig. 1,2,12; cf. [3. 432]). An SC that was…

Paduans

(189 words)

Author(s): Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] Paduans were imitations of large Roman bronze coins (sestertia and medaillons), dating from the 16th cent. AD. Padua was one of the manufacturing centres, hence their name . Some are exact copies, others variations from the original and others completely made-up (e.g. sestertia of Otho). The best known paduans are those by the Paduan goldsmith and medallist Giovanni Cavino (1500-1570). Fifty four of his coin punches are preserved in the Cabinet des Médailles in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris [4.111-124]. It has been a matter of debate since Cavino’s …

Tridrachmon

(105 words)

Author(s): Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] (τρίδραχμον; trídrachmon). Coin of 3 drachmai (Drachme [1]), mentioned by Pollux (9,60). The trídrachma Maronitiká in Attic inscriptions are probably the tetradrachma (Tetradrachmon) of Maronea [1] in accordance with the 'Phoenician' coinage standard (Coinage, standards of), which because of their decrease in weight were later worth only 3 Attic drachmai. As minted coins tridrachma are very rare: early 'Aeginetan' tridrachma of Delphi; the coins of the Ionian symmachía of 394-387 were simultaneously Aeginetan didrachma (Didrachmon) and Rhodian tridrachma (…

Quartuncia standard

(184 words)

Author(s): Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] Lowest fractional level of Roman bronze coinage, with an as of just 1/4 ounce (Uncia) = c. 6.8 g, first used in the middle of the 1st cent. BC in the bronze coins of the quaestors in Sicily, as well as in Paestum and Regium and elsewhere. However, these fractions need not always have been official. The heavy brass coinage of the fleet prefects of Marcus Antonius [I 9] can only loosely be connected to the QS [1. 86 f.; 3. 88, n. 114]. The QS can also be assumed for some local coinage in the Greek …

Quadrigatus

(271 words)

Author(s): Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] Final series of Roman-Campanian didrachms (Didrachmon) on the lower Italian standard prior to the introduction of the denarius (Liv. for 216 BC: 22,52,3; 22,54,2; 22,58,4 f.), showing the head of Janus on the obverse and Jupiter in a quadriga on the reverse. The nominal weight was 6 scripula (Scripulum) of 1.137 g. The quadrigatus was introduced at the same time as the new bronze coin on the libral standard (which also had the head of Janus on the obverse) in c. 235 BC [4. 708] or 225 BC [2. 146] (or as early as 250 BC? [3]) and was initially minted in Rome …

Tritetartemorion

(43 words)

Author(s): Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] (τριτεταρτημόριον/ tritetart ēmórion, also tritartēmórion, tritēmórion). Silver coin with the value of 3 tetartēmória, 3/4 obolós (Poll. 9,65), with 3 crescent moons in 4th-cent.-BC Athens and 3 Ts in Thurii, Delphi, Argos, Elis, Mantinea, Cranium, and Pale. Klose, Dietrich (Munich)

Coin production

(1,331 words)

Author(s): Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] Up to the 16th cent., coin production (CP) hardly changed (Bramante's minting press). Ancient coins are usually struck, less often cast. For the location of mints, their administration and organization see  minting. First of all, coin metal [18] must be made available by foundries. At least for precious metal coins, the purity of the alloy is the decisive determinant for their value. The coin metal was probably delivered already in an alloyed state (in ingots?). Serial marks of th…

Heracles coinage

(112 words)

Author(s): Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] A joint minting by some cities (Rhodes, Cnidus, Iasus, Ephesus, Samos, Byzantium, Cyzicus and Lampsacus) with local ethnika and representations on the reverse, ΣΥΝ (for Symmachia) and the young snake-strangling Hercules on the obverse. The coins were generally seen as the expression of an alliance not documented by other sources, which is mostly dated in the time immediately after 394 BC (defeat of the Spartans off Cnidus). Klose, Dietrich (Munich) Bibliography H. A. Cahn, Knidos, 1970, 173f. G. L. Cawkwell, A Note on the Heracles Coinage Alliance of 394 B…

Ouroboros stater

(116 words)

Author(s): Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] Modern technical term for a type of Celtic golden rainbow cups ( c. 100 BC) from southern Bavaria, formerly attributed to the Vindelici. On the obverse they show the so-called ouroboros, a long, dragon-like creature rolled up along the curve of the coin, on the reverse a torques with 6 spheres or three lyre-shaped ornaments surrounding the centre. The southern Bavarian treasures troves of Gaggers, Irsching, Westerhofen and Sontheim contained ouroboros staters; additional pieces were found in elsewhere in southern Bavaria. The next smaller unit is the quarter stater. K…

Trichalkon

(58 words)

Author(s): Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] (τρίχαλκον; tríchalkon). Coin of 3 chalkoí (Chalkos), recorded from the time of Theophrastus (Char. 10,6; 371-287 BC) onwards. The 4th-cent. BC bronze coin of Phocis with value mark T is probably a trichalkon, and it appears as an indication of value on Imperial period bronze coins of Chios (= 1/2  as ?). Klose, Dietrich (Munich)

Triens

(155 words)

Author(s): Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] Latin, 'third' of an as and hence of any twelve-part whole, 4 unciae ( triás ), used with this meaning in Roman currency from the earliest aes grave; in the Janus/ prora series with a head of Minerva on the obverse, four points as a value indicator. Trientes were first cast, then minted, most recently under Cornelius [I 90] Sulla. The triens also appears in other Italian aes grave; in the decimally divided eastern Italian series it is better to call it a quadrunx . It occurs minted in the Roman/Campanian coin series (obv. head of Juno, rev. He…

Tetrachalkon

(54 words)

Author(s): Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] (τετράχαλκον; tetráchalkon). Coin of 4 chalkoí ( Chalkos ), in Athens 1/2 obolós , in Chios inscription on bronze coins of the Imperial period (= 2/3 as (?), in the Seleucid Kingdom value indicator  Χ Δ (4 chalkoí). Hesychius (s. v. πέλανορ) equates Spartan iron money with one tetráchalkon. Klose, Dietrich (Munich)

Minting

(2,959 words)

Author(s): von Kaenel, Hans-Markus (Frankfurt/Main) | Klose, Dietrich (Munich) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
I. Classical Antiquity [German version] A. Coins and coinage. General Coins, a particular, developmentally late form of money, are handy, usually are round pieces of metal made of gold, electron, silver, copper or copper alloys. The metal exhibits a prescribed composition (fineness), and the coins a weight defined by the applicable standard (Coinage, standards of). Coins bear signs on their obverse and the reverse: a design and usually an inscription. Through their characteristics, coins could be recognized as the product of those authorities (society or ruler) wh…

Lampsakenos

(185 words)

Author(s): Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] Ancient name for the staters of Lampsacus in Mysia. 1. χρυσοῦ στατῆρες Λαμψακηνοί/ chrysoû statêres Lampsakēnoí on stele with Parthenon architectural inscriptions, Athens, 447/6-434 BC (IG I2 339-353 = IG I3 436-451). The staters are of elektron, obverse Pegasus protome facing to the left, reverse quadratum incusum of four quarters. Three groups (525-500; 500-494; about 450 BC) can be differentiated. 2. στατῆρα Λαμψακηνὸν χρυσοῦν/ statêra Lampsakēnòn chrysoûn; χρυσίω Λαμψακανῶ στ[ατεῖρας]/ chrysíō Lampsakānô st[ateîras] or similar on inscriptions from…

Nomos

(2,285 words)

Author(s): Siewert, Peter (Vienna) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] [1] Nomos, nomoi (ὁ νόμος/ ho nómos, pl. οἱ νόμοι/ hoi nómoi). Siewert, Peter (Vienna) [German version] A. General In Greek, nómos (pl. nómoi) refers to customary conduct or a behavioural norm observed by members of a community; depending on the context it can be translated with ‘custom’, ‘habit’, ‘practice’, ‘rule’, ‘order’, ‘institution’, ‘constitution’, ‘law’ etc. (cf. [1. 20-54; 2. 14-19]). The size of the communities where a nómos applied could vary considerably: from married couples and families to cult and settlement communities, from cit…
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