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Laran

(97 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan god of war, most often depicted as a youth and identified by name. From the 5th cent. BC represented on Etruscan mirrors, frequently in the context with other deities, especially with Turan/Aphrodite; to a large extent equivalent to Greek Ares and Roman Mars, not identical with Etruscan Maris. L. also occurs on vessels and as free-standing sculpture (monumental: ‘Mars of Todi’), but not on the bronze liver of Piacenza ( Divination VII). Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography I. Krauskopf, s.v. L., Dizionario della civiltà etrusca, 1985, 147f. E. Simon, s.…

Akalan

(127 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Urarṭu Archaic settlement of dwellings 18 km south-west of Samsun near the Pontic coast in north Anatolia. Excavations by Th. Macridy [3] in 1906 yielded the remains of a citadel and, most of all, high quality terracotta roof ornaments in the Greek-Ionian style [1]. The ceramics, too, point to close contacts with Ionia or the Ionian colonies of the Pontic coast [2]. The ancient name of the settlement, which only flourished in the 6th cent. BC, i…

Pulena

(111 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan nomen gentile, recorded in inscriptions on sarkophagoi belonging to the Hellenistic tomb of the P. family in Tarquinia, including a lid figure of one Laris P. with an inscribed scroll (Book B.). It contains the curriculum vitae of the dead person, named Laris Pule Creice ('the Greek'),. and names four generations of ancestors. Based on the formula ancn zich nethsrac Laris P. is mostly regarded as the author of a book on Etruscan haruspicy (Haruspices II. C.). Divination Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography R. Herbig, Die jüngeretruskischen Steinsark…

Hescanas

(27 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan gentilicium of aristocratic families, especially in  Volsinii, known through the figured painted tomb of H. found there.  Etrusci, Etruria Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)

Altar

(1,994 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Definition and function The Graeco-Roman altar (ἐσχάρα, βωμός; eschára, bōmós; Lat. ara, ‘fireplace’) is defined by its function and not as an object of a certain type. An altar can be an ephemeral natural or artificial elevation, hearth or building for sacrifices involving fire, drink or other elements (in contrast to the sacrificial pit dug into the ground, the βόθρος [ bóthros], Hom. Od. 10, 517; Lucian Char. 22) and marks the centre of a sacrificial act. There are sanctuaries without a  temple, but never without an altar ([23. 150]; a…

Matunas

(123 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan family name of an important gens from Caere (today Cerveteri; 4th/3rd century BC), known from the inscriptions of two chamber tombs in that place, the Tomba dei Tarquini and the Tomba dei Rilievi. The latter is the most elaborately furnished Etruscan chamber grave in the form of an Atrium with thirteen niches which represent cubicula. The names ascribed to the dead compose a genealogy of four generations, the name of the grave's donor Vel Matunas, son of Lars, being inscribed on a Cippus at the entrance to the grave. Funerary architecture (III. C. 1.) Prayon, Fried…

Alişar

(86 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Hill covered with settlements, located in northern Cappadocia to the south-east of  Boghazki. Excavations in 1930-32 under H. H. von der Osten. These revealed, for the first time in Chalcolithic central Anatolia, continuous settlement histories from into Byzantine times [2]. Chronologically of importance is the post-Hittite-‘Phrygian’ layer of Alişar IV with ceramics in the style of silhouette-like animals [1. 1-10; 3]. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography 1 E. Akurgal, Phryg. Kunst, 1955 2 H. H. v. d. Osten, The Alishar Hüyük, OIP 29-30, 1937 3 G. …

Partunu

(67 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan name of a gens (small clan with a shared ancestor) from Tarquinia. It is found on an elaborately furnished family grave of the 4th/3rd cents. BC; the sarcophagi of the individual family members are identified by their names and offices. Tarquinii Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography H. Rix (Ed.), Etr. Texte, 1991, Ta 1.9, 1.13, 1.15  S. Steingräber, Etrurien. Städte, Heiligtümer, Nekropolen, 1981, 398.

Ivory carvings

(904 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Middle East and Phoenicia Ivory, i.e. tusks of the boar, the hippopotamus and particularly the (African as well as Asian)  elephant, was extremely popular from the Neolithic period onwards as a material in ‘craftwork’. In the Bronze Age and the early Iron Age, the important workshops of the Syrian-Phoenician coastal towns and also of Egypt developed styles that were recognizably their own. Ivory carvings (IC) were widespread through intensive trade and almost always formed part of t…

Caput Oli

(95 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] According to Roman tradition, the head ( caput) of the Etruscan hero Aulus Vibenna ( olus), discovered when the foundation stone was laid for the Roman temple of Jupiter in the 6th cent. BC, prophesying the future greatness of Rome (Liv. 1,55,5; 5,54,7; Arnob. 6,7; Serv. Aen. 8,345). The historicity of an Aulus Vibenna from Vulci is evident in Etruscan and Latin inscriptions and grave paintings. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography A. Alföldi, Das frühe Rom und die Latiner, 1977, 200-204 with fn. 162 M. Pallottino, in: F. Buranelli (ed.), La Tomba François d…

Necropoleis

(7,045 words)

Author(s): Tsochos, Charalampos (Erfurt) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Genz, Hermann (Istanbul) | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg) | Et al.
[German version] I. Introduction The Greek word νεκρόπολις/ nekrópolis, ‘city of the dead’, is attested in Antiquity only in Strabo (17,1,10,14) as the name of a suburb of Alexandria [1] (Necropolis). Modern scholarship transfers the term necropolis to cemeteries of various cultures and time periods. General definitions as to shape and size do not exist. In this article, necropolis refers only to sites of a certain size and usually lying outside the settlements themselves. The size of a necropolis, the …

Olla

(103 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Italian name ('pot') for Etruscan vessels: 1. in the form of clay cauldrons; 2. of round-bellied vessels with handles and base. 'Thina' inscriptions of the 7th/6th cents. BC from Cerveteri (Caere) bear witness not only to the Etruscan name of the vessel type, but also to its linguistic affinity to the dinos of the Hellenic world, whose shape was related. The inscription thina on an amphora of the 5th/4th cent. in Populonia suggests that the name was later also transferred to other restricted vessel shapes. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography G. Colonna, Nomi etru…

Temple

(5,554 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) | Hollender, Elisabeth (Cologne) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Et al.
[German version] I. Mesopotamia The Sumerian term é and the Akkadian term bītu, meaning 'temple' or 'house (of the deity)', were not restricted to 'dwellings' of deities of a particular size or importance. They applied to sanctuaries from small neighbourhood shrines in residential areas to large, freestanding, tall buildings, from one-room cult sites to temple complexes with extensive auxiliary buildings, and they could be used for temples where one or many deities were worshipped. Prehistoric structures are often classified as temples only because apparently they nei…

Nortia

(156 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan and Roman goddess. According to Liv. 7,3,7, year nails were driven in her temple in Volsinii, in analogy to the custom at the temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline in Rome. The sanctuary has not been localised with certainty. Inscriptions in Bolsena attested to the continuation of the cult until the 3rd cent. AD (CIL VI 537,4: Nortia, te veneror, Lari cretus Vulsiniensi), and there is also an honorary inscription dedicated to a c[ uratori t] empli deae N[ ort] ia[ e] [1]. The Etruscan name of the goddess may have been * Nurti, from which gens names such as Nurtine are der…

Pins

(3,978 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Giesen, Katharina (Tübingen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Steimle, Christopher (Erfurt) | Et al.
[German version] I. General Pins and needles (βελόνη/ belónē, περόνη/ perónē, ῥαφίς/ rhaphís, Latin acus) were put to a variety of uses in the ancient household: they were used for hair, garments and sewing. They were also a utensil, for example, in the work of doctors (Surgical instruments), sailmakers etc. Tattoos were also done using special needles. The shape of the pin, long and thin with one sharp end, has not changed since prehistoric times. In sewing needles, the head is generally unadorned and flat; …

Etrusci, Etruria

(9,491 words)

Author(s): Camporeale, Giovannangelo (Florence) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Naso, Alessandro (Udine) | Aigner-Foresti, Luciana (Vienna)
(Tusci), the Etruscans. I. History [German version] A. Name A people in Italy who, between the 9th and 1st cents. BC, created the highest form of civilization in the Western Mediterranean before Roman civilization prevailed over the same territory. Various popular names were applied to the E.: Rasna (or Graecized Rasenna) in Etruscan sources, Tyrrhenoi or Tyrsenoi in Greek sources, Turskus in Umbrian sources and Etrusci, Tusci or Lydii (according to Hdt. 1,94 because of their possible origin in Lydia) in Lat. sources. Camporeale, Giovannangelo (Florence) [German version] B. History…

Fibula

(55 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] (Lat. fibula, from figibula; figere, ‘tack’, ‘pin’), a multi-part clasp used in clothing. Because of the wide range of types and decor, fibulae provide one of the most important guides for the differentiation and chronology of prehistoric and primitive cultures. For the various types and cultures, see  Needle. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)

Etruscans: later reception

(1,351 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) In contrast to the reception of Greek and Roman cultures, the reception of Etruscan culture can be considered peripheral and largely indirect. However, during the Renaissance and in the 18th cent. (as a result of a 'misinterpretation', particularly in the field of architecture) it was of some importance, as well as in the modern era.  Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) [German version] B. From the Renaissance to the 17th Century (CT) Even though individual monuments and literary reports of the Etruscans were k…

Tarchna

(80 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Etruscan name for the city of Tarquinia Etruscan name for the city of Tarquinia (Tarquinii) from the 5th cent. BC (Early Etruscan: * tarchuna). Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Etruscan nomen gentile Etruscan nomen gentile, especially in the 'Tomb of Inscriptions' in Caere/Cerveteri. The names of more than seven generations are inscribed there, of which the two last are in the Latinized form Tarquitius. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography M. Cristofani, La Tomba delle Iscrizioni a Cerveteri, 1965.

Liber linteus

(91 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan book type in the form of a written linen cloth folded according to a fixed pattern. The so-called ‘Mummy-wrapping of Agram’ ( liber linteus Zagrabiensis) is preserved in the original with c. 40 cm height and 340 cm preserved length containing a ritual text in calendric form ( Calendar; no earlier than the 3rd cent. BC). There are also pictorial and sculpted copies of libri lintei in Etruscan graves, on sarcophagi and urns. Divination Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography F. Roncalli (ed.), Scrivere etrusco. Exhibition catalogue Perugia, 1985.
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